Biology & The Tree of Life
Something alive needs…
1. Energy (acquire & use)
3. Information (DNA, genes)
4. Reproduction/ replication
➢ If one does not know an answer make an assumption Theory.
Theory- a supposition or a system of ideas intended to explain something, especially one based on general principles independent of the thing to be explained.
Pattern- something in the natural world (observation)
Process- reasoning for pattern.
● Created in the late 1960s by Robert Hooke and Leeuwenhoek, they were first to see the cells.
● According to the theory, the cell is the fundamental structural and functional unit of living matter and that the organism is composed of autonomous cells with its properties being the sum of those of its cells.
➢ Well designed experiment has:
○ A control
○ Limited variables
○ Is repeatable
➢ Fitness and adaptation drive natural selection We also discuss several other topics like What sternberg did & his predictions?
Fitness- the ability to produce offspring
● 2nd generation is important to fitness because it’s passing down genes. ● Higher fitness = more offspring
Speciation- a divergence process in which natural selection has caused populations of one species to diverge and make new species.
Water & Carbon
● Basic building block of life
● Elements building blocks of chemical evolution.
Non-Polar vs. Polar
Non-Polar- electrons evenly shared (no charge)
Polar- electrons asymmetrically shared (charge)
● Can exist as stored potential or active motion.
● Objects position determines ability to store energy.
● Electron moves further from the nucleus has most potential for energy.
Kinetic Energy (Thermal energy) If you want to learn more check out What is hardware in human cognition?
● Energy of movement
● Low temperature- slow moving molecules
● High temperature- rapid moving molecules
First Law of Thermodynamics
● Energy is conserved (can’t be conserved or destroyed, can be transferred or transformed)
Second Law of…
● Entropy (disorder) always increases
● Chemical rxn results in products with less ordered and usable energy
Importance of Carbon
● Most versatile element on Earth because it contains 4 valence electrons ● Formation of carbon-carbon bonds was important event in chemical evolution
Water and Carbon Cont.
● Need energy & isn’t spontaneous
● Monomers polymerize through condensation reactions
○ That releases a water molecule
○ Hydrolysis is the reverse reaction, it breaks polymers apart by adding water molecule
Condensation reaction- monomer in, water out.
Hydrolysis reaction- water in, monomer out.
★ All proteins are made up from just 20 amino acids
Polypeptide- chain of amino acids linked by peptide bonds (condensation reactions) We also discuss several other topics like Mitral valve sounds refer to what?
★ All proteins have 4 basic levels of structure:
○ Primary: unique sequence of amino acids
○ Secondary: formed by hydrogen bonds & depends on primary ○ Tertiary: rely on levels before it
○ Quaternary: rely on levels before it
● It makes the protein more stable & is spontaneous
● An unfolded protein is unable to function normally
● It folds when an active protein is needed Don't forget about the age old question of What is the definition of stenosis?
If you want to learn more check out What are the functions of the erythrocytes?
Don't forget about the age old question of A corporation means what?
● A polymer of nucleotide monomers
● 3 compositions:
○ Phosphate group
○ Five carbon sugar
○ Nitrogen containing base
● For all three of those, the phosphate is bonded to sugar
● A-T (2 Hydrogen bonds)
● C-G (3 Hydrogen bonds)
★ DNA grows in 3 prime directions and starts at 5 prime
What DNA Does...
● How we store and pass on biological information.