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OLEMISS / Psychology / PSY 309 / What is the definition of pepper moth?

What is the definition of pepper moth?

What is the definition of pepper moth?


School: University of Mississippi
Department: Psychology
Course: Learning
Professor: Gustafson
Term: Spring 2020
Tags: Psychology
Cost: 50
Name: Exam 1 Study guide
Description: combination of book notes and class notes
Uploaded: 02/18/2020
13 Pages 7 Views 14 Unlocks

The blue is from the book, black from class notes

What is the definition of pepper moth?

Chapter 1:

Natural Selection→ individuals with favorable variations are more likely to survive and reproduce, so, succeeding generations are more likely to show helpful characteristics, these characteristics are “selected” by the environment

Species change through natural _____________.

Learning is change

- Learning is the process of an organism changing as a result of its environment - This remains true from a single celled organism responding to a new stimulus to learning how to compose a symphony

- Natural selection is the adaptation of a species over many lifetimes,

- Learning and natural selection have much in common

- Pepper moth

- Changing as environment changed

- Genetic adaptation

Who is dmitry belyayev?

- Overall, the behaviors that are successful will go on and be successful Natural selection

- Evolution is the process of natural selection

- Evolution is in many lifetimes

- Learning is within one lifetime

- It occurs through 2 primary mechanisms:

- Slow processes of survival and breeding

- This can change one species to another simply by selecting for specific behaviors

- Mutations only can natural selection influence physical characteristics it can influence behavior primarily through reflexes and modal action


- The human species can adapt the environment to us

- The brain is the most protected organ in the body

An abrupt change in a gene is called a _______. Those that occur in _________ cells may be transmitted to offspring.

What is pavlovian conditioning?


Reflex→ a relationship between a specific event and a simple response to that event - It is not that particular kind of behavior, it is the relationship between the two - EX: the tendency to blink when there is something in your eye, the relationship is between the speck of dirt and the eye blink If you want to learn more check out In the history of architecture and design, what is secessionist?

● Reflexes are either present at birth or appear at predictable stages in development

● Most of the time they serve to protect an individual from injury

● Some are for food consumption

● We tend not to notice most reflexes until they fail to function properly

○ See it often when people overuse alcohol or drugs

● They are remarkably stereotypical and consistent in form

Sensitization → eliciting a reflex response can increase the intensity or probability of the response to stimuli

- Jumping to the sound of a book dropping increases the probability of you jumping to the sound of a balloon popping

Habituation→ repeatedly evoking a given reflex response will result in a reduction in the intensity or probability of the response

A reflex is a _______ between a specific ________ and a simple __________. Don't forget about the age old question of ucla chicano studies

Sensitization involves a/an _______ in the probability or intensity of a reflex response; habituation involves a/an _______ in its probability or intensity

Model action pattern→ a series of interrelated acts found in all or nearly all members of a species

- Not talked about in class but in the book

- They differ from reflexes in that they involve the entire organism rather than a few muscles or glands

- More complex often consisting of long series of reflexlike acts and are more variable though still rather stereotypic

Model action patterns differ from reflexes in that MAPs involve the ________ organism and are more __________ and __________.

reflex→ not the leg kick, the relationship between the patellar strike and the muscle reflection → innate stimulus reaction

→ relationship between stimulus and a response, not the behavior

Learning means change

- Learning can be measured by the amount of behavior change

- What changes is behavior (anything an organism does that can be measured) - What changes behavior is experience (physical events in the environment, referred to as stimuli)

- Experiences can be changed through learning (the purpose of changing behavior is usually to change the environment itself)

- Horses are born able to walk, etc, unlike humans who are born without a lot of pre knowledge

- We have very basic abilities and we have to learn everything that we have to do, adaptationDon't forget about the age old question of subliminal sensation

- Continuous circle=> Learning is change→ behavior is what changes→ experience changes behavior→ and experience changes through learning We also discuss several other topics like as investors approach retirement age, they are often more interested in ______ portfolios.

- Reciprocal determinism→ the theory set forth by psychologist Albert Bandura which states that a person's behavior both influences and is influenced by personal factors and the social environment. 

- Not all experiences lead to learning, or learning what we expect, taking a tranquilizer for anxiety does not mean the patient learned to be calm, but they may learn to take a tranquilizer when anxious If you want to learn more check out bones grow in diameter by interstitial growth

Learning for mating 

- Not all learning is directly aimed at survival, especially in more complex animals. The higher species often use learning to improve the quality, not just quantity of life. (some would argue, however, that this actually leads to more reproductive opportunities, so its not exempt from the laws of natural selection) 

- Learning for us is a mating technique? Going to college gives us a better chance of finding good genes to mate with, and gives us the tools to be able to find those good genes after college 

Limits of natural selection

- The chief problem as a way of coping with change is that it is slow, it does nothing to help those living now survive

- Changes in temperature or a new predator may prove disastrous

- It is of no value whatsoever in helping living individuals cope with change, as a result evolutionary change is always “behind the times”

Learning: Evolved Modifiability

- Learning → a change in behavior due to experience

- Behavior → anything an organism does that can be measured

- Some define behavior as a change in cognitive structures Don't forget about the age old question of econ 2030

Behavior is anything an organism does that can be ________.

What changes behavior is experience

- stimuli→ exposure to events that affect, or are capable of affecting behavior - Physical events

- Learning is a biological mechanism for coping with changes in the environment within the lifetime of the individual

- It enables the organism to adapt to situations for which its largely innate behavior is inadequate

Review: Learning is a change in behavior due to experience. The word change us used because learning does not necessarily involve acquisition. Behavior is anything an organism does that can be measured, and experience means exposure to events that are capable of having a measurable effect on behavior. Events are called stimuli

- Dogs

- We didn’t turn wolves into dogs, wolves turned themselves into dogs - Wolves that have short flight distances will breed with each other giving us a decrease in adrenaline and melanin in the animal causing physical changes - Because of this they became smaller, smaller brain, shorter snout, etc. - The shorter the flight distance the more access they had until they could interact with humans, continuing until they became the type of dogs we know today - Dmitry Belyayev

- Silver fox? Experiment

- Fur used for clothing

- Hard to handle them and too stressed to breed

- Chose foxes that were easy tempered and had a short flight distance and mated them

- The offspring were easy tempered and responded by name

- Adrenaline and melanin (pigment gene) go together dominant effect from color to behaviors

- Interstitial species

Nature operates on normal curves

- Height, weight, and intelligence would all fall on a bell curve

- Extremes in one direction or another

- As time goes on our normal distributions get further and further apart until we get two curves that are no longer overlapping and these species can no longer produce fertile offspring that’s when we get new species

- Speciation→ drifting off of normally distributed curves giving us a new species, the formation of new and distinct species in the course of evolution 

What is the basic and fundamental unit of behavior? 

- Reflex→ relationship between a stimulus and a response 

- Different species have different numbers of reflexes (humans have very few) - Patellar reflex → most think the reflex is the kick, while it is part of the reflex, there is no kick without the hammer 

- We often lose reflexes and gain reflexes as we get older 

Chapter 2:

Measuring learning

- A common way to measure learning is to look for errors in reduction

- Can be measured as a change in topography of a behavior

- Topography may be used as a measure of learning in mirror tracing

- Can be measured by noting changes in intensity

- A lab rat learning to press a lever, but the resistance increases requiring that the rat put more force each time

- Can be measured by change in speed

- A rat learning to run a maze faster and faster

- Can be measured by changes in latency

- The time that passes before a behavior occurs

- Often measured as a change in rate or frequency

- Behavior rate is especially useful because it allows us to see subtle changes in behavior - Cumulative recorder→ every occurance of the behavior under study was recorded by the movement of an inked pen ona sheet of paper that moved under the pen at a steady pace

Measuring learning 

- Reduction in errors: how efficiently a task is done over repeated trials or conditions such as a rat running a maze 

- Change in topography: a change in the shape, form, or nature of behavior (a change in what you do) 

- Change in intensity: a change in the strength, force, or scale of behavior - Change in speed: how rapidly a response is performed or provoked 

- Change in latency: the time that passes before a behavior occurs 

- in many animals latency is a measure of fear, the greater the fear the greater of latency 

- we use the measure of latency to determine if someone is lying 

- latency shows that there is a cognitive effort being put it 

- Change in frequency: a change in how many times that organism engages in behavior 


- This means we have to identify and measure at least two things: the events (or the environment) and the behavior. Although it sounds simple, it can be extremely complex - For both, the observations must be made available to measurement 


- In order to measure a phenomena, we have to be able to assign a quantity or numerical value 

- In order to quantify (assign a quantity) a phenomena, we have to define it in quantifiable terms 

- This is the heart of an operational definition - to define a phenomena in terms of its measurable and quantifiable properties. A common example is to operationally define intelligence as a person's IQ . Intelligence is the phenomena, and IQ is the measurement of that phenomena that we use to perform our scientific process

- We can measure your intelligence with more reliability than we can measure your cholesterol 

Research designs 

- Anecdotal evidence → not technically a research design, but can lead to ideas about phenomena to research 

- When someone tells you their, experience, can be used to prove or disprove - Me too movement is specifically a campaign of anecdotal evidence, there is no quantifiable or replicable data 

- The plural of anecdotal is not evidence 

- Does not bring us further to an example of natural phenomena 

Anecdotal evidence

- First or second hand reports of personal experiences

- What “everybody knows” is not always correct

Case studies

- Examines a particular individual in considerable detail

- Often used in medicine

- Takes a long time

- Because of this generalizations are often based on very few participants, and if those few participants are not representative of the larger group, conclusions about that group may be in error

- Case studies often used in medicine and when the incidence rate is low. They are usually very structured and can be highly informative to practitioners, but limited in the generalizability of the findings are are not generally focused on hypothesis testing - Often used in medicine to show rare phenomena 

- It is the observation at the very top of the board and with enough of them we can begin to make our study 

Descriptive studies 

- Descriptive studies→ also known as correlational studies, attempt to describe a group of a phenomena by gathering descriptive statistics and seeing how variables are related to each other 

- Correlation is not causation 

- Need to be able to intentionally manipulate things to test them, but we can’t do that with things like human IQ, going against ethics 

- Not the worst but not the best 

- The researcher attempts to describe a group by obtaining data from its members - often by conducting interviews or administering questionnaires 

- A typical study consists of asking people their fears and childhood experiences - Vast improvement over case studies

Experimental studies 

- Experiment→ a study in which a researcher manipulates one or more variables and measures the effects of this manipulation on one or more other variables - Independent variables→ variables the researcher manipulates 

- Dependent variables → allowed to vary freely; depend on the independent variable - Experiment → a design that includes: 

- Independent variable → a variable that the experiment manipulates 

- Dependent variable → the outcome of the study or what is measured as being dependent on the manipulation of the independent variable 

- Ideally everything would be the same/ statistic, same environment etc. - In between subjects experiments→ the researcher typically identifies two or more groups of participants (also known as group designs) 

- The independent variable is often made to differ across these groups - Experimental group → participants who are exposed to the aggression including experience 

- Control group→ no exposure 

- Between subject designs → the experiment identifies 2 individuals or groups exposes them to different conditions, holding as much else as possible constant to see if there is a difference in the experimental group vs. the control group 

The essential element of a between subjects design is that the independent variable varies ___________ participants. 

- Matched sampling → participants with identical features are identified - This reduces pretreatment differences among groups 

- Within subject experiment→ a participants behavior is observed before the experimental treatment and then during it or after it 

- Baseline period→ period during which a participants behavior is observed initially - Matched sampling design → a way to refine the between subject design, where subjects are matched on qualities of interest (same IQ same genetics strain etc.) and randomly assigned to experimental and control groups 

- Trying to make statistical noise, to wash away systematic errors 

Hippocrates and Galen 

- Thought that the brain was a radiator for your blood 

- Their science was more thought experiments than anything else 

Observational sciences 

- Sir Francis bacon 

- Observation → 

- All science starts as observation in order to notice new things and ask questions - Inductive reasoning→

- taking many cases and making a summative statement 

- you notice a common factor 

- Theory → 

- constructing a model 

- a theory is putting together known/established facts in a way that reliably explains the natural world 

- (you can never prove a theory) 

- Data doesn’t prove the theory it confirms the theory 

- But all you need to disprove a theory is one exception 

- As a scientist you are trying to disprove your own theory 

- Deductive logic/ hypothesis → 

- Your hypothesis is the prediction that comes out of your theory 

- Has to be observable (because all of this is based on observation) 

- Has to be testable (need to be able to state whether this is true or not true) - Has to be replicable (need to be able to do it many times and still get the same or similar results) 

- Has to be measurable/ quantifiable (need to be able to give a number quantity or category) 

- Syllogism→ all men are mortal, an instance of a form of reasoning in which a conclusion is drawn from two given or assumed propositions 

- Science is just a process, science doesn’t change, we change science 

Limitations of experimental research 

- Experiments can create artificial conditions, and what we find under artificial conditions may not always correspond with what would occur under more natural conditions 

Chapter 3: 

Pavlovian conditioning 

- Unconditional reflexes (US)→ the largely inborn and usually permanent reflex that is found in virtually all members of a species and that varies little from individual to individual, they occur more or less unconditionally 

- Conditional reflex (CS)→ not present at birth, acquired through experience and is relatively impermanent

Neutral/Conditioned ⇨ Unconditioned

Stimulus (metronome) Stimulus (meat)

⇩ ⇩ ⇨ Reflex

Conditioned Unconditioned

Response (drool at Stimulus (drool)

Sound of metronome)


- He was a physiologist

- Studied digestion

- He became interested in salivation

- Took dogs and placed a system in the glands that cause salivation in order to measure it - Weighed drool under different conditions

- Thinks everything has a cause and effect until he does this experiment and the effect happens but there is no cause

- The experiment laid the foundations and is still the overarching model even today The experiment:

- He would prepare and unconditioned stimulus (meat) and produce and unconditioned response (drool)

- This is what is expected, but the dogs started salivating before they got the meat powder - He then paired the unconditioned stimulus (meat) with a neutral stimulus (metronome) - The neutral stimulus does not produce any response on its own

- Once neutral stim has been paired with the unconditioned stimulus it is called the conditioned stimulus

- Many often think that he used a bell but actually used a metronome

- Paired the sound metronome with the meat powder

- Later when the metronome came on the dogs salivated despite no meat powder being released (conditioned response)

- Conditioned response and unconditioned response will be the same in form as well as intensity

- So predictable that we have a mathematical formula

Need to be able to recognize conditioned and unconditioned responses in example questions for test

- Making your pupils dilate

Pavlov experiment End of the 19th century beginning of the 20th century - Makes its way from russia, translated, transported to USA translated to english, and is in the john hopkins university library in digestion and physiology section and a psychologist finds it

John Watson

- Did terrible things but changed psychology but nearly ever domain of public and private life forever by torturing babies

- Watson-Rainer experiments

- Made millions using classical conditioning in order to make people buy product - Little albert- kid from day care at john hopkins, mom had no idea watson was doing experiments on him

- He was so sure of what the outcome was gonna be because of posterity, videoing was a lot harder back then and he paid to do this

- Had the money and the ego to do this

- Exposing albert to fire, dogs, and monkeys (things that are scary) and no reaction - Introduce him to a rat, want to show that he has no fear of the rat

- Shows albert the rat and then smashes a pan behind him and scares him, does it multiple times (6 times with a few minutes in each trial)

- Eventually did they started putting the rat in alberts lap and he would automatically pop his pants and fall over without the pans being smashed behind him

- Unconditioned stimulus is the sound, unconditioned response is fear, conditioned stimulus is rat, conditioned response is fear

- Every single one of our emotions have been conditioned over our lives, outside of our own awareness

- Only born with 7 maybe 8 primary emotions


- No matter what it is, someone has an irrational fear of it

- We are genetically predispositioned to be fearful of certain things like snakes and spiders etc.

- These make evolutionary sense as to why they are easier to condition - Negative tropism- something that you spend time and effort getting away from - Serves to maintain anxiety disorders


- Another example of conditioned responses

- Fetish depends on what you have around you

- It’s everywhere and ubiquitous

- Pedophilia is conditioned in the same way every other fetish is conditioned - The difference is that there is an outcome which is the victim

Dsm 2

- Had homosexuality as a psychological disorder, DSM3 got rid of that - No matter what science tells you you’ll still believe whatever you want about being gay

- pseudoconditioning → tendency of a neutral stimulus to elicit a CR after a US has elicited a reflex response

- Nurse coughs then gives you a shot, you wince

- After the nurse coughs again, you will mostly likely wince because that response is now paired with that stimulus

- Trace conditioning → the CS begins and end before the US is presented - Like seeing lightning flash then a minute later hearing the thunder

- Delayed conditioning → the CS and US overlap, the US appears before the CS has disappeared

- We might sound a buzzer for 5 seconds and sometime during the last two seconds that the buzzer is sounding a puff of air is sent into the eyes

- We might hear the thunder before the lightning has faded from view

- Simultaneous conditioning → the CS and US coincide exactly, both begin and end at the same time

- We might ring a bell and blow a puff of air at the same time

- Backward conditioning→ the CS follows the US

- A puff of air is used followed by the sound of the buzzer

- Contingency→ a kind of if-then statement, one event Y is contingent on another event, X, to the extent that Y occurs if and only if X occurs

- Contiguity → refers to the closeness in time or space between two events - The interval between the CS and US

- Interstimulus interval→ interval between the termination of the CS and the onset of the US, but in delayed conditioning where the two stimuli overlap, it means the interval between the onset of the CS and the onset of the US

- Compound stimulus → paired with a US for one or more trials after which the experimenter tests for conditioning by presenting the compound

Stimulus features

- The physical features of the CS and US affect the pace of conditioning - This is illustrated by experiments in which the CS consists of two or more stimuli presented simultaneously

- Compound Stimulus → is paired with a US for one or more trials, after which the experimenter tests for conditioning by presenting the compound stimulus and each component of the CS alone

- Experimenter presents cold and tactile stimulus to a dog then presents acid to its mouth

- Then they do just cold stimulus, and just tactile stimulus, and then compound stimulus

- The cold stimulus alone was utterly ineffective

- Known as overshadowing

- Overshadowing → the effect of one stimulus found to overshadow the effect of the other almost completely, does not go unnoticed, simply does not become effective CS - Depends on intensity

- Strong stimulus overshadow weak ones

Prior experience blocking

- Latent inhibition suggests that novel stimuli are more likely to become conditioned stimuli than are stimuli that have appeared many times in the absence of the US - Blocking → resembles overshadowing in that one stimulus interferes with the ability of another to become a CS

- Researcher pairs tone and electric shock on rats, then repeatedly pairs compound stimulus consisting of the tone and novel stimulus (light) with the shock

- Whats happens if they present the light alone

- After performing the experiment, the light did not become a CS


- We often generalize stimuli we don’t discriminate

- Little albert experiment with bunny and rat have almost the same response, but the further away we get from the general stimuli the less reaction happens

Higher order conditioning

- Dad molesting child

- Dad is the UCS and trauma is the UCR

- We make church the CS and trauma the CS

- School is very similar to church, so it would be a very evocative event for her - Dad isn't at school but it has the same general stimulus

- If dad takes the girl to soccer practice, it’s gonna affect socialization with those friends cause she will associate hanging out with those friends and her conditioned response - Start to create multiple layers of higher order conditioning, multiple stimuli are overlapping

- When looking at a bell curve the little girl has many overlapping bell curves

Borderline personality disorder

- Has the highest level of people going untreated

- 33% of people are untreated and end up committing suicide

- Lack of ability to accept social support because social interaction is apart of that generalization curve

Factors that affect classical conditioning

- Contingency → how reliably the US and CS are paired together: there more reliable, the stronger the association. Thi is represented by the rescorla wagner formula - When you ring the bell and the meat doesn’t follow, could spray meat powder in any pattern you choose but the more reliably the meat powder follows that bell the more drool your gonna get

- Contiguity → the closeness in time or space between the CS and the UCS, referred to as the interstimulus interval

- How long you wait to to do the bell then the meat

- Has to be in the time span of the organs sensory memory

- The meat powder has to happen while the bell is still ringing in the ear

- Stimulus features → generally, the stronger the UCS and the CS the stronger the association will be. There are important exceptions (such as a light to act as a CS for a puff of air that makes an animal blink, but the light itself is bright enough that it induces blinking) External- External works better together as well as internal- internal - Compound stimulus

- Overshadowing

- Prior experience blocking

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