Exam 2: Textbook Review Sheet
1.What is a neuron?
A cell that receives signals from sense organs or other neurons, processes these signals, and sends the signals to muscles, organs, or other neurons the basic unit of the nervous system.
2. What are the three types of neurons and what is the function of each type? Sensory neurons:
A neuron that responds to signals from sensory organs and transmits those signals to the brain and spinal cord.
A neuron that sends signals to muscles in order to control movement (and also to bodily organs, such as glands).
A neuron that is connected to other neurons, not to sense organs or muscles.
A. What is a brain circuit?
A set of neurons that works together to receive input, operates on it in some way, and produces specific output.
3. What is the function of each of the following parts of the neuron: Cell body: The central part of a neuron, which contains the nucleus.
Cell membrane: The skin that surrounds a cell.
Axon (myelinated and unmyelinated): The sending end of the neuron; the long, cablelike structure extending from the cell body. We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of stressor?
Terminal buttons: A structure at the end of the branch of an axon that can release chemicals into the space between neurons.
4. What is an action potential?
The shifting change in charge that moves down the axon.
A. What is the allornone law?
Allornone law States that if the neuron is sufficiently stimulated, it fires, sending the action potential all the way down the axon and releasing chemicals from the terminal buttons; either the action potential occurs or it doesn’t.
5. How do neurons communicate?
Neurons communicate by sending neurotransmitters at synapse.
A. What is a synapse and the synaptic cleft? We also discuss several other topics like What does relational operator means?
Synapse: The place where an axon of one neuron sends signals to the membrane (on a dendrite or cell body) of another neuron; the synapse includes the sending portions of an axon, the receiving portions of the receiving neuron, and the space between them.
Synaptic cleft: The gap in the synapse between the axon of one neuron and the membrane of another, across which communication occurs.
B. What is a neurotransmitter?
A chemical that carries a signal from the terminal button of one neuron to the dendrite or cell body of another; often referred to as a neurotransmitter.
C. Know the specific functions of each of the following kinds of neurotransmitters:
Dopamine: Motivation, reward, movement, thought, learning
Noradrenaline (norepinephrine): Dreaming, attention
Endorphins: Involved in modulating pain perception
Serotonin: Primary inhibitory neurotransmitter regulating mood, sleep Don't forget about the age old question of What is the framework for financial accounting?
6. What is a receptor?
A site on a dendrite or cell body where a neurotransmitter molecule attaches itself like a lock that is opened by one key, a receptor receives only one type of neurotransmitter.
A. What are excitatory & inhibitory input?
B. How do excitatory and inhibitory inputs affect action potentials? After binding to receptors, neurotransmitters can have one of two general types of effects. They can be excitatory inputs, making the receiving neuron more likely to We also discuss several other topics like Who is vygotsky?
have an action potential, or they can be inhibitory inputs, making the receiving neuron less likely to have an action potential
7. What is reuptake?
The process by which surplus neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft is reabsorbed back into the sending neuron so that the neuron can effectively fire again.
8. What is an agonist and what is an antagonist?
A. What function do they play?
Agonists: A chemical that mimics the effects of a neurotransmitter by activating a type of receptor.
Antagonists: A chemical that blocks the effects of a neurotransmitter.
9. What is the peripheral nervous system, and its divisions the autonomic and somatic nervous systems?
Peripheral nervous system (PNS):
allows the brain both to affect the organs of the body and to receive information from them.
Autonomic nervous system (ANS):
controls the smooth muscles in the body, some glandular functions, and many of the body’s selfregulating activities, such as digestion and circulation. If you want to learn more check out What is the type of matter that is mostly space?
Somatic nervous system:
Part of the peripheral nervous system that consists of neurons in the sensory organs (such as the eyes and ears) that convey information to the brain as well as neurons that actually trigger muscles and glands.
10. What are the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system A. What does each do?
Sympathetic nervous system:
readies an animal to fight or to flee by speeding up the heart, increasing the breathing rate to deliver more oxygen, dilating the pupils, producing sweat, decreasing salivation, inhibiting activity in the stomach, and relaxing the bladder. Speed things up We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of processing times?
Parasympathetic nervous system:
“next to” the sympathetic nervous system and tends to counteract its effects. Slow things down
B. How do they work together to create the fightorflight response? The sympathetic nervous system is often activated in fightorflight situations to prepare the body to either fight or flight. The parasympathetic nervous system calms down the body after the situation is gone.
11. What is the central nervous system?
The spinal cord and the brain.
A. What is the function of the spine?
The spinal cord itself can initiate some aspects of our behavior, such as reflexes.
B. What is a reflex?
An automatic behavioral response to an event.
allows you to respond immediately, bypassing the brain
12. What are the two cerebral hemispheres?
A. What are the functions of each hemisphere?
Right hemisphere functions:
1. processing emotion
2. perception of nonverbal patterns
3. perception of music
4. perception of spatial relationships
5. perception of complex patterns
6. perception of parttowhole relationships
Left hemisphere functions:
1. processing of speech and language
3. perception of time relationships
4. control of complex movement sequences
B. How are the hemispheres connected?
The two halves of the brain are connected by a large bundle of axons referred to as the corpus callosum
C. What are the four lobes of each cerebral hemisphere?
D. What are the major functions of each lobe?
Occipital Lobes: vision
Temporal Lobes: new memories, language, math; top: sound, bottom: visual shape
Parietal Lobes: spatial processes, somatosensory strip
Frontal Lobes: speech, reasoning, emotion, memory search, motor cortex, consciousness, general intelligence,
13. What is the major function of each of the following structures: Thalamus:
receives signals from sensory and motor systems and plays a crucial role in attention, sleep, and other functions critical to daily life; often thought of as a switching center.
plays a central role in controlling eating and drinking and in regulating the body’s temperature, blood pressure, heart rate, sexual behavior, and hormones.
plays a key role in allowing us to enter new information into the brain’s memory banks
plays a special role in fear and is involved in other types of strong emotions, such as anger.
performs higher functions like interpreting touch, vision and hearing, as well as speech, reasoning, emotions, learning, and fine control of movement.
concerned in part with physical coordination, estimating time, and paying attention.
14. What is recorded in each of the following techniques?
placing electrodes on the skull to record electrical activity in response to a stimulus or over a period of time.
tiny probes called micro electrodes are placed in the brain and used to record neural firing rates.
uses X rays to obtain a threedimensional image of the structure of the brain
uses the magnetic properties of atoms to produce sharp pictures of the three dimensional structure of the brain
uses small amounts of a radioactive substance to track blood flow and thus neural activity
detects the amount of oxygen brought to different places in the brain.
used to stimulate clusters of neurons so that their functions can be determined.
15. What is neural pruning?
A process whereby certain connections among neurons are eliminated.
16. What is neural plasticity?
The brain’s ability to change as a result of experience.
17. Why and genes and the environment considered a single system? Many genes are regularly being turned on and off in response to environmental events, and the brain functions more or less efficiently depending on which genes are turned on and hence which proteins are produced.
A. What is each of the following kinds of interaction:
Occurs when the genetically shaped behavioral tendencies of parents or siblings produce an environment that is passively received by the child.
Ex: children with higher intelligence tend to be born into environment with more books.
Evocative (or reactive) interaction:
Occurs when genetically influenced characteristics (both behavioral and physical) induce other people to behave in particular ways.
Ex: Some people react to blondes more positively than they do to brunettes
Occurs when people choose, partly based on genetic tendencies, to put themselves in specific situations and to avoid others.
Ex: A timid person may avoid loud parties
18. What is behavior genetics?
The field in which researchers attempt to determine the extent to which the differences among people’s behaviors and psychological characteristics are due to their different genes or to differences in their environments.
19. What is heritability?
The degree to which the variability of a characteristic or ability in a population is due to genetics—given a specific environment.
20. What are the three ways in which people study heritability? What is learned from each?
A study that compares identical and fraternal twins to determine the relative contribution of genes to the variability in a characteristic or ability.
The amount of gray matter in the brain (particularly in frontal lobe) is more similar in identical twins than in fraternal twins, which suggests that the amount of gray matter is, in part, under genetic control.
A study in which the characteristics of children adopted at birth are compared to those of their adoptive parents or siblings versus their biological parents or siblings.
Even in these cases, however, it is difficult to separate genetic from environmental influences
removed specific genes from animals and modified the genetics of other animals gain additional insight into the role that a gene or genes may play in brain structure, biological function, and behavior
21. What is natural selection?
Natural selection occurs when individuals with genebased characteristics that contribute to survival have more offspring, and over time those characteristics come to be widespread in a population.
22. What is an adaptation?
A genebased characteristic that increases an organism’s ability to survive and reproduce successfully.
1.What is a teratogen?
An external agent, such as a chemical, virus, or type of radiation, that can cause damage to the zygote, embryo, or fetus.
A. What are some of the major teratogens?
Maternal illness, alcohol and drugs, caffeine and smoking, diet and pollution, maternal stressors.
2. What is temperament?
Inclinations to engage in a certain style of behavior
3. Piaget’s theory of cognitive development
A. What is a schema?
In Piaget’s theory, a mental structure that organizes sensory and perceptual input and connects it to the appropriate responses.
B. What are assimilation & accommodation? What is the function of each? assimilation
the process that allows the use of existing schemas to organize and interpret new stimuli and respond appropriately.
the process that results in schemas’ changing or the creation of new schemas, as necessary to cope with a broader range of situations.
C. What are the four stages of cognitive development?
D. For each stage:
How does the child understand the world?
What cognitive abilities does the child have?
What cognitive abilities does the child lack?
Sensorimotor (02 years)
The child acts on the world as perceived and is not capable of thinking about objects in their absence.
Cannot imitate a previously perceived event
Preoperational (27 years)
Words, images, and actions are used to represent information mentally. Language and symbolic play develop, but thought is still tied to perceived events. Example of symbolic play: think of the soap as a submerged submarine that is breaking the surface
Do not yet have a “logic” for manipulating, or operating on, mental representations
Concrete operations (711 years)
Reasoning is based on a logic that is tied to what can be perceived. The child is capable of organizing information systematically into categories and can reverse mental manipulations
have difficulty with hypothetical thought and even simple forms of deductive reasoning
Formal operations 11 years (at the earliest)
Reasoning is based on a logic that includes abstractions, which leads to systematic thinking about hypothetical events.
E. What are object permanence, conservation, reversibility, abstract thinking?
What is it and at what sage is it acquired?
object permanence (sensorimotor period):
The understanding that objects continue to exist even when they cannot be immediately perceived.
Conservation (preoperational period)
The Piagetian principle that certain properties, such as amount or mass, remain the same even when the appearance of the material or object changes, provided that nothing is added or removed.
Ex: preoperational children do not understand that pouring liquid from a short, wide glass into a tall, thin glass does not alter the amount of liquid
Egocentrism (sensorimotor and preoperational period)
the inability to take another person’s point of view.
Ex: if a child in this period is asked which snack she wants, she might point and say “that one!” even if the person asking is in a different room and can’t see where she pointed.
Reversibility (concrete operational period)
Children are able to reverse mental manipulations.
Ex: having seen the liquid being poured into a tall thin glass, the child can mentally reverse the process and imagine the liquid being poured back into the original container. Seeing that no liquid has been added or subtracted in the process, the child realizes that the amount in both glasses must be the same.
Abstract thinking (formal operational period)
Formal operations allow children to think about “whatwouldhappenif ” situations, to formulate and test theories, and to think systematically about the possible outcomes of an act by being able to list alternatives in advance and consider each in turn.
Ex: think about how best to spend one’s money
4. What are the weaknesses in Piaget’s theory?
Infants have capacities beyond those claimed by Piaget.
Ex: infants know that previously seen objects continue to exist after they are removed from sight
Piaget’s theory sometimes underestimates the sophistication of young children’s conceptions of the world.
Ex: even 4monthold infants are aware of time intervals
Children do not master at the same age all abilities that should stem from the same logical operations.
Ex: children conserve number before they can conserve liquid.
The theory does not address the fact that many children do not enter the period of formal operations until high school, and some individuals never enter it at all
5. What is Vygosky’s sociocultural theory?
A. How does this differ from Piaget’s theory?
Whereas Piaget believed that the child constructs mental representations of the world in the course of experiencing it firsthand, Vygotsky believed that the child constructs representations of the world by first learning the rules and customs of his or her culture; these rules and customs of the culture, as represented in the child’s mind, then serve to guide behavior
B. What is the role of language?
Adults promote cognitive development by guiding and explicitly instructing children about the world and their culture. Language plays a crucial role in this process; not only do adults use language to convey specific instruction, but they also use it to convey culture
6. What is attachment?
An emotional bond that leads us to want to be with someone and to miss him or her when we are separated.
7. Ainsworth theory of attachment?
A. What is the Strange Situation?
The setup involves a staged sequence of events designed to discover how a child reacts when left with a stranger or alone in an unfamiliar situation.
B. What are the four forms of attachment?
Secure attachment is evident if babies venture away from the mother, are upset when she leaves and not well comforted by a stranger, but calm down quickly when the mother returns.
Avoidant attachment is evident if babies don’t seem to care very much whether the mother is present or absent and are equally comfortable with her and a stranger; when she returns, they do not immediately gravitate to her.
Resistant attachment is evident if babies do not use the mother as a base of operations for exploration (as occurs with secure attachment) but rather stay close to her and become angry when she leaves; some of these babies may go so far as to hit the mother when she returns, and they do not calm down easily thereafter.
Disorganized/disoriented attachment is evident if the babies become depressed and have periods of being unresponsive along with spurts of sudden emotion at the end of the testing session
8. What are Kohlberg’s three stages of moral development?
A. For each stage, what is the basis for the moral decision?
The preconventional level
focuses on the role of an authority figure who defines what correct action is; good behaviors are rewarded and bad ones are punished.
Ex: A preconventional response to the Heinz dilemma might be, “If you let your wife die, you will get in trouble”
The conventional level
focuses on the role of rules that maintain social order and allow people to get along. A child reasoning at this level wants to be viewed as a “good person” by friends and family and tries to follow the Golden Rule (“Do unto others as you would have them do unto you”). Morality is still closely tied to individual relationships
Ex: “If he lets his wife die, people would think he was some kind of heartless lizard”.
The postconventional level (aka the principled level)
focuses on the role of abstract principles that govern the decision to accept or reject specific rules. In the most advanced stage at this level, principles are adopted that are believed to apply to everyone.
Ex: “Human life is the highest principle, and everything else must be secondary. People have a duty to help one another to live”.
B. What are the major criticisms of Kohlberg’s theory
Kohlberg’s research involved interviews only with boys and men, his conclusions might not apply equally well to the moral development of girls and women.
People may use different types of moral reasoning, depending on the details of the dilemma
Making decisions about moral dilemmas may be governed not simply by abstract reasoning but also by various aspects of a person’s character.
A. What are Erikson’s 8 stages of psychosexual development?
B. What is the main issue being confronted in each stage?
Issue to Be Resolved
Basic trust vs.
Depending on how well they are treated by caregivers, infants either develop a basic trust that their needs will be met or fail to develop such a basic trust.
Autonomy vs. doubt
The child either is allowed to choose and make independent decisions or is made to feel ashamed and full of self doubt for wanting to do so.
Initiative vs. guilt
The child either develops a sense of purpose and direction or is overly controlled by the parents and made to feel constrained or guilty.
The child either develops a sense of competence and ability to work with others or becomes beset with feelings of incompetence and inferiority.
Issue to Be Resolved
Indentity vs. role
The adolescent either successfully grapples with questions of identity and future roles as an adult or becomes confused about possible adult roles.
Intimacy vs. isolation
The young adult either develops deep and intimate relations with others or is socially isolated.
Generativity vs. self absorption
The adult in the “prime of life” must look to the future and determine what to leave behind for future generations; failing this task leads to a sense of meaninglessness in life.
Integrity vs. despair
In reflecting back on life, a person either feels that life was worthwhile as it was lived or feels despair and fears death.
10. Does personality change with age?
Personality does not change substantially during adulthood.
Personality was equally stable over time for men and women.