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ALBANY / OTHER / ASOC 115 / The Sociological Imagination is what?

The Sociological Imagination is what?

The Sociological Imagination is what?


School: SUNY Albany
Department: OTHER
Course: Intro to Sociology
Professor: Christine klotz
Term: Spring 2020
Tags: sociology, Introduction to Sociology, and intro sociology
Cost: 50
Name: ASOC 115 Test 1 Study Guide
Description: These notes cover the notes and vocab terms on test #1
Uploaded: 02/16/2020
19 Pages 9 Views 10 Unlocks

ASOC 115 Test 1 Study Guide

The Sociological Imagination is what?

Sociology aims to understand Human Behavior, Social relations, social institutions on a larger scale

-Scientific approach

Rigorous Research methods

Principle of social embeddedness: Idea that were embedded in a social realm  (Economic, Political, Etc.)

The Sociological Imagination:

 Ability to grasp relationship between individual lives and the larger social  forces that shape them

o Relationship between private troubles and public issues o Where biography and history intersect

 Individuals and groups use free will to make social changes (agency)  Our choices are enabled or constrained by patterned social arrangements  (Structure)

Critical thinking -- The ability to evaluate claims about truth using reason and  evidence

Six Rules of critical thinking:

1. Willingness to ask any question

what is Critical thinking?

2. Think logically

3. Make evidence-based arguments

4. Consider all assumptions and biases

5. Avoid anecdotal evidence

6. Be willing to admit when you're wrong or uncertain.

Development of Sociological Thinking

The historical development of sociological thought:

Scientific Revolution: belief in science and reason 

The Enlightenment: equality, liberty, and fundamental human rights The Industrial Revolution: shift from agriculture to manufacturing Urbanization: mass migration from rural farms to urban factories We also discuss several other topics like me 323

 A student engages in protests at their college over the high cost of tuition,  what concept are they making use of?

A. Structure

B. Agency

C. Support

 The sociological imagination encourages us to explore the intersection  between private troubles and public issues? TRUEWe also discuss several other topics like Describe coronary circulation. What and where are the major coronary arteries and veins?

 Critical thinking requires us to be open-minded, but it means that we must  accept all arguments as equally valid. FALSE 

what are the Six Rules of critical thinking?

We also discuss several other topics like What is this temperature on the Celsius scale?

The growth of cities from rural areas looking for work URBANIZATION 

The development of efficient, profit-driven manufacturing INDUSTRIALIZATION Development of Sociological Thinking:

19th-Century Founders

 Auguste Comte

o coined Term "sociology"

o Positivism: Knowledge based on scientific reasoning, facts   Harriet Martineau

o Societies must ensure social justice for women, enslaved people, and  other



Couldn't reach full potential until these things  were abolished

 Émile Durkheim

o Social Facts: Social qualities external to people that shape their  thinking and behavior

o Social solidarity: social bonds that unite members of a social group  Karl Marx

o Society characterized by class conflict

 Max Weber

o Modern societies characterized by development and influence of  formal rationality and bureaucracies

Significant founding Ideas in U.S. Sociology

 W.E.B. Du Bois

o African Americans experience double consciousness

 Being both American and black

 Never fully free of your racial identity We also discuss several other topics like eas study guide

 Robert Ezra Park

o "Social ills" of urban life - Homelessness, crime, poverty, and  segregation

 Taught at one of the first universities that taught sociology  (Chicago)

 C Wright Mills

o Sociological imagination

o Power Elite

Women in Early Sociology

o Sociology emerged during first modern flourishing of feminism o Women excluded from public life, universities

o Womens writings, ideas often ignored/co-opted by male scholars  Mary Wollstonecraft

o Scientific progress not possible unless men and women have equal  educational access

 Jane Addams

o Pioneered the study of neighborhoods

Sociology: One Way of Looking at the World -- or Many?

 Frameworks for interpretation of social life

o Make particular assumptions and ask particular questions about social  world

 Glasses metaphor

o A theory is a shaded lens to a glasses

 When wearing those lenses your entire world is tinted that  "color"

Macro-level paradigm

 Perspectives that look at the entire scope of society (Individuals,  Organizations, Institutions, Etc.)

Micro-level paradigm

 Perspectives that are looking at the small scale

 Micro-level think of microscope

A paradigm is a theoretical perspectives

Three (dominant) Theoretical Perspectives:

 Functionalist

o Used interchangeably with structural functionist

 Conflict

o Used interchangeably with Social conflict theorist If you want to learn more check out psyc 2344

 Symbolic Interactionism

1. The Functionalist Paradigm (MACRO)

Asks: What is the function of  _______?

Ex: Suicide has a  function

o If it exists and persists, it must serve a function

o Weakness: fails to recognize inequality and its effects on social  relationships

 Emile Durkheim

 Function of Deviance: define what is "normal," what is  

considered right and good

 Talcott Parsons

 Traditional, complementary, gender roles promote social stability  Served a role in society If you want to learn more check out biol 1030 midterm

 Robert Merton

 Refined functionalist ideas: social institutions or phenomenon  can be positive and/or dysfunctional

 Manifest function

 Primary function

 Latent function

 Secondary function

 EX: Daycare

 Manifest function: So parents can go to work

 Latent function: immunization

2. The Social Conflict Paradigm (MACRO)

Asks: Who benefits? Who loses?

o Each group in society (class, race, gender, etc.) will act in its own interests o Weakness: overlooks the forces of stability, equilibrium, and consensus in  society

 Karl Marx: conflict between capitalist and working classes over wages,  productivity

 Control of culture upholds class domination

 Feminism shifts focus from social class to gender power

3. Symbolic Interactionism (MICRO)

Asks: How do we interact? How do we create and interpret symbols? o People acquire a sense of who they are through interaction with others o Weakness: focus on micro-level obscures larger structural context  Misses the big picture

Paradigms exist because theorists look at the same issues through different  perspectives

Symbolic Interactionism focuses on microlevel processes therefore missing the big  picture issues

Harriet Martineau achieved Social justice for women and other oppressed groups Functionalism believes that if a phenomenon exists and persists in society, it must  have a function, it asks what is the function of ____?,  

Symbolic Interactionism is when people understand themselves through the  interactions of others

Karl Marx coined the term sociology to characterize what he believed would be a  new "social Physics" False

Durkheim is involved with Functionalism

Principal themes

I. Power and inequality

II. Globalization and Global Diversity

III. Technology and Society

Concepts: ideas that summarize a set of phenomena

Operational definition: a measurable definition of a concept

Experiments: research techniques for investigating cause and effect under  controlled conditions

Independent/experimental variable: variable changed intentionally Dependent variable: change as a result of altercations to independent variable Experimental group: subjects exposed to independent variable

Control group: subjects not exposed to independent variable

 Measure difference between groups

 Analysis of existing quantitative, statistical data collected by an organization  or agency

 Document analysis of written materials

o Newspapers, court records, films, reports, images, pamphlets, etc.

 Participatory research: supports an organization/community trying to improve its situation when it lacks the necessary economic or political power to do so  by itself

 Researcher fully participates by training members to conduct research while  working with them to enhance their power

 Frame your research question precisely and carefully

 Review existing knowledge

 Collect data

 Share results

 Students of sociology have skills to:

 Critically think

 Inductive and Deductive Research

Culture: The beliefs, norms, behaviors, and products common to the members of a  particular group

 Influences on another group

 EX: sports, dating, hook up, fraternity, work, gaming, food

Material Culture

 Physical objects created, embraced, or consumed that shape peoples lives  Emerge from physical environment of a community

Nonmaterial Culture

 Composed of the abstract creations of human cultures, including ideas about  social behaviors

and interactions

 Ex: expecting applause at the end of performance

 Material culture is concrete and nonmaterial culture is abstract, but they are  intertwined.

 Nonmaterial culture may attach meaning to the objects of material culture


 Particular ideas that people accept as true

 Based on faith, superstition, science, tradition, or experience  Dynamic and changing, rather than static


 Common rules of a culture that govern the behavior of people belonging to it o The oughts and ought nots that guide behavioral choices o EX: Holding the door, saying please/thank you, not cheating on partner Social norms: folkways, mores & laws

 Norms are social expectations

 Norms learned through instruction, observation, and interaction  Norms govern behavior-thoughts, feelings, behavior

 Folkways: fairly weak norms that are passed down from the past; violation  isn't serious

 Mores: strongly held norms; violation seriously offends standards of  acceptable conduct

 Taboos: powerful mores

o Violation is considered serious and even unthinkable

o EX: Incest

 Laws: codified norms or rules of behavior that formalize and institutionalize  society's norms

o i.e. safe sex marriage


 General standards in a society that define ideal principles

o National or patriotic values, community values, family values  Source of cohesion or conflict

 Can play a critical role in the social integration of a society High culture vs Popular Culture

Subcultures: Culture that exists within a dominant culture but differs from it in some way

 Accept some values, maintain differences

 Subcultures can reflect immigration patterns, ideologies

 Reflect ideologies, lifestyles of a given population

Counterculture: norms, values, and practice deviate from those of the dominant  culture, countercultures are cultures which are said to be in direct conflict with  mainstream culture

Cultural capital: wealth in the form of knowledge, ideas, verbal skills, and ways of  thinking and behaving

Habitus: internalization of objective probabilities and the expression of those  probabilities as choice

Social class reproduction: the way class status is reproduced from generation to  generation

Socialization: Process by which we learn and reproduce the culture of our society,  daily and lifelong

 Primary way of reproducing norms and cultural values

 Principal agents of socialization:

o Parents, teachers, religious institutions, peers, television, social media

Nature: Genetic inheritance and biological predispositions

Nurture: cultural and social experiences

 Capacity for behavior may be biological, but most of human behavior is  learned

o i.e. "Genie" and Victor, ability to acquire language and develop after  isolation

4 Approaches to Socialization

1. Behaviorism and Social Learning

2. Symbolic Interactionism

3. Development Stage Theories

4. Psychoanalytic Theories

Behaviorism and Social Learning

Behaviorism: psychological perspective that emphasizes effect of rewards and  punishments on behavior

Social learning: people adapt their behavior in response to social rewards and  punishments

Weak theory - violates Popper's falsifiability (Can't Be Disproven)  Examples:

 Behaviorism: Pavlov's Dog (conditioning dog to salivate after sound of the  bell)

 Social Learning: Spanking kid (No way to tell)

Socialization as Symbolic Interactionism

 Views the self and society as resulting from social interaction based…

Charles Horton Cooley

 The looking-glass self: the self-image that results from our interpretation of  other peoples views of us

o Primary groups: family, friends

o Secondary groups: school, workplace

o Reference groups: provide standards for judging our attitudes and  behavior

 Effects of socialization is not uniform

 Primary groups play a larger role in self development than secondary groups  People that are closest to us, shape us more

 Reference groups are groups that provide standards on how to judge  ourselves

George Herbert Mead

 Self and society shape one another through I and Me

o "I" impulse to act, creative, innovative, unthinking, unpredictable o "Me": part through which we see ourselves as others see us, social  convention, conformity

o The Me controls the I - "What will people think?"

 Through role-taking: the ability to take the role of others in interaction

Mead's Four Stages of Socialization

1. Preparatory: ages 0-3, self-centered, response to immediate environment (i.e.  hide and seek)

2. Play stage: ages 3-4, take on attitudes and roles of significant others (parents  & siblings) (i.e. Playing dress up)

3. Game stage: ages 5-6, take on roles of multiple others (i.e. soccer) a. Aware of societal positions and perspectives

2. Adult stage: take on generalized other, sense of society's norms and values  (i.e.

a. Feel abstract feelings & perspectives

Jean Piaget

 Humans are socialized in stages

 Cognitive development: the ability to make logical decisions increases with  age

o Infants -> highly egocentric and self centered

 Theory of moral development: as people grow, they learn to act accordingly  to abstract ideas about justice or fairness

Sigmund Freud

 Psychoanalysis: emphasizes complex reasoning processes of conscious and  unconscious mind

Agents of socialization: everything discussed in class AND section in  textbook

I. Primary Socialization

a. Family

II. Childhood socialization

a. Friends

b. School

II. Socialization as adults

III. Resocialization

IV. Social Reproduction

Agents of Socialization: Family

 Primary socialization group and key in transmitting norms, values and culture  Stereotypical gender roles and behaviors (name, color of nursery, etc.: all  determined before birth by gender)

o Gay and lesbian families more likely to challenge gender normative  roles

 Childhood experience linked to homicide, suicide, aggression, drug use,  college graduation, and unwanted pregnancy

o Example: spanking and corporal punishment

 "Typical" family varies by ethnicity, class, and marital status: o Latino, African American, Amish, Afro-Caribbean: extended families  share child-rearing

o Working class: submit to authority, follow orders without question,  obedient

o Middle class: emphasize decision-making, creativity and critical  thinking

o Blended families: new members encounter unfamiliar norms, values,  and behavior

o Video summary: questioning toys, clothing, colors, etc.

 The subject gives the boy dressed in girl clothes the "female"  toys (doll, pink toys)

 The other subject gives the girl dressed in boy clothes the  "male" toys (robot, car)

 Both were surprised to hear their actual genders; stereotypes  changed the toys they gave each child

Agents of Socialization: School

 Hidden curriculum: unspoken classroom socialization to norms, values, and  roles of a culture

o Values and norms such as patriotism, competitiveness, morality,  respect for authority, and basic social skills

o Gender roles, reinforcement of class statues

o EX: flag in classroom, Whoever finishes first gets _____ , sit in seat,  don’t speak in that voice

Agents of Socialization: Peers

 People of same age and social standing

 More time spent together

 More influential than family: high conformity to values and norms  Unique set of norms, vocabulary, media, fashion, role models, and attitudes  Anticipatory socialization: process of adopting behavior or standards of a  group you emulate or hope to join

Agents of Socialization: Organized Sports

 Fundamental to lives of millions of U.S. children

 Participation presumed to "build character" and encourage hard work,  competitiveness, ability to perform in stressful situations

o Also associated with socialization into negative attitudes, such as  homophobia

Agents of Socialization: Religion

 Central part of many lives worldwide

 Teaches fundamental values and beliefs that contribute to shared normative  culture

 Provides:

o A sense of right and wrong, how to conduct self in society, and how to  organize lives

o Idea for behavior

o Rules about dress

Agents of Socialization: Media

 Mass media among the most influential agents of socialization  Sets norms for violence, fashion, gender stereotypes, etc.

 Unprecidented level of internet use

o Positive: anonymity, bridge distance, new relationships

Agents of Socialization: Work

 For most U.S. adults, post adolescent socialization begins with entry into the  workforce

 Expectations at work can differ from those experienced in family and peer  groups

 Even Illegal "occupations" are governed by rules and roles learned through  socialization

o i.e. drug trafficking

Socialization and aging

 Most theories focus on youth

 People keep changing as adults

o Work, relationships, etc.

 Anticipatory socialization recurs as people age

Total Institutions: Institutions that isolate people from the rest of society to achieve  administrative control over most aspects of their lives

 Prison, military, hospital, rehab

 Everything is routine, some things are forced

 Boarding schools are tricky (depends on the level of boarding school)  Generally not a total institution

Resocialization: process of altering an individual's behavior through total control of  environment

 Break down sense of self

 Rebuild the personality

 Effectiveness?

Erving Goffman

 Dramaturgical approach: study of social interaction as if it were a theatrical  performance

 Presentation of self: creation of impressions in the minds of others to define  and control a social situation

o Impression management

Vocab Terms:



A way of learning about the world that combines logically constructed theory and  systematic observation.


The scientific study of human social relations, groups, and societies. Social embeddedness:

The idea that economic, political, and other forms of human behavior are  fundamentally shaped by social relations.

Sociological imagination:

The ability to grasp the relationship between individual lives and the larger social  forces that help to shape them.


The ability of individuals and groups to exercise free will and to make social changes on a small or large scale.


Patterned social arrangements that have effects on agency.

Critical thinking:

The ability to evaluate claims about truth by using reason and evidence. Norms:

Accepted social behaviors and beliefs.


A social condition of normlessness; a state of normative uncertainty that occurs  when people lose touch with the shared rules and values that give order and  meaning to their lives.

Social statics:

The way society is held together.

Social dynamics:

The laws that govern social change.


Science that is based on facts alone.

Social facts:

Qualities of groups that are external to individual members yet constrain their  thinking and behavior.

Social solidarity:

The bonds that unite the members of a social group.

Collective conscience:

The common beliefs and values that bind a society together.

Class conflict:

Competition between social classes over the distribution of wealth, power, and  other valued resources in society.


The working class; wage workers.


The capitalist (or property-owning) class.

Means of production:

The sites and technology that produce the goods we need and use. Verstehen:

The German word for interpretive understanding; Weber’s proposed methodology  for explaining social relationships by having the sociologist imagine how subjects  might perceive a situation.

Formal rationality:

A context in which people’s pursuit of goals is shaped by rules, regulations, and  larger social structures.


Formal organizations characterized by written rules, hierarchical authority, and paid  staff, intended to promote organizational efficiency.

Double consciousness:

Among African Americans, an awareness of being both American and Black, never  free of racial stigma.

Sociological theories:

Logical, rigorous frameworks for the interpretation of social life that make particular  assumptions and ask particular questions about the social world. Macro-level paradigms:

Theories of the social world that are concerned with large-scale patterns and  institutions.

Micro-level paradigm:

A theory of the social world that is concerned with small-group social relations and  interactions.

Structural functionalism:

A theory that seeks to explain social organization and change in terms of the roles  performed by different social structures, phenomena, and institutions; also known  as functionalism.

Manifest functions:

Functions of an object, an institution, or a phenomenon that are obvious and  intended.

Latent functions:

Functions of an object, an institution, or a phenomenon that are not recognized or  expected.

Social conflict paradigm:

A theory that seeks to explain social organization and change in terms of the  conflict that is built into social relations; also known as conflict theory. Symbolic interactionism:

A microsociological perspective that posits that both the individual self and society  as a whole are the products of social interactions based on language and other  symbols.


Representations of things that are not immediately present to our senses. Power:

The ability to mobilize resources and achieve goals despite the resistance of others. Inequality:

Differences in wealth, power, and other valued resources.


The process by which people all over the planet become increasingly interconnected economically, politically, culturally, and environmentally.

Social diversity:

The social and cultural mixture of different groups in society and the societal  recognition of difference as significant.


A worldview whereby one judges other cultures by the standards of one’s own  culture and regards one’s own way of life as “normal” and better than others.


Scientific method:

A way of learning about the world that combines logically constructed theory and  systematic observation to provide explanations of how things work. Deductive reasoning:

The process of taking an existing theory and logically deducing that if the theory is  accurate, we should discover other patterns of behavior consistent with it. Hypotheses:

Ideas about the world, derived from theories, which can be disproved when tested  against observations.

Inductive reasoning:

The process of generalizing to an entire category of phenomena from a particular  set of observations.

Quantitative research:

Research that gathers data that can be quantified and offers insight into broad  patterns of social behavior and social attitudes.

Qualitative research:

Research that is characterized by data that cannot be quantified (or converted into  numbers), focusing instead on generating in-depth knowledge of social life,  institutions, and processes.

Scientific theories:

Explanations of how and why scientific observations are as they are. Concepts:

Ideas that describe several things that have something in common. Operational definition:

A definition of a concept that allows the concept to be observed and measured.


A concept or its empirical measure that can take on multiple values. Quantitative variables:

Factors that can be counted.

Qualitative variables:

Variables that express qualities and do not have numerical values. Correlation:

The degree to which two or more variables are associated with one another. Causal relationship:

A relationship between two variables in which one variable is the cause of the other. Spurious relationship:

A correlation between two or more variables that is the result of something else that is not being measured, rather than a causal link between the variables themselves. Negative correlation:

A relation between two variables in which one increases as the other decreases. Principle of falsification:

The principle, advanced by philosopher Karl Popper, that a scientific theory must  lead to testable hypotheses that can be disproved if they are wrong. Falsifiability:

The ability for a theory to be disproved; the logical possibility for a theory to be  tested and proved false.


The degree to which concepts and their measurements accurately represent what  they claim to represent.


The extent to which researchers’ findings are consistent with the findings of  different studies of the same thing, or with the findings of the same study over time. Bias:

A characteristic of results that systematically misrepresent the true nature of what  is being studied.


The ability to represent the object of study accurately.

Value neutrality:

The characteristic of being free of personal beliefs and opinions that would influence the course of research.


The repetition of a previous study using a different sample or population to verify or  refute the original findings.

Research methods:

Specific techniques for systematically gathering data.


A research method that uses a questionnaire or interviews administered to a group  of people in person or by telephone or e-mail to determine their characteristics,  opinions, and behaviors.


A portion of the larger population selected to represent the whole. Population:

The whole group of people studied in sociological research.

Random sampling:

Sampling in which everyone in the population of interest has an equal chance of  being chosen for the study.

Stratified sampling:

Dividing a population into a series of subgroups and taking random samples from  within each group.


A research method that relies on in-depth and often extended study of a group or  community.


A detailed conversation designed to obtain in-depth information about a person and  his or her activities.

Leading questions:

Questions that tend to elicit particular responses.


Research techniques for investigating cause and effect under controlled conditions. Independent or experimental variables:

Variables that cause changes in other variables.

Dependent variables:

Variables that change as a result of changes in other variables.

Statistical data:

Quantitative information obtained from government agencies, businesses, research  studies, and other entities that collect data for their own or others’ use. Document analysis:

The examination of written materials or cultural products: previous studies,  newspaper reports, court records, campaign posters, digital reports, films,  pamphlets, and other forms of text or images produced by individuals, government  agencies, or private organizations.



The beliefs, norms, behaviors, and products common to the members of a particular group.

Material culture:

The physical objects that are created, embraced, or consumed by society that help  shape people’s lives.

Nonmaterial culture:

The abstract creations of human cultures, including language and social practices. Beliefs:

Particular ideas that people accept as true.


Fairly weak norms that are passed down from the past, the violation of which is  generally not considered serious within a particular culture.


Strongly held norms, the violation of which seriously offends the standards of  acceptable conduct of most people within a particular culture.


Powerful mores, the violation of which is considered serious and even unthinkable  within a particular culture.

Antimiscegenation laws:

Laws prohibiting interracial sexual relations and marriage.


The general standards in society that define ideal principles, like those governing  notions of right and wrong.

Ideal culture:

The values, norms, and behaviors that people in a given society profess to embrace. Real culture:

The values, norms, and behaviors that people in a given society actually embrace  and exhibit.

Cultural inconsistency:

A contradiction between the goals of ideal culture and the practices of real culture. Doxic:

Taken for granted as “natural” or “normal” in society.

Etic perspective:

The perspective of the outside observer.

Emic perspective:

The perspective of the insider, the one belonging to the cultural group in question. Cultural relativism:

A worldview whereby the practices of a society are understood sociologically in  terms of that society’s norms and values, and not the norms and values of another  society.


Cultures that exist together with a dominant culture but differ in some important  respects from that dominant culture.


A system of symbolic verbal, nonverbal, and written representations rooted within a  particular culture.


A commitment to respecting cultural differences rather than trying to submerge  them into a larger, dominant culture.

High culture:

The music, theater, literature, and other cultural products that are held in  particularly high esteem in society.

Popular culture:

The entertainment, culinary, and athletic tastes shared by the masses. Mass media:

Media of public communication intended to reach and influence a mass audience. Rape culture:

A social culture that provides an environment conducive to rape. Social class reproduction:

The way in which class status is reproduced from generation to generation, with  parents “passing on” a class position to their offspring.

Cultural capital:

Wealth in the form of knowledge, ideas, verbal skills, and ways of thinking and  acting.


The internalization of objective probabilities and subsequent expression of those  probabilities as choice.

Global culture:

A type of culture—some would say U.S. culture—that has spread across the world in  the form of Hollywood films, fast-food restaurants, and popular music heard in  virtually every country.



The process by which people learn the culture of their society.


A psychological perspective that emphasizes the effect of rewards and punishments on human behavior.

Social learning:

The way people adapt their behavior in response to social rewards and  punishments.

Looking-glass self:

The concept developed by Charles Horton Cooley that our self-image results from  how we interpret other people’s views of us.

Primary groups:

Small groups characterized by intense emotional ties, face-to-face interaction,  intimacy, and a strong, enduring sense of commitment.

Secondary groups:

Groups that are large and impersonal and characterized by fleeting relationships. Reference groups:

Groups that provide standards for judging our attitudes or behaviors. I:

According to George Herbert Mead, the part of the self that is the impulse to act; it  is creative, innovative, unthinking, and largely unpredictable.


According to George Herbert Mead, the part of the self through which we see  ourselves as others see us.


The ability to take the roles of others in interaction.

Significant others:

According to George Herbert Mead, the specific people who are important in  children’s lives and whose views have the greatest impact on the children’s self evaluations.

Generalized other:

The abstract sense of society’s norms and values by which people evaluate  themselves.

Cognitive development:

The theory, developed by Jean Piaget, that an individual’s ability to make logical  decisions increases as the person grows older.


Experiencing the world as if it were centered entirely on oneself. Psychoanalysis:

A psychological perspective that emphasizes the complex reasoning processes of  the conscious and unconscious mind.


According to Sigmund Freud, the part of the mind that is the repository of basic  biological drives and needs.


According to Sigmund Freud, the part of the mind that is the “self,” the core of what  is regarded as a person’s unique personality.


According to Sigmund Freud, the part of the mind that consists of the values and  norms of society, insofar as they are internalized, or taken in, by the individual. Hidden curriculum:

The unspoken classroom socialization into the norms, values, and roles of a society  that schools provide along with the “official” curriculum.

Anticipatory socialization:

Adoption of the behaviors or standards of a group one emulates or hopes to join. Total institutions:

Institutions that isolate individuals from the rest of society to achieve administrative control over most aspects of their lives.


The process of altering an individual’s behavior through control of his or her  environment, for example, within a total institution.

Dramaturgical approach:

Developed by Erving Goffman, the study of social interaction as if it were governed  by the norms of theatrical performance.

Presentation of self:

The creation of impressions in the minds of others to define and control social  situations.


A sociological method used to study the body of commonsense knowledge and  procedures by which ordinary members of a society make sense of their social  circumstances and interaction.

Conversation analysis:

The study of how participants in social interaction recognize and produce coherent  conversation.

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