ASOC 115 Test 1 Study Guide
Sociology aims to understand Human Behavior, Social relations, social institutions on a larger scale
Rigorous Research methods
Principle of social embeddedness: Idea that were embedded in a social realm (Economic, Political, Etc.)
The Sociological Imagination:
Ability to grasp relationship between individual lives and the larger social forces that shape them
o Relationship between private troubles and public issues o Where biography and history intersect
Individuals and groups use free will to make social changes (agency) Our choices are enabled or constrained by patterned social arrangements (Structure)
Critical thinking -- The ability to evaluate claims about truth using reason and evidence
Six Rules of critical thinking:
1. Willingness to ask any question
2. Think logically
3. Make evidence-based arguments
4. Consider all assumptions and biases
5. Avoid anecdotal evidence
6. Be willing to admit when you're wrong or uncertain.
Development of Sociological Thinking
The historical development of sociological thought:
Scientific Revolution: belief in science and reason
The Enlightenment: equality, liberty, and fundamental human rights The Industrial Revolution: shift from agriculture to manufacturing Urbanization: mass migration from rural farms to urban factories We also discuss several other topics like me 323
A student engages in protests at their college over the high cost of tuition, what concept are they making use of?
The sociological imagination encourages us to explore the intersection between private troubles and public issues? TRUEWe also discuss several other topics like Describe coronary circulation. What and where are the major coronary arteries and veins?
Critical thinking requires us to be open-minded, but it means that we must accept all arguments as equally valid. FALSE
We also discuss several other topics like What is this temperature on the Celsius scale?
The growth of cities from rural areas looking for work URBANIZATION
The development of efficient, profit-driven manufacturing INDUSTRIALIZATION Development of Sociological Thinking:
o coined Term "sociology"
o Positivism: Knowledge based on scientific reasoning, facts Harriet Martineau
o Societies must ensure social justice for women, enslaved people, and other
Couldn't reach full potential until these things were abolished
o Social Facts: Social qualities external to people that shape their thinking and behavior
o Social solidarity: social bonds that unite members of a social group Karl Marx
o Society characterized by class conflict
o Modern societies characterized by development and influence of formal rationality and bureaucracies
Significant founding Ideas in U.S. Sociology
W.E.B. Du Bois
o African Americans experience double consciousness
Being both American and black
Never fully free of your racial identity We also discuss several other topics like eas study guide
Robert Ezra Park
o "Social ills" of urban life - Homelessness, crime, poverty, and segregation
Taught at one of the first universities that taught sociology (Chicago)
C Wright Mills
o Sociological imagination
o Power Elite
Women in Early Sociology
o Sociology emerged during first modern flourishing of feminism o Women excluded from public life, universities
o Womens writings, ideas often ignored/co-opted by male scholars Mary Wollstonecraft
o Scientific progress not possible unless men and women have equal educational access
o Pioneered the study of neighborhoods
Sociology: One Way of Looking at the World -- or Many?
Frameworks for interpretation of social life
o Make particular assumptions and ask particular questions about social world
o A theory is a shaded lens to a glasses
When wearing those lenses your entire world is tinted that "color"
Perspectives that look at the entire scope of society (Individuals, Organizations, Institutions, Etc.)
Perspectives that are looking at the small scale
Micro-level think of microscope
A paradigm is a theoretical perspectives
Three (dominant) Theoretical Perspectives:
o Used interchangeably with structural functionist
o Used interchangeably with Social conflict theorist If you want to learn more check out psyc 2344
1. The Functionalist Paradigm (MACRO)
Asks: What is the function of _______?
Ex: Suicide has a function
o If it exists and persists, it must serve a function
o Weakness: fails to recognize inequality and its effects on social relationships
Function of Deviance: define what is "normal," what is
considered right and good
Traditional, complementary, gender roles promote social stability Served a role in society If you want to learn more check out biol 1030 midterm
Refined functionalist ideas: social institutions or phenomenon can be positive and/or dysfunctional
Manifest function: So parents can go to work
Latent function: immunization
2. The Social Conflict Paradigm (MACRO)
Asks: Who benefits? Who loses?
o Each group in society (class, race, gender, etc.) will act in its own interests o Weakness: overlooks the forces of stability, equilibrium, and consensus in society
Karl Marx: conflict between capitalist and working classes over wages, productivity
Control of culture upholds class domination
Feminism shifts focus from social class to gender power
3. Symbolic Interactionism (MICRO)
Asks: How do we interact? How do we create and interpret symbols? o People acquire a sense of who they are through interaction with others o Weakness: focus on micro-level obscures larger structural context Misses the big picture
Paradigms exist because theorists look at the same issues through different perspectives
Symbolic Interactionism focuses on microlevel processes therefore missing the big picture issues
Harriet Martineau achieved Social justice for women and other oppressed groups Functionalism believes that if a phenomenon exists and persists in society, it must have a function, it asks what is the function of ____?,
Symbolic Interactionism is when people understand themselves through the interactions of others
Karl Marx coined the term sociology to characterize what he believed would be a new "social Physics" False
Durkheim is involved with Functionalism
I. Power and inequality
II. Globalization and Global Diversity
III. Technology and Society
Concepts: ideas that summarize a set of phenomena
Operational definition: a measurable definition of a concept
Experiments: research techniques for investigating cause and effect under controlled conditions
Independent/experimental variable: variable changed intentionally Dependent variable: change as a result of altercations to independent variable Experimental group: subjects exposed to independent variable
Control group: subjects not exposed to independent variable
Measure difference between groups
Analysis of existing quantitative, statistical data collected by an organization or agency
Document analysis of written materials
o Newspapers, court records, films, reports, images, pamphlets, etc.
Participatory research: supports an organization/community trying to improve its situation when it lacks the necessary economic or political power to do so by itself
Researcher fully participates by training members to conduct research while working with them to enhance their power
Frame your research question precisely and carefully
Review existing knowledge
Students of sociology have skills to:
Inductive and Deductive Research
Culture: The beliefs, norms, behaviors, and products common to the members of a particular group
Influences on another group
EX: sports, dating, hook up, fraternity, work, gaming, food
Physical objects created, embraced, or consumed that shape peoples lives Emerge from physical environment of a community
Composed of the abstract creations of human cultures, including ideas about social behaviors
Ex: expecting applause at the end of performance
Material culture is concrete and nonmaterial culture is abstract, but they are intertwined.
Nonmaterial culture may attach meaning to the objects of material culture
Particular ideas that people accept as true
Based on faith, superstition, science, tradition, or experience Dynamic and changing, rather than static
Common rules of a culture that govern the behavior of people belonging to it o The oughts and ought nots that guide behavioral choices o EX: Holding the door, saying please/thank you, not cheating on partner Social norms: folkways, mores & laws
Norms are social expectations
Norms learned through instruction, observation, and interaction Norms govern behavior-thoughts, feelings, behavior
Folkways: fairly weak norms that are passed down from the past; violation isn't serious
Mores: strongly held norms; violation seriously offends standards of acceptable conduct
Taboos: powerful mores
o Violation is considered serious and even unthinkable
o EX: Incest
Laws: codified norms or rules of behavior that formalize and institutionalize society's norms
o i.e. safe sex marriage
General standards in a society that define ideal principles
o National or patriotic values, community values, family values Source of cohesion or conflict
Can play a critical role in the social integration of a society High culture vs Popular Culture
Subcultures: Culture that exists within a dominant culture but differs from it in some way
Accept some values, maintain differences
Subcultures can reflect immigration patterns, ideologies
Reflect ideologies, lifestyles of a given population
Counterculture: norms, values, and practice deviate from those of the dominant culture, countercultures are cultures which are said to be in direct conflict with mainstream culture
Cultural capital: wealth in the form of knowledge, ideas, verbal skills, and ways of thinking and behaving
Habitus: internalization of objective probabilities and the expression of those probabilities as choice
Social class reproduction: the way class status is reproduced from generation to generation
Socialization: Process by which we learn and reproduce the culture of our society, daily and lifelong
Primary way of reproducing norms and cultural values
Principal agents of socialization:
o Parents, teachers, religious institutions, peers, television, social media
Nature: Genetic inheritance and biological predispositions
Nurture: cultural and social experiences
Capacity for behavior may be biological, but most of human behavior is learned
o i.e. "Genie" and Victor, ability to acquire language and develop after isolation
4 Approaches to Socialization
1. Behaviorism and Social Learning
2. Symbolic Interactionism
3. Development Stage Theories
4. Psychoanalytic Theories
Behaviorism and Social Learning
Behaviorism: psychological perspective that emphasizes effect of rewards and punishments on behavior
Social learning: people adapt their behavior in response to social rewards and punishments
Weak theory - violates Popper's falsifiability (Can't Be Disproven) Examples:
Behaviorism: Pavlov's Dog (conditioning dog to salivate after sound of the bell)
Social Learning: Spanking kid (No way to tell)
Socialization as Symbolic Interactionism
Views the self and society as resulting from social interaction based…
Charles Horton Cooley
The looking-glass self: the self-image that results from our interpretation of other peoples views of us
o Primary groups: family, friends
o Secondary groups: school, workplace
o Reference groups: provide standards for judging our attitudes and behavior
Effects of socialization is not uniform
Primary groups play a larger role in self development than secondary groups People that are closest to us, shape us more
Reference groups are groups that provide standards on how to judge ourselves
George Herbert Mead
Self and society shape one another through I and Me
o "I" impulse to act, creative, innovative, unthinking, unpredictable o "Me": part through which we see ourselves as others see us, social convention, conformity
o The Me controls the I - "What will people think?"
Through role-taking: the ability to take the role of others in interaction
Mead's Four Stages of Socialization
1. Preparatory: ages 0-3, self-centered, response to immediate environment (i.e. hide and seek)
2. Play stage: ages 3-4, take on attitudes and roles of significant others (parents & siblings) (i.e. Playing dress up)
3. Game stage: ages 5-6, take on roles of multiple others (i.e. soccer) a. Aware of societal positions and perspectives
2. Adult stage: take on generalized other, sense of society's norms and values (i.e.
a. Feel abstract feelings & perspectives
Humans are socialized in stages
Cognitive development: the ability to make logical decisions increases with age
o Infants -> highly egocentric and self centered
Theory of moral development: as people grow, they learn to act accordingly to abstract ideas about justice or fairness
Psychoanalysis: emphasizes complex reasoning processes of conscious and unconscious mind
Agents of socialization: everything discussed in class AND section in textbook
I. Primary Socialization
II. Childhood socialization
II. Socialization as adults
IV. Social Reproduction
Agents of Socialization: Family
Primary socialization group and key in transmitting norms, values and culture Stereotypical gender roles and behaviors (name, color of nursery, etc.: all determined before birth by gender)
o Gay and lesbian families more likely to challenge gender normative roles
Childhood experience linked to homicide, suicide, aggression, drug use, college graduation, and unwanted pregnancy
o Example: spanking and corporal punishment
"Typical" family varies by ethnicity, class, and marital status: o Latino, African American, Amish, Afro-Caribbean: extended families share child-rearing
o Working class: submit to authority, follow orders without question, obedient
o Middle class: emphasize decision-making, creativity and critical thinking
o Blended families: new members encounter unfamiliar norms, values, and behavior
o Video summary: questioning toys, clothing, colors, etc.
The subject gives the boy dressed in girl clothes the "female" toys (doll, pink toys)
The other subject gives the girl dressed in boy clothes the "male" toys (robot, car)
Both were surprised to hear their actual genders; stereotypes changed the toys they gave each child
Agents of Socialization: School
Hidden curriculum: unspoken classroom socialization to norms, values, and roles of a culture
o Values and norms such as patriotism, competitiveness, morality, respect for authority, and basic social skills
o Gender roles, reinforcement of class statues
o EX: flag in classroom, Whoever finishes first gets _____ , sit in seat, don’t speak in that voice
Agents of Socialization: Peers
People of same age and social standing
More time spent together
More influential than family: high conformity to values and norms Unique set of norms, vocabulary, media, fashion, role models, and attitudes Anticipatory socialization: process of adopting behavior or standards of a group you emulate or hope to join
Agents of Socialization: Organized Sports
Fundamental to lives of millions of U.S. children
Participation presumed to "build character" and encourage hard work, competitiveness, ability to perform in stressful situations
o Also associated with socialization into negative attitudes, such as homophobia
Agents of Socialization: Religion
Central part of many lives worldwide
Teaches fundamental values and beliefs that contribute to shared normative culture
o A sense of right and wrong, how to conduct self in society, and how to organize lives
o Idea for behavior
o Rules about dress
Agents of Socialization: Media
Mass media among the most influential agents of socialization Sets norms for violence, fashion, gender stereotypes, etc.
Unprecidented level of internet use
o Positive: anonymity, bridge distance, new relationships
Agents of Socialization: Work
For most U.S. adults, post adolescent socialization begins with entry into the workforce
Expectations at work can differ from those experienced in family and peer groups
Even Illegal "occupations" are governed by rules and roles learned through socialization
o i.e. drug trafficking
Socialization and aging
Most theories focus on youth
People keep changing as adults
o Work, relationships, etc.
Anticipatory socialization recurs as people age
Total Institutions: Institutions that isolate people from the rest of society to achieve administrative control over most aspects of their lives
Prison, military, hospital, rehab
Everything is routine, some things are forced
Boarding schools are tricky (depends on the level of boarding school) Generally not a total institution
Resocialization: process of altering an individual's behavior through total control of environment
Break down sense of self
Rebuild the personality
Dramaturgical approach: study of social interaction as if it were a theatrical performance
Presentation of self: creation of impressions in the minds of others to define and control a social situation
o Impression management
CHAPTER 1: DISCOVER SOCIOLOGY
A way of learning about the world that combines logically constructed theory and systematic observation.
The scientific study of human social relations, groups, and societies. Social embeddedness:
The idea that economic, political, and other forms of human behavior are fundamentally shaped by social relations.
The ability to grasp the relationship between individual lives and the larger social forces that help to shape them.
The ability of individuals and groups to exercise free will and to make social changes on a small or large scale.
Patterned social arrangements that have effects on agency.
The ability to evaluate claims about truth by using reason and evidence. Norms:
Accepted social behaviors and beliefs.
A social condition of normlessness; a state of normative uncertainty that occurs when people lose touch with the shared rules and values that give order and meaning to their lives.
The way society is held together.
The laws that govern social change.
Science that is based on facts alone.
Qualities of groups that are external to individual members yet constrain their thinking and behavior.
The bonds that unite the members of a social group.
The common beliefs and values that bind a society together.
Competition between social classes over the distribution of wealth, power, and other valued resources in society.
The working class; wage workers.
The capitalist (or property-owning) class.
Means of production:
The sites and technology that produce the goods we need and use. Verstehen:
The German word for interpretive understanding; Weber’s proposed methodology for explaining social relationships by having the sociologist imagine how subjects might perceive a situation.
A context in which people’s pursuit of goals is shaped by rules, regulations, and larger social structures.
Formal organizations characterized by written rules, hierarchical authority, and paid staff, intended to promote organizational efficiency.
Among African Americans, an awareness of being both American and Black, never free of racial stigma.
Logical, rigorous frameworks for the interpretation of social life that make particular assumptions and ask particular questions about the social world. Macro-level paradigms:
Theories of the social world that are concerned with large-scale patterns and institutions.
A theory of the social world that is concerned with small-group social relations and interactions.
A theory that seeks to explain social organization and change in terms of the roles performed by different social structures, phenomena, and institutions; also known as functionalism.
Functions of an object, an institution, or a phenomenon that are obvious and intended.
Functions of an object, an institution, or a phenomenon that are not recognized or expected.
Social conflict paradigm:
A theory that seeks to explain social organization and change in terms of the conflict that is built into social relations; also known as conflict theory. Symbolic interactionism:
A microsociological perspective that posits that both the individual self and society as a whole are the products of social interactions based on language and other symbols.
Representations of things that are not immediately present to our senses. Power:
The ability to mobilize resources and achieve goals despite the resistance of others. Inequality:
Differences in wealth, power, and other valued resources.
The process by which people all over the planet become increasingly interconnected economically, politically, culturally, and environmentally.
The social and cultural mixture of different groups in society and the societal recognition of difference as significant.
A worldview whereby one judges other cultures by the standards of one’s own culture and regards one’s own way of life as “normal” and better than others.
CHAPTER 2: DISCOVER SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH
A way of learning about the world that combines logically constructed theory and systematic observation to provide explanations of how things work. Deductive reasoning:
The process of taking an existing theory and logically deducing that if the theory is accurate, we should discover other patterns of behavior consistent with it. Hypotheses:
Ideas about the world, derived from theories, which can be disproved when tested against observations.
The process of generalizing to an entire category of phenomena from a particular set of observations.
Research that gathers data that can be quantified and offers insight into broad patterns of social behavior and social attitudes.
Research that is characterized by data that cannot be quantified (or converted into numbers), focusing instead on generating in-depth knowledge of social life, institutions, and processes.
Explanations of how and why scientific observations are as they are. Concepts:
Ideas that describe several things that have something in common. Operational definition:
A definition of a concept that allows the concept to be observed and measured.
A concept or its empirical measure that can take on multiple values. Quantitative variables:
Factors that can be counted.
Variables that express qualities and do not have numerical values. Correlation:
The degree to which two or more variables are associated with one another. Causal relationship:
A relationship between two variables in which one variable is the cause of the other. Spurious relationship:
A correlation between two or more variables that is the result of something else that is not being measured, rather than a causal link between the variables themselves. Negative correlation:
A relation between two variables in which one increases as the other decreases. Principle of falsification:
The principle, advanced by philosopher Karl Popper, that a scientific theory must lead to testable hypotheses that can be disproved if they are wrong. Falsifiability:
The ability for a theory to be disproved; the logical possibility for a theory to be tested and proved false.
The degree to which concepts and their measurements accurately represent what they claim to represent.
The extent to which researchers’ findings are consistent with the findings of different studies of the same thing, or with the findings of the same study over time. Bias:
A characteristic of results that systematically misrepresent the true nature of what is being studied.
The ability to represent the object of study accurately.
The characteristic of being free of personal beliefs and opinions that would influence the course of research.
The repetition of a previous study using a different sample or population to verify or refute the original findings.
Specific techniques for systematically gathering data.
A research method that uses a questionnaire or interviews administered to a group of people in person or by telephone or e-mail to determine their characteristics, opinions, and behaviors.
A portion of the larger population selected to represent the whole. Population:
The whole group of people studied in sociological research.
Sampling in which everyone in the population of interest has an equal chance of being chosen for the study.
Dividing a population into a series of subgroups and taking random samples from within each group.
A research method that relies on in-depth and often extended study of a group or community.
A detailed conversation designed to obtain in-depth information about a person and his or her activities.
Questions that tend to elicit particular responses.
Research techniques for investigating cause and effect under controlled conditions. Independent or experimental variables:
Variables that cause changes in other variables.
Variables that change as a result of changes in other variables.
Quantitative information obtained from government agencies, businesses, research studies, and other entities that collect data for their own or others’ use. Document analysis:
The examination of written materials or cultural products: previous studies, newspaper reports, court records, campaign posters, digital reports, films, pamphlets, and other forms of text or images produced by individuals, government agencies, or private organizations.
CHAPTER 3: CULTURE AND MASS MEDIA
The beliefs, norms, behaviors, and products common to the members of a particular group.
The physical objects that are created, embraced, or consumed by society that help shape people’s lives.
The abstract creations of human cultures, including language and social practices. Beliefs:
Particular ideas that people accept as true.
Fairly weak norms that are passed down from the past, the violation of which is generally not considered serious within a particular culture.
Strongly held norms, the violation of which seriously offends the standards of acceptable conduct of most people within a particular culture.
Powerful mores, the violation of which is considered serious and even unthinkable within a particular culture.
Laws prohibiting interracial sexual relations and marriage.
The general standards in society that define ideal principles, like those governing notions of right and wrong.
The values, norms, and behaviors that people in a given society profess to embrace. Real culture:
The values, norms, and behaviors that people in a given society actually embrace and exhibit.
A contradiction between the goals of ideal culture and the practices of real culture. Doxic:
Taken for granted as “natural” or “normal” in society.
The perspective of the outside observer.
The perspective of the insider, the one belonging to the cultural group in question. Cultural relativism:
A worldview whereby the practices of a society are understood sociologically in terms of that society’s norms and values, and not the norms and values of another society.
Cultures that exist together with a dominant culture but differ in some important respects from that dominant culture.
A system of symbolic verbal, nonverbal, and written representations rooted within a particular culture.
A commitment to respecting cultural differences rather than trying to submerge them into a larger, dominant culture.
The music, theater, literature, and other cultural products that are held in particularly high esteem in society.
The entertainment, culinary, and athletic tastes shared by the masses. Mass media:
Media of public communication intended to reach and influence a mass audience. Rape culture:
A social culture that provides an environment conducive to rape. Social class reproduction:
The way in which class status is reproduced from generation to generation, with parents “passing on” a class position to their offspring.
Wealth in the form of knowledge, ideas, verbal skills, and ways of thinking and acting.
The internalization of objective probabilities and subsequent expression of those probabilities as choice.
A type of culture—some would say U.S. culture—that has spread across the world in the form of Hollywood films, fast-food restaurants, and popular music heard in virtually every country.
CHAPTER 4: SOCIALIZATION AND SOCIAL INTERACTION
The process by which people learn the culture of their society.
A psychological perspective that emphasizes the effect of rewards and punishments on human behavior.
The way people adapt their behavior in response to social rewards and punishments.
The concept developed by Charles Horton Cooley that our self-image results from how we interpret other people’s views of us.
Small groups characterized by intense emotional ties, face-to-face interaction, intimacy, and a strong, enduring sense of commitment.
Groups that are large and impersonal and characterized by fleeting relationships. Reference groups:
Groups that provide standards for judging our attitudes or behaviors. I:
According to George Herbert Mead, the part of the self that is the impulse to act; it is creative, innovative, unthinking, and largely unpredictable.
According to George Herbert Mead, the part of the self through which we see ourselves as others see us.
The ability to take the roles of others in interaction.
According to George Herbert Mead, the specific people who are important in children’s lives and whose views have the greatest impact on the children’s self evaluations.
The abstract sense of society’s norms and values by which people evaluate themselves.
The theory, developed by Jean Piaget, that an individual’s ability to make logical decisions increases as the person grows older.
Experiencing the world as if it were centered entirely on oneself. Psychoanalysis:
A psychological perspective that emphasizes the complex reasoning processes of the conscious and unconscious mind.
According to Sigmund Freud, the part of the mind that is the repository of basic biological drives and needs.
According to Sigmund Freud, the part of the mind that is the “self,” the core of what is regarded as a person’s unique personality.
According to Sigmund Freud, the part of the mind that consists of the values and norms of society, insofar as they are internalized, or taken in, by the individual. Hidden curriculum:
The unspoken classroom socialization into the norms, values, and roles of a society that schools provide along with the “official” curriculum.
Adoption of the behaviors or standards of a group one emulates or hopes to join. Total institutions:
Institutions that isolate individuals from the rest of society to achieve administrative control over most aspects of their lives.
The process of altering an individual’s behavior through control of his or her environment, for example, within a total institution.
Developed by Erving Goffman, the study of social interaction as if it were governed by the norms of theatrical performance.
Presentation of self:
The creation of impressions in the minds of others to define and control social situations.
A sociological method used to study the body of commonsense knowledge and procedures by which ordinary members of a society make sense of their social circumstances and interaction.
The study of how participants in social interaction recognize and produce coherent conversation.