Study Guide for Exam #3:
Chapter 21 Respiratory System
1. Where does gas exchange take place?
a. Lungs – Oxygen to blood, CO2 to lungs
b. Body – Oxygen to body, CO2 to blood
2. Review the functions that take place in the conducting zone pathway. a. Conducting Zone Structures (Passage for air) – Nose, Nasal Cavity, Parynx, Larynx, Trachea, Primary bronchi (secondary, tertiary), terminal Bronchiole
i. Warm incoming air
ii. Humidify air
iii. Purify air
iv. Allow air to reach the lungs
3. Review the function of mucous in the nasal pathway.
a. Function – Get rid of microorganisms and debris from entering the nasal cavity
4. Functions of anatomical structures:
a. Larynx – Segment of the respiratory tract that has vocal cords We also discuss several other topics like Who is eliza lucas pinckney?
b. Epiglottis – covers the larynx during swallowing to prevent food and liquid from entering the lungs
5. Review our discussion on speech production and structures involved. a. Vocal folds in closed position; closed glottis
b. When True vocal cord vibrates, sound is being made
c. Vocal folds in open position; open glottis If you want to learn more check out What is the idea that psychological functioning is related to unconscious psychological processes?
6. Review the structures of the serous membrane—the pleura—covering the lung. a. Outer to inner – the pleura
i. Parietal pleura
ii. Pleural cavity – containing pleura fluid
iii. Visceral pleura – touches the lung
7. Which cells produce surfactant in the alveoli? Know the mechanism of action of surfactant.
a. Alveoli Type II cells
b. Surfactant causes the hydrogen bonds to be disrupted, and the alveolus remains inflated
i. Without it, the water pulls together and the alveolus collapses
8. Be able to trace the flow of oxygen in the respiratory tract.
a. Nares – Nasal Cavity – Nasopharynx – oropharynx – laryngopharynx – larynx – trachea – primary bronchi – secondary bronchi – tertiary bronchi – multiple branches of bronchi – bronchioles – terminal bronchioles – respiratory bronchioles – alveolar ducts – alveolar sacs If you want to learn more check out How pr helps marketing?
9. Know which anatomical structures belong to the conduction zone versus the respiratory zone.
a. Respiratory bronchioles – alveolar ducts – alveolar sacs
10. Review the four main events of respiration. Be able to describe each event. a. Pulmonary ventilation – moving air in/out of lungs (breathing)
b. External respiration – gas exchange between pulmonary blood and alveoli – O is loaded to blood, CO2 is unloaded
c. Respiratory Gas Transport – transport of oxygen and CO2 via the blood stream d. Internal Respiration – Gas Exchange between blood and tissue cells in systemic capillaries If you want to learn more check out Who is theodor adorno?
i. O is unloaded into Blood, CO2 loaded into blood
11. Know the form of transport utilized in gas exchange.
a. Gas diffuses down its pressure gradient from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure
b. Between Breaths – Intrapulmonary pressure = atmospheric pressure
c. Inspiration – Thoracic/Lung Vol INC – Intrapulmonary pressure DEC below atmospheric pressure
d. Between I and E – intrapulmonary pressure = atmospheric
e. Expiration – thoracic/lung vol DEC – intrapulmonary pressure INC above atmospheric pressure
12. What is surfactant and what is its function? What cell produces surfactant? a. A chemical produced by type II alveolar cells that disrupts hydrogen bonds between water molecules and thus reduces surface tension
13. Review the skeletal muscles involved in pulmonary ventilation.
i. Forced – Internal Intercostals, Abdominal Muscles
ii. Normal – External intercostals, diaphragm
i. Forced – sternocleidomastoid, scalenes, pectoralis minor, erector spinae ii. Normal – External intercostals, Diaphargm
14. Review our discussion on atelectasis and pneumothorax. Don't forget about the age old question of What are the 6 ways nonverbal cues relate to verbal messages?
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a. Atelectasis – collapsed lung
b. Pheumothorax – presence of air in the intrapleural space
c. Equalization of intrapulmonary and atmospheric pressures
15. What form is carbon dioxide transported?
a. Bicarbonate Ion (HCO3)
b. CO2 + H20 – H2CO3 – H + HCO3
16. Review the definitions of spirometry volumes and capacities. What is a normal Tidal Volume?
a. Know what all different peaks stand for!
b. Normal Tidal Vol – 500 ml
17. Review how oxygen and carbon dioxide are transported in the blood plasma. a. Most oxygen travels attached to hemoglobin and forms oxyhemoglobin b. A small dissolved amount is carried in the plasma
c. Deoxyhemoglobin + O – oxyhemoglobin
d. REVIEW SLIDES 21/22
18. Review our discussion of the respiratory centers located in the CNS. a. Pons and Medulla oblongata
19. Review our discussion of blood pH and the respiratory changes that take place. a.
b. Hyperventilation/Hypocapnia – Respiratory Alkalosis
c. Hypercapnia/Hypoventilation – Respiratory acidosis
20. What is a normal respiratory rate for adults discussed in lecture? a. 1218 breaths/minute
21. Review the concepts we covered regarding the hemoglobinoxygen % saturation curve. Discuss factors that can change the affinity of hemoglobin to oxygen. a.
b. Left Shift
i. INC affinity for O2
ii. INC Blood ph
iii. DEC PCO2
iv. DEC temp
c. Right Shift
i. DEC affinity for O2
ii. DEC Blood pH
iii. INC PCO2
iv. INC TEMP
Chapter 20 The Immune System—Immunity
22. Review the defenses involved in the 1st line, 2nd line and 3rd line of defense. a.
23. What are the primary cells of adaptive immunity?
a. T cells (helper/cytotoxic) and B cells
24. Review our discussion on inflammation and the functions of the neutrophils. a. Inflammatory Response – triggered when body tissues are injured
i. Acute inflammation causes Redness, Heat, Swelling, and Pain
i. Neutrophils migrate to area of inflammation along vessel wall
ii. Neutrophils squeeze thru capillary walls (diapedesis) to sites of inflammation iii. Neutrophils gather in precise sit of tissue injury (positive chemotaxis) and consume foreign material (pathogens aka viruses, bacteria, etc)
25. Review and understand the entire process, including key players. a. effects of Inflammatory Mediators
b. Phagocyte Response
26. Review our discussion on pyrogens during a fever.
a. Fever = systemic response to invasion by microorganisms
b. Hypothalamus thermostat can be reset by pyrogens
c. High temp inhibit release of iron and zinc to liver and spleen
d. Phagocytes function more efficiently with high temp – inc rate of recovery
27. Where do B cells and T cells become immunocompetent?
a. In the Red Bone Marrow
28. Review our discussion on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. Include presenting exogenous versus endogenous antigens.
a. Class I MHC
i. Loc – surface of almost all cells of body
ii. Display protein fragments that come from inside the cell
1. If processed “self” – t cells know to leave cell alone
2. If “nonself” antigen attached – t cells with CD8 (cytotoxic) will
react to it
b. Class II MHC
i. Loc – surface of antigen presenting cell (B cells)
ii. Displayed protein fragments that come from outside the cell
1. Processed as “nonself”
a. If the APC has an antigen fragment attached, then a T cell
with CD4 (helper) will react to it
c. Endogenous (Came from the inside, MCH I) Antigens VS Exogenous (came from the outside)
29. Review and understand the process and characteristics of cellmediated immunological memory and subsequent exposures to an antigen. Secondary immune response.
c. Review the Slides!
30. Review and understand the processes of the immune responses involving B and T lymphocytes:
a. Lymphocyte activation.
c. Plasma cell production/Effector cells.
d. Memory cells.
e. Pathogen attack.
i. A Phagocyte finds a pathogen (ex. Virus), kills its, and uses a MHC II to present the broken up pathogen (antigen)
ii. it attaches itself to a helper T cell via MHC II, the T cell is then activated to either an Effector or Memory (stays in body incase the virus comes back – all T cells/B cells have this)
iii. The Effector T helper cell releases cytokines to alert other T helper cells and B cells (to release antibodies) and cytotoxic cells (attack infected cells)
iv. The Tc cell/B cells that actually attack/release antibodies are called the Effector cells
1. Effector Tc Cell – releases perforin
2. Effector B Cell – “plasma cells” – release antibodies to connect to
the pathogen to stop it from spreading
31. What is the function of helper T cells (TH)?
a. They alarm everybody!! Super important!!
b. Recruit other cells to fight invaders
c. Interact directly with b cells bound to tan antigen
d. Stimulate b cells and cytotoxic t cells to grow and divide
32. Review our discussion on perforin.
a. Cytotoxic T cells binds to an infected cell via MCH I protein
b. Tc cell releases perforin which pokes the infected cell’s membrane to make pores to kill the cell
33. Review our discussion on immunoglobulins. Names and functions. a. Each type of fighting immune cell have antibodies that carry a specific variable aka immunoglobulins that affect and can only attach to another effector/NK cell/whatever the case may be, if it also contains that same immunoglobulin – Each is unique! b. IgM – can fix complement
c. IgA – found mainly in mucus, body secretions
d. IgD – important in activation of B cell
e. IgG – cross placental barrier and fix complement; most abundant
f. IgE – involved in allergies and present of tapeworms
34. When does clonal selection occur?
a. The process by which an antigen selects and activates a specific T or B lymphocyte clone
35. Review the anatomy of an antibody/immunoglobulin and functions of the sites. a. Constant regions – binding sites for complement and macrophages – role in destruction of antigens
b. Heavy chains
c. Variable regions – form antigen binding sites, one on each arm of the why d. Light chains
36. Review the process how immunoglobulins exert their actions on an antigen? a. How antibodies inactivate antigens in a number of ways:
i. Neutralization – antibodies bind to specific sites on bacterial exotoxins or on viruses that can cause cell injury
ii. Agglutination/Precipitation – antibodyantigen reaction that causes clumping of cells, crosslinking action
iii. Opsonization – IgG coats antigens and binds phagocytes, enhancing phagocytosis
iv. Complement fixation/activation – antibodies activate to complement protein leading to cell lysis
v. Stimulation of inflammation – IgE binds mast cells/basophils and releases inflammatory mediators
37. Review our discussions on active and passive immunity.
38. Review our discussion on HIV and AIDS.
a. Transmitted thru body fluids
b. HIV – destroys Th cells – depresses cellular immunity
c. HIV – AIDS after Th cell count falls below 200
39. What is autoimmunity?
a. Production of antibodies or effector T cells that attack a person’s own tissue Chapter 25 The Urinary System
40. What is the glomerulus?
a. Renal Corpuscle – Ballshaped capillary bed where the blood is filtered in the kidney
41. Know the functions of all portions of the renal tubule and the pathway filtrate will take: a. Proximal convoluted tubule
i. 1st segment of the renal tubule in which water, electrolytes, and organic nutrients are reabsorbed
b. Loop of Henle—descending and acending
i. 2nd segment of the renal tubule in which water and electrolytes are reabsorbed ii. Consists of a descending and ascending limb
c. Distal convoluted tubule
i. final segment of the renal tubule in which filtrate modification is controlled by hormones to finetune fluid, electrolyte, and acidbase bal
d. Collecting duct
i. Series of tubules that receive filtrate from the distal tubules in kidneys ii. Responsible for finetuning fluid, electrolyte, and acid base bal
42. What is the juxtaglomerular apparatus and its function?
a. Where the macula densa contacts the juxtaglomerular cells of the afferent arteriole b. Monitors and maintains the glomerular filtration rate
43. Where does renal filtration take place?
44. What should and should not be found in filtrate?
a. Should – water and solutes
b. Should not – proteins and blood cells
45. What is tubular reabsorption and how does it take place?
a. Where the peritubular capillaries reabsorb useful substances from the renal tubule cells – water, glucose, amino acids, ions
b. REABSORPTION is passive, most is active
i. Mostly occurs in proximal convoluted tubule
c. Nitrogenous waste products are poorly reabsorbed
i. Urea – end product of protein breakdown
ii. Uric Acid – results from nucleic acid breakdown
iii. Creatinine – associated with creatine metabolism in muscles (no reabsorption)
46. Review the components of the filtration membrane.
a. Capillary endothelium
b. Basement membrane
c. Foot processes of podocyte of glomerular capsule
47. What is the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and what is the normal value in ml/min? a. GFR = filtrate formed by both kidneys at a rate of 125 ml/min
b. Efficient filtration by kidneys due to:
i. Glomerular capillaries highly permeable
ii. Fenestrated capillaries
iii. Pressure gradient
iv. Total surface area
a. Glomerular hydrostatic pressure
i. Favors filtration and drives fluid out of glomerular capillaries
b. Glomerular colloid osmotic pressure
i. Oppose filtration and drive fluid into the capillaries
c. Capsular hydrostatic pressure
i. Same as B
49. What is the net filtration pressure (NFP) in the glomerular capillaries? a. 10 mmHg
50. What effects does blood pressure have on the GFR? Effects of afferent and efferent arteriole vessel diameter changes.
51. Review the reninangiotensinaldosterone system (RAAS)
a. Systemic blood pressure DEC, causing DEC in GFR
b. JG cells release renin
c. Renin converts angiotensinogen to angiotensinI
d. ACE converts angiotensinI to the active angiotensinII
e. Do the following:
i. Promotes vasoconstriction of efferent arterioles – GFR returns to normal range ii. Systemic blood pressure INC
1. Promotes vasoconstriction of systemic blood vessels
2. Promotes reabsorption of Na and Cl from the proximal tubules,
3. Promotes aldosterone release, leading to INC Na and H2O
4. Stimulates thirst center in hypothalamus which may INC fluid
52. What are the characteristics of urine?
a. Yellow color due to UROCHROME and solutes
b. Sterile, slightly aromatic
c. pH – 6 – slightly acidic
d. specific gravity of 1.001 to 1.035
53. Define Renal Clearance.
a. Process The removal of a solute from the body
b. The rate at which the kidneys remove a substance from the blood
54. What types of substances are used to measure Renal Clearance? a. Inulin and Creatinine
55. What is Renal Clearance used to estimate?
a. Used to estimate GFR 125
56. What process moves urine from the kidney to the bladder?
a. Peristalsis – rhythmic contractions of layers of smooth muscle that move material through a hollow organ
57. Describe the location of the kidney.
a. Retroperitoneal – Kidney is outside the peritoneal cavity
i. against the dorsal body wall in a retroperitoneal position (behind the parietal peritoneum)
ii. situated at the lvl of T12 to L3 vertebrae
iii. right kidney is slightly lower than the left (due to the liver)
58. What is the name of the capillary bed that surrounds the renal tubule? a. Peritubular Capillaries
59. Review the homeostatic imbalances of the urinary system.
a. anuria – less than 100 ml of urine produce per day
b. pyelonephritis – inflammation of the kidney
c. glucosuria – sugar in the urine
d. incontinence – unable to retain urine; spastic detrusor muscle of bladder e. pyuria – white blood cells and bacteria in urine
60. What is creatinine and where is it found?
a. Metabolic waste product of creatine phosphate catabolism – used to measure renal clearance
b. Found in skeletal muscles
61. What is the difference between the internal urethral sphincter versus the external urethral sphincter?
a. Internal urethral sphincter –
b. External urethral sphincter –
62. What is micturition?
a. The process of voiding urine from the urinary bladder thru the urethra
HELPFUL PLAYLISTS TO HELP YOU!! STRONGLY RECOMMEND!! Respiratory – https://www.youtube.com/playlist?
Immune – https://www.youtube.com/playlist?
These are amazing! They literally have a video for every possible question you could have, especially on this study guide. Understanding the material will help you study I promise! They’re all short 10 minute videos, enjoy! And GOOD LUCK!