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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Toni Thomason on Friday September 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 3000-005 at Auburn University taught by Michael C. Wooten in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 192 views. For similar materials see Genetics in Biological Sciences at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 09/04/15
Genetics Exam 1 9915 Study Guide History of Genetics Genetics is the branch of biology that deals with heredity and the expression of inherited traits gt Heredity transmission of traits from one generation to the next gt Inherited traits any detectable phenotypic seen variation of any inherited characteristic Everything we know started with observation Domestication started primarily in Iran Iraq Syria Eurasia with animals such as goats sheep camels reindeer gt Domestication of plants happened prior to that of animals The earliest being grains and cereals Date palms were one of the most vastly grown Irrigation played a vital role in allowing nomadic people to settle down Cattle began to play a role in farming around 9000 BCE While all of this was happening people observed and formed questions as to why animals and plants looked the way they did eg began to breed bulls without horns to minimize damage Theories of Heredity Spontaneous Generation100005000 Idea that living structures form without decent from similar organisms eg sheepgtbonegtmaggotgtfly sheep can transform into flies Involves the concept of a deity to set the process in motion Concept that blood is important Males provided form and females brought it to life greek idea RightLeft theory lie on one side you had a daughter other side a son Pasteur disproved this method with the Swan Neck Experiment VVVVV Preformationism28001850 organisms develop from miniature versions of themselves gt Microscopes provided pictures of what looked like folded people in sperm gt Harvey s theory that humans come from eggs gt Charles Darwin ended this when he discovered Pangenesis greek concept Pangenesis18005 theory that boy cells and structures shed small parts of themselves that collect in the reproductive organs prior to fertilization Gemmules particles produced from each organ that contributes to reproduction Follows ideas of blended inheritance Inherited traits are determined randomly by range of parents Theory of regression if one tall parent and one short parent reproduce then the kid will be shorter than the tall parent Continuously producing shorter offspring Regression was a direct opposition to Darwin s theory of evolution Pangenesis followed idea of acquired traits VVVV VV gt Lamarck vs Darwin Darwin said variations help them survive and Lamarck said organisms change over time of life gt Rat tail experiment disproved Lamarck Epigenesis current theory all structures appear during the development of an organism and are not present at the time of fertilization gt gt gt Idea came about by domestication Gametesquotblueprintsquot code for information passed on Also known as De Novo development or Germ Plasm Theory 0 Molecular genetics Genotype phenotype alterations in genotype affect phenotype Genetics as a science evolved in the biological revolution of the 4050 s There is a 3 year double rate for information on molecular genetics Research contributing to molecular genetics gt gt gt gt 1927 Griffith 1944 Avery Macleod ampMcCarty transforming properties heritable properties are carried in DNA 1952 Hershey and ChaseDNA is the biomolecule of heredity 194953 Erin Chargaff Base composition amp chemistry of DNA 1953 Watson and Crick Chemical components physical structure and molecular form of DNA Question What is the chemical nature of genetic information gt Successful genetic material must 1 Store complex information 2 Faithful replication high fidelity 3 Be capable of encoding phenotype 4 Be mutable able to change Important experiments and discoveries gt gt gt Griffith Genetic makeup experiment 1927 Inserting dead bacteria cells into rats Dead material alone did not give the rats pneumonia Conclusion something in the preparation changed the avirulent material Avery Macleod and McCarty 1944 Genetic makeup of 1 organism could change another transforming property Potential agents RNA DNA Proteins Lipids Tests can only disprove agents using scientific method Cannot prove anything in science DNA in living systems is called Chromatin Hershey and Chase Phage genome is DNA Experiment showed DNA is the biomolecule of heredity DNA is responsible for directing phage reproduction Protein is NOT genetic material DNA was finally accepted as the genetic material 0 Chemical structure of DNA Tetranucleotide Hypothesis Levene 1910 Some levels of ATCG arranged in a pattern gt gt gt Leveneamp Chargaff DNA is made of a nitrogenous base Sugar Phosphoric acid All of which make up what is known as a nucleotide Purine 91 bonding adenine and guanine Pyridine 11 bonding thymine and cytosine Chemical unit DNA Structural unit nucleotide Edwin Chargaff o Ratios of bases are not equal Chargaff tested the tetranucleotide hypothesis and proved it wrong 0 ACTG 0 Number of A number ofT and number of Gnumber of C 0 of GC does NOT equal of TA o GC content increases the thermos stability of DNA A and T connect with 2 hydrogen bonds G and C require 3 bonds Linus Pauling 2x Nobel prize winner for helix structure Helix is a triple string Negative phosphates near axis Vanderwaal distances too short Look into the contributions of Watson and Crick Rosalind Franklin xray diffraction and Maurice Wilkins Physical Structure of DNA 0 Sugar phosphate backbone o 3 5 polarity o Bases are 034 nm apart and DNA is 2 nm in diameter Each helical turn is 34nm o Antiparallel o 10 bases per turn of the helix with major in minor grooves o 2 right handed polynucleotide chains coiled around a central axis How is this model successful 0 Replication transfer of information storage molecular basis of mutation Forms of DNA 0 Beta form Watson and Crick model Different forms have different structures beta is aqueous in low salt conditions 0 Alpha forms compressed form28 A high salt conditions cause DNA to shrink o Zen form left handed backwards and very irregular Example questions 0 Molecule with 5000 base pairs double stranded DNA Number of nucleotides 5000x2 10000 Number of sugars 10000 Number of helical turns 500010 500 Total length 034xn1169966 How many phosphodiester bonds 499949999998 o If dna molecule has 10 G how much T is present gt 40 T 0 Given the following is it ssDNA or ds DNA A18T26 C26 G30 gt Molecule is ssDNA Chromatin structure and DNA condensation o 396 billin base pairs in humans 392 meters of DNA in each cell 0 Condensed in 10nm nucleotide VVVVV 0 Models for association of DNA and proteins gt Folded fiber model 1965 Dupraw Consisted of a single fiber that was wadded up 000000 gt Nucleosome model 1975 RD Kornberg and P Oudet Simplest packing structure of all eukaryotic chromatin Classes of histones 0 Core histones H2A HZB H3 H4 gt Consists of 120 amino acids gt Highly conserved gt In combination form the core particle o Linker histone H1 gt 200 amino acids gt Tissue specific expression gt Not highly conserved gt Loosely associated with core particle Nucleosomes are 11nm long hydrophilic outside and hydrophilic inside HDAC and HAT proteins Supercoiling of DNA 0 Solenoid vs Zig Zag model High order coiling o Chromatinrosettescoils o Built with help of topoisomerases 0 Figure 819 Summary of stages nucleosomes solenoids intense condensation fold around protein scaffolds in prophase DNA replication 0 Cell division cell size is limited due to ability to transport food and oxygen from cell membrane 0 Tissue replacement shedding differentiation proliferation o Embryogenesis o Replication has nothing to do with cell division GO no longer dividing ex Brain cells G1growth phase preparing for dna synthesis 5 dna replication G2 growth phase cell division preparation Process is semiconservative only half the original parental strand is conserved in new 3 types of replication Semiconservative half and half 0 Conservative each parental strand links and well as new strands o Dispersive parental strand goes through a cleavage process followed by reforming all the strands together old and new in each strand Taylor Woods and Hughes 1957 faba beans Arthur Kornberg mechanism of DNA synthesis Discovery of dna polymerase 4 stages of replication 0 Initiation unwinding primer synthesis 0 Make sure you understand each part of the replication process
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