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UD / History / HIST 103010 / Who is the greatest ruler of the empire of mali in 1236-1374 AD?

Who is the greatest ruler of the empire of mali in 1236-1374 AD?

Who is the greatest ruler of the empire of mali in 1236-1374 AD?

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School: University of Delaware
Department: History
Course: World History I
Professor: Frassetto
Term: Spring 2020
Tags: UD, Frassetto, midterm, Study Guide, Midterm Study Guide, World History, history, islam, the roman empire, Byzantine Empire, and Africa
Cost: 50
Name: Study Guide for Mid-Term #2
Description: Study Guide for Mid-Term #2 on the Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire, the Rise of Islam, and African Kingdoms.
Uploaded: 04/20/2020
13 Pages 6 Views 12 Unlocks
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Who is the greatest ruler of the empire of mali in 1236-1374 AD?



Consul:

• Who: Two consuls served jointly for a one-year term; after the establishment of the  Empire, consuls became mere symbolic representatives of Rome’s republican heritage  and held very little authority and power, since the Emperor was the supreme ruler

• What: The highest elected political office of the Roman Republic (509-27 BC) • Where: Ancient Rome, Italy

• When: Predominantly during the period of the Roman Republic (509-27 BC) • Why: After the expulsion of the Etruscan kings, two consuls were given their civil and  military responsibilities and jointly ruled; consuls were invested with the executive power  of the state and headed the government of the Republic

Etruscans:

• Who: The Etruscans were a civilization in ancient Italy, predating the appearance of the  Romans; we don’t really know where they came from and their language hasn’t been  fully deciphered; they had a great sense of style and elegance, and were more “civilized” than the Romans at this time, who were just simple farmers; the Etruscans had cities  that traded and fought with one another; and were ruled by kings


Who are the five good emperors?



• What: Ancient civilization on the Italian peninsula, replaced by the Romans • Where: Established across what is modern-day Tuscany in Italy

• When: ~900-500 BC

• Why: Etruscan civilization had a great influence on the Romans in terms of gods and  architecture; they are important because of the story of the Rape of Lucretia, where the  son of the last Etruscan king raped a Roman noblewoman who then killed herself, which  caused the Romans to rise up in revolt and depose the Etruscans – Rome would never  have a king as a ruler again

Punic Wars:

• Who: Carthaginian general Hannibal Barca and Roman consul Scipio Africanus • What: A series of wars fought between Rome and Carthage in N. Africa • Where: Ancient Rome, the Italian Peninsula, the Alps, Spain, North Africa, Carthage • When: First Punic War: 264-241 BC; Second Punic War: 218-201 BC; Third Punic War:  149-146 BC


Who is the first male convert to Islam?



• Why: War broke out in 264 BC between the Romans and the Carthaginians when the  Carthaginians moved into Sicily, threatening Roman hegemony; Hannibal Barca is the  single greatest general that Rome would ever face, he won many decisive battles for  Carthage; with the destruction of Carthage after the Third War, Rome became the de  facto power of the Mediterranean world, but expansion and imperialism come at a cost Avicenna: If you want to learn more check out As a boy growing up in Texas, William Maples was impressed by autopsy photos he was shown of which famous outlaws?

• Who: Ibn Sina, Abu Ali Sina, known in the west as Avicenna – one of the greatest  Muslim thinkers/philosophers/theologians/Aristotelians; he was a Persian polymath and  physician

• What: “the most influential philosopher of the pre-modern era,” the father of early  modern medicine

• Where: born in Persia (modern-day Uzbekistan), died in Iran If you want to learn more check out the body's internal environment must stay

• When: lived 980-1037 AD

• Why: His most famous works are The Book of Healing and The Canon of Medicine,  philosophical, medical, and scientific encyclopedias; he is believed to have written over  450 works on philosophy in medicine during his time; his medical works were taught in  Salerno, Sicily, and would form the foundation of medical studies throughout medieval  European universities

Mansa Musa:

• Who: Greatest ruler of the Empire of Mali (1236-1374 AD)

• What: The title Mansa means “King of Kings”

• Where: Mali Empire, West Africa, built on top of Ghana

• When: lived c. 1280-1337 AD, ruled c. 1312-1337 AD

• Why: Mali reached its height of success under Mansa Musa; Musa, a Muslim, went on  pilgrimage to Mecca, along the way he stops in Cairo, where he gives away an untold  amount of money (gold coinage) in charity, but this causes hyperinflation in Cairo for  generations (showing just how rich the Kingdom of Mali was); he further centralized and  expanded upon the administrative structures already in place, as writing and govt. were  implemented through Islamic tradition; as a Malian ruler, Mansa Musa was concerned  with maintaining the cities involved in the Trans Saharan Trade Network; in 1324, Musa  annexed the city of Timbuktu, founding a university and library that had over 25,000  students and up to 700,000 books (all important religious works and STEM books, the  necessary disciplines to make a civilization sophisticated); Timbuktu became a center of  learning and culture, focused primarily on Islamic Law but also offering ancillary fields of  study; the scholarly hub of Timbuktu was one of the larger cities in the world during this  time; the Empire of Mali would eventually be overthrown by the Songhai Empire Aksum: We also discuss several other topics like physiological psychology final exam

• Who: Aksumites; Ezana a king of Aksum, AKA “The Ethiopian Constantine”; they are  Coptic Christians

• What: Kingdom of Aksum, Ethiopia – Aksum is also the capital city of the Kingdom • Where: Modern-day Ethiopia, East Africa

• When: c. 100-940 AD

• Why: The Kingdom of Aksum emerged as a prominent player in international trade and  politics by the 1st century AD due to their strategic location and access to the trade  routes in the Indian Ocean; the coins issued by Aksumite rulers became one of the  standard units of international trade because of their value; their increasing wealth was  used to build up the military, which in turn expanded their boundaries, which in turn  continued to increase their wealth as they conquered -> economic power is transformed  into political power; Aksum had practiced Animism until King Ezana (r. 320-350 AD)  converted to Christianity and spread its practice throughout the kingdom (First Aksumite  Christian King); Ethiopia claims to possess the Ark of the Covenant (container holding  the Ten Commandments) which is in the Chapel of the Tablet, built by Ezana; Ethiopia  would remain a Christian kingdom all the way into the 20th c.; in the 7th c. during the  spread of Islam, some of Muhammad’s followers fled to Ethiopia to escape from Mecca  – the king of Aksum welcomes them with open arms because he sees the Muslims as  fellow monotheists, so this positive relationship prevents the spread of Islam into Aksum  -> however, Ethiopia is now an isolated Christian kingdom in a sea of Islamic countries,  and much of the trade that they had controlled was cut off, but Aksumite Kings continue  to rule until the 1100s when they are replaced by the Zagwe Dynasty Don't forget about the age old question of eating disorder treatment near san luis obispo

Iconoclasm:

• Who: Began by Byzantine Emperor Constantine V, son of Leo III the Isaurian; people  who support iconoclasm are called iconoclasts, people who are against it are called  iconophiles

• What: Iconoclasm (“breaking of icons”) – belief in the importance of the destruction of  icons and other religious images/monuments; the result of sectarian disputes within  Christianity: iconoclasts have a strict interpretation of the Second Commandment “thou  shalt not make unto thee any graven image” – iconoclasts think that this is idolatry and is

a sin; icons are depictions of holy figures like Christ and the Virgin Mary, and people  would use them in worship as a devotional tool (almost like a rosary)  

• Where: Byzantine Empire, Christendom in general

• When: ~8th-9th centuries in Byzantium

• Why: The veneration of images was seen as idolatry, a mortal sin, by many, including  Leo III and his son Constantine V; a series of edicts were issued against the veneration  of icons and they were ordered to be destroyed; this religious conflict created political and economic divisions in Byzantine society: monks were the ones who made the icons,  and they got roughed up by the law, which didn’t sit well with a lot of people in the  empire because they really cared about the monks; in addition, Constantine V had  issued his own religious policy – that is supposed to be the Pope’s job – the emperor is  overstepping his boundaries, making the Pope mad, which leads to the beginnings of the  formal separation between Constantinople and the Byzantine Church in the Eastern  Empire and Rome and the Catholic Church in the Western Empire -> this split would be  formalized in 1054 AD as the Great Schism We also discuss several other topics like ant2410 uf

Caligula:

• Who: Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, aka Caligula (Latin for “little boots”);  the third Roman emperor after Augustus; son of the popular general Germanicus and  Augustus’s granddaughter Agrippina the Elder

• What: Third Roman Emperor

• Where: Ancient Rome, Italy

• When: lived 12-41 AD, ruled 37-41 AD – killed in office

• Why: Caligula was described as a noble and good ruler for the first 6 months of his  reign, then was said to have suffered a terrible fever that drove him insane; he is  remembered for his cruelty, sadism, extravagance, and sexual perversion (slept with his  sisters and had a baby with one); was thought to have killed the previous emperor  Tiberius, because it was said that Tiberius killed Caligula’s father; many people died  during his reign because of his actions; he is eventually assassinated by his own  Praetorian guard, who then make Claudius emperor

Zara Yakob:

• Who: “Descendant of Jacob,” regnal name Constantine I; unquestionably the greatest  ruler Ethiopia had seen since the Aksumite King Ezana  

• What: emperor of the Solomonid Empire in Ethiopia (1270-1974 AD)

• Where: Ethiopia, East Africa

• When: lived 1399-1468 AD, ruled 1434-1468 AD If you want to learn more check out in considering your audience's education, you should focus primarily on the types of academic degrees readers have earned.

• Why: Yakob was of the Solomonid Dynasty, who overthrew the Zagwe in Ethiopia  because they claimed to have an even greater claim to authority: they claimed to be  descendants of King Solomon of Israel; Zara was close to an absolute monarch kind of  ruler, and he began to incorporate the church into the governing structure (like  Constantine, his namesake); he sought to establish a uniformity of belief and practice so  that everyone in the kingdom practiced Coptic Christianity (the “correct” version) and he  harshly persecuted Muslims, Jews, and the “wrong” kinds of Christians; under Yakob, there was an absolute centralization of authority but also a kind of renaissance and  cultural flourishing of Christian culture – production of a wide range of secular and  religious works, works of history, hagiographies, and illuminated manuscripts; after  Yakob’s death, Ethiopian Solomonid power eroded in part due to the resurgence of  Islamic power and the arrival of the Europeans in the 15th c.

Hannibal:

• Who: Carthaginian general and statesman who commanded Carthage’s main army  against Rome during the Second Punic War (218-201 BC); he is widely considered one  of the greatest military commanders in the world

• What: Carthaginian general

• Where: Spain, Carthage, North Africa, Rome, the Italian Peninsula  

• When: lived 247-181 BC; fought in the Second Punic War 218-201 BC • Why: One of the greatest military commanders in the world; won many decisive victories  against the Romans; famous for crossing the Alps with an army of elephants (most of  them died on the way); occupied southern Italy for 15 years; was defeated at the Battle  of Zama by Scipio Africanus

Visigoths:

• Who: An early Germanic people who along with the Ostrogoths constituted the two  major political entities of the Goths within the Roman Empire; under their first leader  Alaric I they invaded Italy and sacked Rome in 410 AD (the first time this ever happened  in Roman history)

• What: Germanic/Gothic tribes, perhaps having origins in Scandinavia • Where: First settled in southern Gaul and into Hispania (Spain)

• When: ~3rd-8th centuries, war with Rome 376-382 AD, sacked Rome in 410 AD and  again in 476 AD

• Why: When the Huns (nomadic steppe people of Central Asia) moved westward, they  encountered Germanic tribes, whom they defeated – the Visigoths fled south and  negotiated their entry into the Roman Empire: 80,000 people came in and settled, but  the locals weren’t happy about it; in 378 AD the Visigoths revolt and run loose until  Theodosius made a treaty with them, doesn’t last and they once again attack and sack  Rome in 410 AD (profound shocker); they migrated to Spain and by 420 AD established a post-Roman, German kingdom (that would be destroyed by the rise of Islam in the  800s); Odoacer (r. 476-493 AD) overthrew the last true Roman emperor, Romulus  Augustus and his general Orestes, and sacked Rome again in 476 AD, “ending” the  Roman Empire (in the west)

Augustus:

• Who: Gaius Octavius, nephew and adopted son and heir of Julius Caesar; Roman  statesman and leader who became the first emperor of the Roman Empire • What: Creator of the Roman Empire and first emperor, princeps -> “first citizen” • Where: Ancient Rome, Italy

• When: lived 63 BC-14 AD; ruled 27 BC-14 AD – died in office of natural causes • Why: Enduring legacy of being one of the most effective and controversial leaders in  human history; his creation of the Empire and subsequent reforms initiated an era known  as the Pax Romana, a period of peace lasting more than 200 years; he formed the  Second Triumvirate along with Mark Antony and Marcus Lepidus to defeat the assassins  of Caesar, and then went on to defeat Antony and Lepidus after internal civil war,  making him the de facto ruler of the Republic; Augustus is important because he  acquires all of his powers legally through the voting of the Senate by respecting their  traditions (Augustus recognized how important the Republic was and used it to his  advantage to create a lasting Empire); lays the foundation for the emperor cult and  reforms social order to encourage marriage and family values; he “found Rome made of  brick and left it made of marble”

Five Good Emperors:

• Who: Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius

• What: rulers commonly known as the “Five Good Emperors”; arguably the greatest  period of Roman history

• Where: Ancient Rome, Italy

• When: Nerva (r. 96-98 AD); Trajan (r. 98-117 AD); Hadrian (r. 117-138 AD); Antoninus  Pius (r. 138-161 AD); Marcus Aurelius (r. 161-180 AD)

• Why: These emperors were adopted rather than related directly through blood, ensuring  peaceful transition of power when each of them died; these monarchs ruled with  absolute power but with the guidance of wisdom and virtue, they were seen as  benevolent monarchs with moderate policies, in contrast to more tyrannical emperors;  Nerva was a wise old man; Trajan presided over the greatest military expansion in  Roman history, leading the empire to attain its maximum territorial extent by his death,  and was known for his extensive public building program; Hadrian invested in the  development of stable, defensible borders and the unification of the empire’s peoples, he  is known for building Hadrian’s Wall in Britannia, visited every single Roman province  and its people; Antoninus Pius governed without ever having to leave Italy as his  Empire was peaceful, with no major revolts or military incursions, he was an effective  administrator and left a large surplus of money in the treasury when he died; Marcus  Aurelius was a Stoic philosopher and is the last emperor of the Pax Romana and last of  the Five Good Emperors, his reign was marked by military conflict and persecution of  Christians, plague broke out and killed about 5 million people, his biological son  Commodus would become emperor after him and did a very bad job

Diocletian:

• Who: Sometimes identified as the Second Founder of the Roman Empire • What: Senior Augustus, ruled in the East

• Where: Ruled in the Eastern part of the Roman Empire, what is now Croatia • When: lived 244-311 AD, ruled 284-305 AD before retiring

• Why: Ended the Crisis of the Third Century and created the Tetrarchy: the Roman  Empire is so large that communication is slow and central rulership is weak -> he breaks  it up into 4 provinces led by 4 guys: 2 senior emperors (“Augustes”) and 2 vice emperors  (“Caesars”) -> Augustes would rule for 20 years, then retire, their Caesars move up and  become the next Augustes for 20 years and choose their next Caesars, etc. – this plan  was meant to address the crisis of succession and keep the government following a  logical order; each leader had a capitol in their respective parts of the Empire, but they  coordinated and ruled together, and Diocletian was still the true leader of the 4, but with  collegiality; system worked for a while but fell apart after Diocletian died because no one  would play nice with each other; Diocletian created the Edict of Maximum Prices, which  regulated prices to stop inflation – it didn’t work; in 302 AD he initiation the Great  Persecution, which was the most serious and destructive persecution of Christians and  continued after his death

Constantine:

• Who: Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus, Constantine the Great • What: First Roman emperor to convert to Christianity

• Where: Eastern and Western Empires

• When: lived 272-337 AD, ruled as co-emperor 306-324, ruled as emperor of the whole  empire 324-337 AD – died in bed of natural causes

• Why: Unravels the Tetrarchy, emerges victorious in the civil war that followed, and re establishes a hereditary dynasty – significantly undoing what Diocletian did; he enacted  administrative, financial, social, and military reforms to strengthen the empire: to combat

inflation he introduced the solidus, a new gold coin that would become the standard for  Byzantine and European currencies for more than 1000 years; he built a new imperial  residence at Byzantium and renamed the city Constantinople after himself, which would  become the capital of the Eastern Empire for more than a 1000 years; he enrolls  German barbarians into the Roman Army, making them citizens -> this is positive and  spreads Roman culture; major turning point in his life is the Battle of the Milvian Bridge  (312 AD): Constantine sees a cross in the sky, then that night he has a dream of Jesus who says to him “in hoc vincit/in this sign, conquer” -> he has his soldiers paint the  Greek symbols for Christ’s name (P and an X) on their shields and they are victorious – Constantine attributes this win to God and begins a conversion process; 313 AD issues  the Edict of Milan which legalizes Christianity in the Empire; as his reign continues he  becomes more Christian, building several churches (St. John Lateran, The Holy  Sepulcher in Jerusalem), he grants wide privileges to Christians and promotes  conversion, incorporating the Church into the Empire; his mother St. Helena is said to  have found the True Cross that Jesus was crucified on (special relic); 325 AD The  Council of Nicea: the first and most important ecumenical council that debated the  Trinity/true nature of God -> The Nicene Creed, “Catholic Christians” are the winners  and become the predominant religion of the Empire; Constantine finally is baptized on  his deathbed

Justinian:

• Who: Greatest of the Byzantine emperors and notable for his building projects,  conquest, and set of laws; Justinian the Great, St. Justinian the Great of the Eastern  Orthodox Church

• What: sometimes known as the “Last Roman” or a real Roman emperor • Where: Constantinople, Eastern Roman Empire (now Istanbul in modern-day Turkey) • When: lived c. 482-565, ruled as emperor of the Byzantine Empire 527-565 AD • Why: His reign was filled with dynamic, creative energy, building, and conquering. He  

was a hands-on ruler and interested in the affairs of state and running the government  effectively; he left a legacy that would shape the empire for a long time to come: his  influence not only survived in the East but would mold the wider Mediterranean world;  Justinian’s Law/Code of Justinian: re-discovered in 1100 AD by two scholars – very  important time in European history when rulers were looking on ideas for effective  governance -> they took from his Roman Law Code – Corpus Iuris Civilis (4 books, 529- 535 AD): Code of Justinian, Institutes, Digest, and Novels; The Nike Revolt in 532 AD:  catastrophic, rebels declare Justinian deposed and he wants to flee the city, his wife  Theodora says no way – a contingent of soldiers arrives and puts down the riot (30,000  people die), Justinian survives because of Theodora who is essentially his co-emperor;  Justinian is deeply committed to the success of Catholic Christianity – builds the Hagia  Sophia, greatest architectural wonder of its time; 535-555 AD: Justinian’s armies re conquer the Western half of the Empire, including Rome, and makes it all a part of his  empire (now the Byzantine Empire is “whole” once more)

Theodora:  

• Who: Eastern Roman empress, wife of Justinian I and one of his chief advisors; is also a  saint in the Eastern Orthodox Church

• What: Was born a nobody, daughter to the animal trainer in the arena; after her father  dies, she is sent to a brothel, where she grew up and became a courtesan and actress • Where: Constantinople, Byzantine Empire

• When: lived c. 500-548, reigned alongside Justinian 527-548, from his accession to her  death

• Why: She was extremely clever, had a biting wit, and was popular; after working as a  courtesan she reforms her life, becomes a Coptic Christian, and moves back to  Constantinople, where she meets Justinian, they fall in love, marry, and he becomes  emperor in 527 AD; Theodora becomes his best, most-trusted advisor and is the reason  he survived the Nike Revolt in 532 AD; she is essentially Justinian’s co-emperor and  helps him out with public relations as Justinian was authoritative  

Leo the Isaurian:  

• Who: Konon, Leo the III, the Isaurian (the Syrian); Byzantine Emperor and founder of  the Isaurian Dynasty

• What: Byzantine Emperor; Commander of the Anatolic armies

• Where: Born in Syria, moved to Constantinople, Byzantine Empire

• When: lived c. 685-741 AD, ruled as emperor 717-741 AD – died of edema • Why: Leo forced the abdication of Theodosios III in 717 AD, and in that same year was  faced with the Second Arab siege of Constantinople – Umayyad forces taking advantage  of the civil discord in the Byzantine Empire; Leo was able to defeat the Arabs with his  use of Greek Fire, which destroyed their ships (Constantinople is surrounded by water  on 3 sides); Leo reorganized Turkey through tax reforms and military recruitment, putting  the empire on a more secure, lasting foundation (like Justinian) that would continue for  another 700 years (until the Fall of Constantinople in 1453 AD); Leo’s son, Constantine  V, would continue the iconoclasm controversy when he becomes emperor -> this  contributes directly to the split between the Eastern Orthodox Church of Byzantium and  the Catholic Church of Rome

Muhammad:  

• Who: Muhammad ibn Abdullah, of a lesser branch of the merchant Quraysh clan in  Mecca: an Arab religious, social, political leader, and prophet; he founded Islam • What: The founder of Islam; The Seal of The Prophets, The Last Prophet • Where: Mecca, Arabia, Medina

• When: lived c. 570-632 AD, prophet and military leader 609-632 AD until his death • Why: Spent his life learning the ways of Mecca: trading with people and talking to them  – he met a wide variety of people, including pagans, Jews, Christians, etc. and may  have participated in trade caravans across the desert; at the age of 25, he entered a  major turning point in his life when he married his first wife, Khadija, a wealthy widow: he  was able to take over the family business and made more money, and was now able to  focus more on spiritual matters; in 610 AD he goes off to Mount Hira where he receives  a revelation from the angel Gabriel, God’s messenger -> Gabriel grabs Muhammad by  the throat and tells him to “recite, recite, bow in the name of the Lord who made thee  from clots of blood” -> this is the beginning: he will receive a series of these revelations  throughout the rest of his life, which would be codified into the Qur’an, the Islamic holy  book; Muhammad begins his mission to go and preach and spread the message of  monotheism (doesn’t go over well with polytheistic Meccans), he flees for Medina where  he is welcomed and here he creates the Umma, the “community of the faithful”; over the  next several years Mecca and Medina are at war with each other, with Mecca finally  falling and converting to Islam in 630 AD; he dies in 632 AD and leaves behind a big  legacy (The Five Pillars) and a big question: who will take over as ruler? -> leads to  Caliphs and the Umayyad and Abbasid Dynasties

Ali:

• Who: Muhammad’s young male cousin and son-in-law – direct blood relative; ruled as  the fourth caliph

• What: The first (young) male convert to Islam

• Where: Mecca, Arabia, Medina

• When: lived 601-661 AD, ruled as fourth caliph 656-661 AD – assassinated by a  Kharijite while he was praying

• Why: Ali followed and protected Muhammad for his whole life, fighting for and alongside  him in almost all of the battles between Mecca and Medina; Ali married Muhammad’s  daughter Fatima; he is important to both sects of Islam, but the Shi’ite Muslims believe  that Ali is the First Imam and the rightful successor to Muhammad’s rule -> these  differing beliefs caused a huge rift in the religion, with Shias being the minority  population and Sunni Muslims being the overwhelming majority

5 Pillars of the Faith:

• Who: The Prophet Muhammad’s legacy

• What: Shahada: statement of belief: “There is no God but God (Allah), and Muhammad  is his Prophet”; Salat: prayer: pray 5 times a day and communal worship every Friday – pray on a mat that is facing towards Mecca/the Ka’ba during set times during the day;  Zakat: charity: give to the poor; Sawm: fasting: most importantly during the holy month  of Ramadan where one only eats before and after sunrise; Hajj: pilgrimage: Muslims are  expected to travel to Mecca and pray at the Ka’ba at least once a year or at least once in  their lifetime; sometimes there is a sixth pillar -> Jihad: holy war: “struggle” – the  struggle of every day life, the struggle to not fall to corruption and sin (also can be an  actual holy war)

• Where: Mecca, Medina, Arabia

• When: ~600s AD

• Why: The five pillars are Muhammad’s legacy, they are the basic tenets of the religion of  Islam; the Shahada, or statement of belief, “there is no God but God, and Muhammad is  his Prophet” is the first Sura, or chapter of the Qur’an, and every single chapter of the  Qur’an begins with this

Cordoba:  

• Who: Abd al-Rahman fled to Cordoba following the Abbasid Revolution and massacre of  the Umayyads in 750 AD, and here he founded the Emirate of Cordoba

• What: Umayyad Emirate of Cordoba, eventual Caliphate of Cordoba

• Where: A state in Islamic Iberia, the capital is also Cordoba  

• When: Umayyad Emirate (756-929 AD); Umayyad Caliphate (929-1031 AD) • Why: Abd al-Rahman I became Emir of Cordoba in 756 AD after 6 years of exile after  the Abbasid Revolution; Abd al-Rahman III would declare it a Caliphate in 929 AD;  Cordoba enjoyed great prosperity and this period was characterized by an expansion of  trade and culture, and saw the construction of masterpieces of al-Andalusian  architecture: known as the Golden Age of Islam; great mosque built in Cordoba; this  period is described as convivençia (“living together, co-existing”) and there was a  positive relationship between the majority Christian population and their Muslim rulers;  the library in Cordoba had over 400,000 books on a wide range of subject, most  importantly Aristotle, whose teachings would have a profound impact not just on the  intellectual life in Cordoba but on Islam and all Abrahamic religions as a whole; these  books were in Greek, Muslims don’t speak Greek, Christians and Jews do – they would  come to Cordoba to learn Arabic so they could translate and study the books there; this  is an incredible meeting place and cultural learning center that rivals Alexandria Crisis of the 3rd Century:  

• Who: The Crisis began with the assassination of Emperor Severus Alexander by his  own troops in 235 AD, and the crisis was ended by Diocletian in 284 AD

• What: A period in which the Roman Empire nearly collapsed under the combined  pressures of barbarian invasions/migrations into Roman territory, a series of civil wars,

peasant rebellions, political instability, reliance on mercenary soldiers, plague, inflation of  currency, and economic depression

• Where: Roman Empire: Italian Peninsula, the Mediterranean, Spain, Gaul, N. Africa • When: 235-284 AD

• Why: The assassination of Severus ushered in a 50-year period where there were at  least 50 emperors, mostly generals, who assumed power and then were killed by  another general who assumed power, and so on; the crisis resulted in profound changes  in the empire’s institutions, economic life, and religion; most notably Diocletian’s  implementation of the Tetrarchy, which meant to fix Rome’s problem of rulership over  such a vast swath of territory; during the period of the Crisis, Christians were persecuted  for the first time (10% of the population by 3rd c. -> used as scapegoats) but since there  was constantly a new emperor coming into power, they didn’t really bother enforcing the  persecution (with the exception of Nero and Domitian who did kill Christians) Umayyads:  

• Who: In the pre-Islamic period, they were a prominent clan of the Quraysh tribe, and  despite opposition to the Prophet Muhammad, the Umayyads embraced Islam before he  died in 632 AD; Uthman became the third Rashidun caliph, and later Mu’awiyah I, after  the assassination of Ali, established the Umayyad Caliphate with its capital in  Damascus, Syria; after the Abbasid Revolution and Umayyad massacre, Abd al-Rahman  fled to Muslim Spain (al-Andalus) and founded the Umayyad Emirate of Cordoba, which  was elevated to a Caliphate in 929 AD

• What: The Umayyad Dynasty; the ruling family of the Islamic caliphate • Where: North Africa, Spain, Central Asia, India

• When: 661-750 AD; in Spain between 756-1031 AD

• Why: The establishment of the Umayyad Caliphate reunified the Muslim community  under Mu’awiyah’s leadership, making themselves the head of the community that  Muhammad had founded; the Umayyads drove on the early Muslim conquests, but the  constant warfare exhausted the state’s military resources while tribal rivalries weakened  them from within; in 750 AD the Abbasid Revolution overthrew the Umayyad Dynasty  and massacred most of the family

Abbasids:  

• Who: The Abbasid Caliphate was the third caliphate to succeed the Islamic prophet  Muhammad

• What: Family that overthrew and massacred the Umayyad Caliphate in the Abbasid  Revolution in 750 AD

• Where: Ruled primarily from their capital in Baghdad in modern-day Iraq until it was  moved to Cairo in Egypt

• When: 750-1258 AD until the sack of Baghdad by the Mongols, continued 1261-1517  AD until the Ottoman Empire’s conquest of Egypt

• Why: The Abbasids ruled during the Golden Age of Islam (750-1258 AD) and their  culture is a melting pot of different ideas and dynamics: Persian, Islamic, Greek, North  Africa, South Asian, etc.; Baghdad was the center of Abbasid government and was a  great world city: a center of banking, manufacture, and commerce – a very important  international trade city that connected Africa, India, and China through the Silk Road; like  Cordoba, Baghdad was a center of great learning and a cultural capital of the world: the  House of Wisdom, a university, became a center of translation of Ancient Greek works of  math, science, astronomy, philosophy, and religious texts, translated by Christians from  Greek/Syriac and into Arabic; the Abbasids drew heavily from Persian political traditions  and ideas about governance, even dressing in Persian styles (in fine silks); their power  began to wane, and in 1050 AD a Fatimid general took control of Baghdad: the only

reason the Abbasids survived was because of the Seljuk Turks, but the Turks also  undermined Abbasid rulers’ powers, taking the position of Sultan (“power”); the Sultan  and the Turks undermine the political unity of the Islamic world; Saladin takes control of  Jerusalem and is able to reunite the Islamic world for a time, but this fizzles out by the  1200s with the arrival of the Mongols, who end the Abbasid Dynasty and sack Baghdad Pact of Umar:

• Who: Attributed to someone named Umar (unknown), perhaps Umar ibn Khattab, a  senior companion to Muhammad himself and was the second Rashidun Caliphate – but  this is speculation

• What: Apocryphal treaty between the Muslims and Christians of

Syria/Mesopotamia/Jerusalem that later gained a canonical status in Islamic  jurisprudence: it specifies rights and restrictions for non-Muslims (dhimmis: protected  non-Muslims) living under Islamic rule

• Where: Muslim-controlled territories with Christian and Jewish populations; Syria,  Cordoba, Jerusalem, etc.

• When: ~9th c.

• Why: The pact outlines the rights and restrictions that non-Muslims must follow:  Christians can’t perform public services, can’t repair or build new churches, can’t ring  church bells, can’t force conversion from Islam to Christianity, can’t prevent conversion  from Christianity to Islam, can’t teach their children the Qur’an, can’t carry a sword, can’t  cut their hair like a Muslim (the list goes on); these restrictions are very repressive, but if  the Christians agreed to them, then they would gain a legal, protected status (dhimmi)  and have a clearly defined place in the Islamic community; the Pact is proof of the  complex and sometimes hostile-friendly relations between Islam and Christianity (and  Judaism)

Lalibela:  

• Who: regnal name Gebre Meskel (“Servant of the Cross”); greatest figure/ruler in the  Zagwe Dynasty (c. 1150-1270 AD)

• What: Emperor of Ethiopia of the Zagwe Dynasty

• Where: Former Kingdom of Aksum; Ethiopia in East Africa

• When: lived 1162-1221, ruled 1181-1221

• Why: The Zagwe claimed they had the right to rule because they claimed a higher legitimacy/source of authority -> they claimed to be able to trace their originals all the  way back to Moses (justification for taking over Aksum); Lalibela built a whole series of  rock churches throughout the kingdom: one night he had a dream where Jesus came to  him and told him to “build a new Jerusalem in Ethiopia” (context: Jerusalem had just  fallen to the Muslim Saladin in 1187 AD); rock churches testified to the ongoing Christian  character of the Ethiopian people under the Zagwe, and they were built in the shape of a  cross (like a Gothic church) and were decorated with lingering Byzantine artistic  influences

Julius Caesar:  

• Who: Roman statesman and military general who played a critical role in the events that  led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire • What: Consul, general, and dictator

• Where: Ancient Rome, Gaul, Egypt

• When: lived 100-44 BC, ruled as consul of Rome 59-58 BC, dictator 49-44 BC – killed in  office

• Why: Formed the First Triumvirate in 60 BC with Pompey and Crassus, a political  alliance that would dominate Roman politics for several years; famous for his victories in  the Gallic Wars, completed by 51 BC; was the first Roman general to cross both the

English Channel and the Rhine River; created the Julian calendar which was used to  keep time until ~1500s; supported veterans and began a series of social and  governmental reforms, giving citizenship to many disenfranchised members of society; centralized the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed “dictator for  life”; the elites despised him, and on the Ides of March (March 15th, 44 BC) rebellious  senators led by Brutus assassinated him, stabbing him 23 times; after his death there  was serious civil war until Caesar’s adopted son, Octavian, took over and became  Augustus, creating the Roman Empire; Julius Caesar was the first Roman to be officially deified by the Roman state a few years after his death

Ghana:  

• Who: Ruled by kings called “Ghana” – semi-divine figures; they were  Animistic/polytheistic until the arrival of Islam in 1054 AD through the Almoravids • What: Kingdom of Ghana

• Where: West Africa, region of Sudan (not the modern-day state)

• When: c. 300-1236 AD

• Why: Located on the Trans-Saharan Trade Route which was the key to the growth of  the region -> The Kingdom of Ghana controlled the trade, controlled the revenue,  collected taxes, and enforced trade rules – like Ethiopia, they used their wealth to build  themselves up in every aspect, becoming a dominant power; had a large army with iron  weapons (also iron farming tools: better); by the 800s, the kingdom grew and grew, with  the appointment of local administrators and tax collection -> gaining more control of  trade towns and even more wealth; social structure of Ghana is stratified: slaves,  farmers, merchants, rulers; 1054 AD: arrival of Islam through Muslim merchants called  the Almoravids, they were fundamentalists and began to spread their faith – some  people in Ghana were very opposed to this -> outbreak of civil war, led to the overthrow  of the Kingdom by Sunaguru and Sundiata and the establishment of the Kingdom of Mali

Major themes 

->Know the Republic and early history of Rome. Be aware of the importance of the Etruscans and the structure of Roman government and why Rome lasted so long. Be able to explain the Punic  Wars and their significance. Be able to identify the social, economic, religious, and political  consequences of the growth of empire and triumphs over Carthage and kingdoms of the eastern  Mediterranean. Be able to describe the fall of the Republic and rise of the Empire—what were the  major developments and who were the major figures? Why is Augustus so important? Be able to  describe the nature of the empire and major figures such as the 5 Good Emperors, Diocletian,  and Constantine. Know about the expansion of Christianity after Constantine; know the growth of  institutions and teachings of the Church Fathers (Jerome, Augustine, Ambrose).  

• Etruscans are kings – Rome hates kings and will never have one

• Three Punic Wars: Rome coming into itself and becoming the de facto ruler of the  Mediterranean world

• Problems of imperialism: how to rule a vast empire?

• Julius Caesar, the First Triumvirate, Octavian/Augustus, the Second Triumvirate • Augustus gets all of his power through the Senate legally by getting them to vote for him o Turns the Republic into an Empire and becomes the first Roman Emperor, Pax  Romana

• 5 Good Emperors: Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius • Diocletian: Tetrarchy and Christian persecution

• Constantine: first Christian Roman Emperor and legalized it

• Church Fathers: compiled a body of literature that became central for the belief and  practice of Christianity for centuries to come

->You should be able to discuss the history of the fall of the Roman Empire (German invasions,  Huns and Visigoths, and others) and rise of the Byzantine Empire and its relations with Western  Europe and Islam. You should know the major figures—Justinian, Theodora, Heraclius, Leo the Isaurian, among others—and what they did. You should be able to discuss the significance of  Justinian and all that he and Theodora did. You should know the importance of the Iconoclastic  controversy and the relationship of religion and politics in the Byzantine Empire.

• The invasions of the Germans and the Huns, increasing poverty, bad governance,  declining population, huge inflation rates, famine, dwindling economic life • Visigoths sacked Rome twice, once in 410 AD and for the last time in 476 AD under  Odoacer, thought of as “the fall of the Roman Empire” (in the west)

• Constantine founded the city of Constantinople which became the new capital of the  Empire in the East, and survived as the Byzantine Empire until 1453 AD with the Siege of  Constantinople by Mehmed II the Conqueror of the Ottoman Empire

• Justinian and Theodora held Constantinople together; he built the Hagia Sophia which is  an incredibly important structure both then and still today

• Iconoclast controversy led to the split between the Eastern Orthodox Church in the East  and the Roman Catholic Church in the West

->Be able to discuss the history and impact of Islam. Most important to know is Muhammad, his  life and teachings, the Qur’an, and the Pillars. Know the history of the rightly guided caliphs, the  Umayyads, Islamic Spain, and the Abbasids. Be able to discuss the important cultural and  intellectual contributions of Islam, including the teachings of Avicenna, the artistic and  architectural developments, science and math, and related cultural developments, and be able to  explain their connection to Muhammad and the faith. Be ready to discuss the Golden Age of  Islam—the best of times, the worst of times! Know about the history of the Umayyads and  Cordoba and Spain and the Abbasids and Baghdad and its importance as a city. Know the  achievements of the Abbasids as rulers and Abbasid culture. Know about the advances of Islamic  culture in this golden age, especially in math, science, medicine, and philosophy, as well as the  respect the Abbasids had for ancient Persian, Indian, and, especially Greek culture. Know too  about the Fatimid dynasty, the Seljuk Turks and Crusaders, and the political problems the Islamic  world faced during its Golden Age.

• Muhammad was a poor orphan who was adopted by an uncle and learned the merchant  trade (part of the Quraysh merchant clan)

o His revelations from Gabriel and teachings are codified into what we know as the  Qur’an, the Islamic Holy Book

o Islam means “to submit (to the Will of God)” and Muslim means “one who submits  (to the Will of God)”

o Islam is the third of the Abrahamic faiths, beginning with Judaism and Christianity,  they are all “people of the book” and share the same God

• Islamic cultural centers were great places of scholarship and learning, and the translation  of lost ancient texts from Greek into Arabic made philosophers like Aristotle more widely  known, and his teachings were incorporated into Islamic Law and thought (and also later  adopted by the Christians as well)

• Golden Age: convivençia (“living together, co-existing”) in Cordoba in Spain; Muslims,  Jews, and Christians intermingling with each other and sharing ideas about life and  religion

->Be sure to know about the important kingdoms of Africa. The nature of African society and  geography, the nature of African religion, and the influence of Christianity and Islam in Africa. You  should know about Aksum and Ezana, the Zagwe (rock churches), Solomonids (the absolute  monarchy they created and the great cultural and political renaissance they enjoyed, don’t forget  Menelik and the Queen of Sheba), Mansa Musa, Sunni Ali, and other leading figures of African  history and culture. What was the nature of the great African kingdoms? Relationship with Europe  and the Islamic world. Trade and social structures.

• Animism, polytheism

• Christian: Ethiopia, East Africa: Kingdom of Aksum (King Ezana), Zagwe Dynasty (Lalibela), Solomonid Dynasty (Yekuno Amlak and Zara Yakob)

o Ethiopia has access to the Indian Ocean trade routes with India and China • Islamic: Region of Sudan, West Africa: Kingdom of Ghana, Empire of Mali (Sundiata and  Mansa Musa), Songhai Empire/Dynasty (Sunni Ali, Muhammad Al Toure/Askia the Great) o Trans-Saharan Trade Route: ivory, gold, slaves, salt

o Vast desert, oases

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