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BU / Psychology / PS 101 / What are three factors that influence social perception?

What are three factors that influence social perception?

What are three factors that influence social perception?


School: Boston University
Department: Psychology
Course: Introduction to Psychology
Professor: Professor
Term: Fall 2014
Tags: Psychology
Cost: 50
Name: General Psychology Final Exam Study Guide
Description: This study guide has information from the 3 main chapters for the final exam. It also includes some of the major points from Exam 1. I have study guides uploaded for Exam 2 and 3 that you can use for information from past exams.
Uploaded: 05/01/2020
19 Pages 11 Views 11 Unlocks

PS101 General Psychology

What are three factors that influence social perception?

Final Exam Study Guide

Chapter 11: Social Psychology

Two Broad Topics: Social Cognition & Social Influence

Social Cognition

I. Social perception: ways we perceive, evaluate, categorize, and form judgements about qualities of people we encounter

A. Three factors that influence social perception:

1. First Impressions/ primacy effect:

a) Negative first impressions = quickly formed, hard to overcome

b) Positive first impressions = hard to earn and easily lost

2. Person Schemas:

a) generalized assumptions of certain groups of people

b) Shortcut to evaluate others

3. Implicit Personality Theories

a) Assumptions about how traits are related to each other

b) Organized around central traits: traits we tend to associate with

many other characteristics

(1) Ex. coldness with unsociability, humorlessness, etc.

c) Halo effect: tendency to infer other positive or negative traits

from our initial impressions

II. Forming Impressions of Others:

A. Person Perception: Active, Subjective, Interpersonal

1. Individual’s characteristics

2. Your characteristics

3. Situational characteristics

B. Basic Principles

1. Your reactions determined by perceptions

2. Goals determine amount/kind of info collected

3. You evaluate against social norms

4. Self-perception also influences

C. Social Categorization

1. Put people in groups - automatic or deliberate

2. Cognitively efficient, but possibly inaccurate

D. Implicit personality theories

E. Physical attractiveness: a book by its cover

1. Factors that Contribute to Interpersonal Attraction:

a) Proximity: geographical closeness

(1) Mere exposure effect: familiarity leads to liking

b) Similarity: common beliefs, values, attitudes, etc.

c) Reciprocity: when treated kindly, we tend to be kind too

What is the attribution theory?

Don't forget about the age old question of michael polcen

d) Physical Attractiveness

III. Attributions:

A. Attribution theory: tendency to attribute people’s behavior either to dispositional (internal - self) causes or situational (external - situation) causes Don't forget about the age old question of cde 232 asu

1. Study found that for successes: females attribute to external causes while males attribute to internal causes

2. For failures: females attribute to internal and males attribute to external B. How we make attributions:

1. The Correspondent Inference Theory: tries to explain attributions we make by looking at conditions under which we make them

a) Social desirability or “expectedness”

(1) We make more correspondent inferences from socially Don't forget about the age old question of virginia tech international relations

undesirable behaviors

When does behavior lead to attitudes?

b) Noncommon effects: Degree to which their behavior is focused

on achieving unique outcomes

c) Whether or not we perceive person’s behavior as free choice

(1) If they make a decision from free choice we attribute to

internal; if they were forced, we attribute to external

2. Covariation Principle: we try to figure out causes and effects

a) Potential causes:

(1) The situation

(2) The persons involved

(3) The stimuli

b) We also look at:

(1) Distinctiveness

(2) Consistency

(3) Consensus

C. Fundamental Attribution Error 

1. Tendency to overestimate dispositional causes and underestimate situational causes for the behaviors of others (opposite when it’s our

own behaviors)

D. False Consensus Bias If you want to learn more check out 8) A defendant fails to answer a civil lawsuit, what is likely to happen?

1. Assumption that most people share our own attitudes and behaviors E. Illusion of Control 

1. Belief that we control events in our lives, even those that are influenced primarily by external causes

2. Ex. gamblers believing they can tell when a machine is ready to get hot by observing patterns of other players’ payoffs

F. Actor-Observer Discrepancy

G. Self-Serving Bias

IV. Attitudes:

A. Learned, relatively enduring dispositions to respond in consistently favorable or unfavorable ways to certain people, groups, ideas, or situations

B. How we develop attitudes:

1. Behavioral Observation

a) Observing Others

b) Observing Ourselves

2. Learning Attitudes

a) Pavlovian conditioning

b) Operant Conditioning

c) Direct Experience

C. Function of Attitudes:

1. Understanding function: help us make sense of the world

2. Social identification function: attitudes of others provide us with Don't forget about the age old question of selective incentives are necessary for some interest groups because

important information about what they are like

3. Social adjustment function: the attitudes we express allow us to identify with/gain approval from our peers

a) Impression management: tendency to select what to reveal

about our attitudes depending on how we think it will affect

others’ responses

D. ABC Model (Affective, Behavioral, Cognitive)

Affective: How we feel

Behavioral: How we act

Cognitive: How we think

E. Factors that affect attitudes’ influence on behavior:

1. Other social factors

a) If other social factors are not as strong, attitudes will guide

(1) Ex. teenager against drinking → usually says no to alc

(2) Teen goes to college party and they tell him/her to drink Don't forget about the age old question of iu 9 bus

→ more likely to do it

2. Tendency to adopt stereotypes about groups to which we belong

a) Stereotype threat: vulnerability of subject to conform to negative

group stereotypes

3. Relevance of an attitude to the behavior

F. Attitudes Lead to Behavior When:

1. extreme/frequently expressed (attitude strength)

2. When formed through direct experience

3. When you are very knowledgeable

4. When you anticipate favorable outcome/reaction

G. When does Behavior lead to Attitudes?

1. When there is cognitive dissonance

a) Ways in which beliefs and attitudes are consistent/inconsistent

with one another

b) Person experiences discomfort (dissonance) whenever two

related cognitions are in conflict

(1) Ex. always considered yourself a supporter of women’s

right to choose abortion, but find yourself protesting

when your friend decides to have an abortion

2. To resolve, attitudes are changed to be consistent with behavior (or other attitudes)

V. Persuasion:

A. Effective persuasion consists of:

1. Credibility

2. Power

3. Attractiveness

VI. Prejudice: negative, unjustifiable and inflexible attitude toward a group and its members based on erroneous information

A. Based on stereotypes: preconceived and oversimplified beliefs and

expectations about traits of members of a group

B. Effects of stereotyped thinking

1. Discrimination: victims of prejudice treated differently from others

2. Influence what we do and don’t see

3. Hard to shake

C. From Stereotypes to Prejudice

1. “Us” vs. “Them” or In-group vs. Out-group

2. Out-group homogeneity effect

3. In-group bias (ex. Ethnocentrism)

a) Tendency to see one’s own group in favorable light

D. Realistic Conflict Theory

1. History of actual conflict determines degree of prejudice/discrimination E. Social Identity Theory - emphasize three social-cognitive processes

1. Social categorization - group affiliation

2. Social identity - fit within the group

3. Social comparison - superiority?

VII. Implicit Attitudes

A. Implicit Association Test (IAT): tries to measure strength of associations between group of people

1. The stronger the association between images of a concept and

negative or positive terms → the stronger that person’s implicit attitude

is toward that group/policy

Social Influence

“Efforts by others to alter our feelings, beliefs, and behavior”

I. Conformity: tendency to change/modify our behaviors to be consistent with others’ A. Group Pressure (Solomon Asch)

1. Simple Task

a) 7 men asked to make a series of 18 line-comparison


b) 6 of the men were working with the experimenter - 1 didn’t

c) First 2 trials - all 7 chose the correct line

d) 12/16 remaining trials - confederates chose the wrong

comparison line

e) Subject response: double-checking, glancing at other members

but 1 in 3 subjects adjusted responses to match incorrect

judgements of others in half or more of the 12 trials

f) Only 25% of subjects resisted group pressure

2. Demonstrated factors in conformity

B. Reasons for Conformity

1. Normative Social Influence

a) Conform because we think it will benefit in some way but not

due to an actual change in belief

2. Informational Social Influence

a) Accept group’s beliefs/behaviors as providing accurate

information about reality

C. Culture

1. General Decrease

2. Collectivistic vs. Individualistic Cultures

D. Most Likely to Conform When:

1. Unanimity of the majority group

2. Perception that majority of group members are acting independently 3. Majority group size

4. Familiarity with the attitude object

5. Low self-esteem

6. Perceptions about other group members

II. Groupthink: psychological drive for consensus at any cost that suppresses dissent in group decision making

A. Involves conformity

B. Has led to disastrous consequences

III. Compliance: like conformity but involves an element of coercion A. Foot-in-the-Door Technique

1. A person is first asked to agree to a minor request that precedes a more major request

B. Door-in-the-Face Technique

1. Unreasonable request followed by a more minor, reasonable request which was the requester’s goal in the first place

IV. Obedience: alter our behavior in response to commands from people we think have power/authority

A. Obedience Paradigm (Stanley Milgram)

1. Teacher (the subject) told to administer shocks to the student (who was working with the experimenter) everytime they got the answer wrong

2. Student (working with experimenter) was told to get answers wrong 3. Shocks increase in intensity with each wrong answer

4. If Teacher wanted to opt out, experimenter pressured them: “You have no other choice, you must continue”

5. Why did they continue?

a) May have convinced themselves it wasn’t their fault, it was the

experimenters fault for having them continue

b) Authority figure has visible symbols of power (ex. Police


c) Many are trapped by series of seemingly harmless orders that

escalate to more serious ones

B. Influences on Obedience

1. Previously established framework to obey

2. situation/context

3. Gradual, repetitive escalation

4. Experimenter’s behavior/reassurances

5. Physical and psychological separation from the learner

C. Undermining Destructive Obedience

1. Reduce buffers between teacher and learner

2. Increase distance between experimenter and teacher

V. Helping Behavior:

A. Altruism and Prosocial Behavior

B. Factors that Increase Bystander helping:

1. “feel good, do good” Effect

2. Guilt

3. Seeing others willing to help

4. Perceiving the other as deserving help

5. Knowing how to help

6. Personalized relationship

C. Factors that Decrease Bystander helping:

1. Bystander Effect:

a) Diffusion of responsibility

b) Normative and informational social influence

2. Being in a big city or a very small town

3. Vague or ambiguous situations

4. When personal costs outweigh benefits

VI. Influence of Groups on Individual Behavior:

A. Social Loafing:

1. Reduced/eliminated when:

a) Group is people we know

b) Group is highly valued

c) Task is meaningful/unique

2. Reversed in collectivistic societies: Social Striving

B. Social Facilitation

1. Others’ presence improves individual performance

2. Only for simple or very well-rehearsed tasks

C. Deindividuation

1. Reduction of self-awareness/inhibitions in a group where there is anonymity

2. Irresponsible/ antisocial behaviors result

3. Can be reduced with increased self-awareness

Chapter 12: Behavioral Disorders/Abnormal Psych

Abnormal Behavior: atypical, maladaptive, or socially unacceptable behavior that causes emotional discomfort

Common 4 criteria that might be used to characterize abnormal behavior: 1. Atypicality

2. Dysfunctional

3. Distressful

4. Dangerous


● DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - 5th edition) ● Prevalence

○ National Comorbidity Survey Replication

○ 2001-2003

○ Gender Differences

● Stigma and Stereotypes

○ Common Stereotypes

○ Media Images

○ Discrimination

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Pattern of inattention and hyperactivity that interferes with educational, social, or occupational functioning

● First recognized in elementary school-aged children

● Difficulty paying attention, affects ability to organize and manage activities and tasks ● Difficulties in impulse control

○ Speak when it is not their turn, fidget

● Symptoms often lessen during early adulthood

● Increasing prevalence

○ 2000: 7.5% of children 4-17 years old diagnosed with ADHD

○ 2015: 13% (7 million children)

● Adulthood prevalence = 2.5%

Anxiety disorders

Anxiety: generalized feeling of dread/apprehension accompanied by physiological reactions (i.e. increased heart rate, sweating, muscle tension, etc.)

*40 Million Americans suffer from an anxiety disorder*

I. Panic Disorder

A. Individual experiences numerous panic attacks (4 or more in a 4-week period)

characterized by overwhelming terror and a feeling of


B. Physical symptoms: pounding heartbeats, labored breathing, dizziness, chest pain, sweating and trembling, feelings of choking and suffocating

II. Agoraphobia

A. Intense fear of being in places/situations where it would be difficult to escape or receive help during a panic attack

B. Some individuals might stay away from public places

1. Extreme case: prisoners in their own home

C. A type of phobia: persistent fear of and consequent avoidance of a specific object/situation

1. 10% of general population each year has a phobia

III. Social Anxiety Disorder

A. Persistent, irrational fear of doing some specific behavior (i.e. talking, eating, writing, drinking, using public bathrooms) in the presence of other people B. Some are specifically fearful of interacting with authority figures

C. 7% of adult population suffers from social anxiety each year

D. Two types:

1. Performance anxiety: fear of specific situations (i.e. speaking, acting, or sports) in which they have to perform in front of an audience

a) Manageable - avoid these situations

2. Social phobia: more serious limitations by causing individuals to avoid all social situations

a) Difficulty making new friends and interactions

IV. Specific Phobia

A. Irrational fear of a specific situation/object

B. Most common phobic disorders but also least disruptive

V. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD):

A. Excessive anxiety or worry about events/domains of life (i.e. finances, health, school or work)

B. Symptoms: restlessness, easily fatigued, difficulty concentrating, irritability, muscle tension, sleep disturbances

C. Symptoms usually begin during teen years and can continue throughout life D. About 3% of population suffers from GAD

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD):

● Persistent, unwanted, and unshakable thoughts and/or irresistable, habitual repeated actions

● 2.5% of Americans have OCD

Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders:

I. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

A. Develops after an individual goes through an event that involved/threatened sexual violence, death or serious injury

B. Symptoms: recurrent distressing recollections/dreams of event, acting or feeling as if event were recurring, intense distress due to cues related to the event

C. 7% lifetime prevalence of PTSD in U.S. Population

Theoretical Perspectives on Anxiety, Post-Traumatic Stress, and

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders

I. The Psychoanalytic Perspective

A. Anxiety and symptoms of anxiety disorders appear when ego’s defenses are overused or rigidly applied or when they fail

B. Explains anxiety disorders as a response to unacceptable impulses the ego has blocked → causes constant tension and apprehension

1. They are unconscious so individual doesn’t know source of anxiety

C. Phobias may occur if anxiety is displaced onto some object, situation or social function

D. Theory states panic disorders and agoraphobia are both rooted in unresolved separation anxiety

E. Explanation for OCD: result of fixation at anal stage of psychosexual


II. The Behavioral Perspective

A. Conditioning as source of anxiety disorders

B. Pavlovian conditioning → phobias as a result of learned associations between neutral stimuli and frightening events

1. Avoidance learning: ex. avoid elevators if you fear them a lot

2. Stimulus generalization: variety of situations might cause fear/anxiety III. The Biological Perspective

A. Some with highly responsive nervous systems are more likely to develop anxiety disorders


Affects 1% of people in the world

3/100 people experience disorder at some point in their lives

● Diagnosis:

○ “Positive” Symptoms: expression of excessive/distorted behaviors

■ Hallucinations

■ Delusions

■ Thought disorder

■ Grossly Disorganized Behavior

○ “Negative” Symptoms: diminished or absent behavior

■ Amotivation/Avolition

■ Flattened or blunted affect

○ Ongoing impairment

■ At least 6 months

● Prevalence

○ 1% of population

○ Found in all cultures

● Course

○ Onset in young adulthood

○ Course is variable; often chronic lifelong illness

● Impact

○ Deinstitutionalization

● Contributing Factors

○ Genetics

○ Abnormal brain chemistry

○ Environmental factors

○ Life stress

Mood Disorders

Unipolar Depression

I. Major Depressive Disorder

A. Symptoms

1. Emotional

2. Behavioral

3. Cognitive

4. Physical

B. Prevalence

C. Gender

D. Course

II. Persistent Depressive Disorder (Dysthymia)

III. Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

IV. Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder

V. Important Specifiers:

A. Seasonal pattern

B. Peripartum Onset

Bipolar Disorders

(Manic-depressive disorder)

Extreme mood swings from depression to euphoria and frantic activity

6% of population suffer from bipolar disorder

I. Bipolar I Disorder: at least one manic episode that occurs with major depression A. Symptoms of Mania:

1. Emotional

2. Behavioral

3. Cognitive

4. Physical

B. Prevalence

C. Course

II. Bipolar II Disorder: at least one episode of hypomania and major depression A. Cyclothymic Disorder

Contributing Factors to Mood Disorders:

I. Biological Factors

A. Genetics

B. Neurotransmitter systems

II. Cognitive Factors

A. Global, stable, internal attributions

B. Dysfunctional thinking

III. Life Stress

A. Loss

B. Interpersonal/relationship difficulties

Chapter 13: Treatments for Psychological Problems

I. Why do people seek treatment?

A. Psychological disorder

B. Relationship difficulties

C. Life transitions or circumstances

II. Who provides treatment?

Professional Training What they do Clinical Psychologist Academic Degree (Ph.D.,

Psychological testing,

Psy.D., Ed.D.); Internship,

diagnosis, therapy, research,



Psychiatrist Medical Degree, Residency,

Diagnosis, treatment,


prevention, biological

interventions (medication,

ECT, etc.)

Psychiatric Social Worker M.S.W.; Internship Case management, therapy Marriage/Family Therapist M.A.; Supervised

Family and marital therapy

experience, License

III. Who is Involved in Treatment?

A. Individual, Couples, Families, Groups of unrelated people

Kinds of Treatment Available

I. Biomedical - assume biological factors are important

A. Ex. 1: Lithium for Bipolar Disorder

B. Ex. 2: Antipsychotics for Schizophrenia

C. Ex. 3: Antidepressants (SSRI’s, tricyclics) for Depression

II. Psychological - assume psychological factors are important

A. Psychoanalysis: developed by Freud where individual’s revelations of normally unconscious cognitions are interpreted

1. Assumption: source of disordered behavior comes from unconscious conflicts and repressed urges

2. Goal: make unconscious conscious

B. Behavioral Therapies - source is inappropriate conditioning

1. Goal: extinguish undesirable behavior/ shape new behavior

C. Cognitive Therapies: based on premise that distortions of person’s cognitions or thoughts cause behavioral disorders

1. Method: change what they think

2. Goal: replace maladaptive ways of thinking

Methods to Measure Success of a Treatment

I. Randomized clinical trials

A. Need to rule-out spontaneous remission

B. Use of control groups

II. Meta-analysis

A. Reveals:

1. Psychotherapy significantly better than no treatment

2. Results are generally quick

3. Effects can be quite enduring

III. Little difference between forms of therapy

A. May be due to common elements:

1. Therapeutic relationship

2. Corrective learning experience

3. Therapist, client and environmental factors impact

B. Specific Psychotherapies for specific problems

1. Ex. family psychoeducational treatment for schizophrenia

2. Ex. exposure treatment for phobias

IV. Recent Trends in Treatment:

A. Technical Eclecticism

B. More use of medications

C. Shorter duration of treatment

Information from the Rest of the Semester:

Chapter 1: Introduction

Chapter 2: The Methods of Psychology

● Psychology - scientific study of behavior of humans and other animals

Understanding Behavior:

Research Methods:

Type of Study

Naturalistic Observation

Case Study




Who do you study?

● Population

● Sample

○ Random

○ Stratified

Analyzing Data:

● Descriptive Statistics: what does the data look like; summarizing

● Inferential Statistics: what does the data tell us; answering questions


● Constructs: what we are studying

● Variables: how we define constructs

● Operationalize: how we define variables

○ Makes some variables easier to measure

Types of Scales:

● Nominal: variables with no particular order

● Ordinal: variables with an order

● Interval: no true zero value, can represent values below zero

● Ratio: never fall below zero

Measures of Central Tendency: mean, median, mode

Measures of variability: range, variance, standard deviation

Chapter 3: The Biology of Behavior

Methods to Study the Brain

Method Examples Strengths Drawbacks Post-Mortem studies

Schizophrenia Real human tissue Not living tissue,



Animal Models Specific Lesions

Actual experiments

Limits on

studies, inserting an

can be conducted

generalizability to


humans. Ethical


Testing patients with

H.M., Oliver Sacks’

Live human model,

Unclear causality

brain damage


can test in multiple


CT Scans Relatively

Poor resolution



Initial Sleep studies Live measurement -

Localization is poor

ph (EEG)

temporal accuracy

Structural Magnetic

“Picture” of brain

Good level of

Doesn’t measure

Resonance Imaging


structural detail

function, snapshot in



Positron Emissions

Uses radioactive

Can select a tracer

Cost, invasiveness

Tomography (PET)

“tracer” to detect

specific to a

radiation binding to


receptor sites

Functional Magnetic

Detects changes in

Examining activation

Cost, indirect

Resonance Imaging

blood flow, can map

in real time


“active” areas during

specific tasks

Neurons and Neuroanatomy

Parts of the Neuron

Part Function

Soma Cell body

Dendrites Branch-like extensions from neuron that receive information from the previous

neuron’s axon terminals

Axon hillock Location of the axon where nerve impulses are generated

Axons Extension of neuron, covered in myelin which speeds up neural transmission

Terminal buttons Store and release neurotransmitters

Synapses Gaps between neurons through which information is passed

● Flow of the Neural Impulse: Axon of one neuron → dendrite of the next neuron → through axon → axon → repeat

● Resting potential - state where neuron is not transmitting a nerve impulse

Action Potentials

● Electrical signal that flows along surface of axon to terminal buttons and signals the release of neurotransmitters

● Trigger neurons to fire

● Must have a certain level of voltage for action potential

● All or None Law - either you reach action potential or you don’t

● Graded Potentials - changes in membrane potentials that vary in size ○ Strength of these potentials result of strength of stimulus

Absolute Thresholds

● Smallest level of energy from an external stimulus that can be detected by our senses ● Signal detection theory - Level that a specific stimulus can be detected by humans 50% of the time

Excitation and Inhibition

● Depending on the neurotransmitter they release, neurons can be excitatory/inhibitory ● Most common excitatory neurotransmitter = glutamate - involved in learning ● Most common inhibitory neurotransmitter = gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) - regulates arousal

● Other important neurotransmitters = dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE), acetylcholine (ACh)

● Leftover neurotransmitter in the synapse goes through reuptake or degradation

Parts of the Brain

Part of the Brain Function

Frontal Lobe Higher order functioning (problem solving, attention, judgement, personality)

Thalamus Sensory switchboard - almost everything we process goes through here

Hypothalamus Hormone production - works with pituitary gland to control hormonal cycles (appetite,

emotions, sleep cycles)

Limbic System Old mammalian brain - contains thalamus, amygdala (center of fear and anger) and

hippocampus (memory)

Hindbrain Old reptilian brain - keeps us alive (arousal, breathing, heartbeat)

Medulla Lowest part of the brain - right above spinal cord; controls vital life support functions

Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception

Principles of Sensation and Perception

● Sensation - basic immediate experiences due to a stimulus (ex. hearing) ● Perception - interpreting, organizing, elaborating on sensations

● Sensory receptors - special cells of each sensory organ

● Transduction - physical energy converted to neural signal

Absolute Thresholds and Difference Thresholds

● Absolute threshold - Smallest level of energy from an external stimulus that can be detected by our senses

● Signal detection theory - Level that a specific stimulus can be detected by humans 50% of the time

● Difference threshold - minimum increase in intensity of stimulus to just notice a change 50% of the time

● Weber’s Law - size of the just noticeable difference will vary depending on the strength of the original stimulus

● Sensory adaptation - less sensitivity to a stimulus as you get more accustomed to it


Parts of the Eye:

Part Function

Cornea Clear, domed surface that protects front of the eye

Pupil Light passes through pupil, controlled by iris

Lens Located in the back of your eye and focuses light onto the retina

Retina Layer of nerves that takes in light

Optic nerve Carries information brought in by retina to the visual cortex

● Visual sensations occur when light enters the eye and is focused on the retina

● (1) light enters and passes through cornea

● (2) then it passes through the pupil (small opening in the iris)

○ Iris is a set of muscles that constrict/expand to control amount of light that is entering

● (3) then it enters the lens - focuses light even more on the retina

Key parts of the Retina


- Type of photoreceptor cell

- ~120 million rods

- Good at sensing light → allow us to see in dim light - Peripheral vision

- Concentrated on edges of the fovea

- No rods on the fovea itself


- Type of photoreceptor cell

- ~6 million cones

- Fovea - area of the retina with highest concentration of cones - Vision is the sharpest when images are focused on the fovea

- Perception of color

- Poor light sensors → not as good at night

Bipolar cells

- Rods and cones pass neural signals to bipolar cells

Ganglion cells

- Bipolar cells pass neural signal to ganglion cells

- Axons of ganglion cells make up the optic nerve

- Optic nerve carries visual messages to the brain

- Optic disk = part of retina where the optic nerve exits the eye - No photoreceptors at this point so this makes it the blind spot

Color: perceptual experience of wavelength of light

● Hue: different wavelengths appear different

● Saturation: purity; not influenced by grays

● Brightness/Lightness - intensity (amplitude)

Theories of Color Vision:

● Trichromatic Theory of Color Vision: human eye contains three types of color receptors for red, green, and blue and these for the basis of our color perception ● Opponent-Process Theory of Color Vision: color vision based on six primary colors grouped in three pairs → red-green, blue-yellow, and black-white

Shape Perception:

● Bottom-up processing - recognition based on components

● Top-down processing - perceptual hypothesis based on all information

Gestalt Psychology: Laws Governing Perception:

● Figure-Ground Relationship: perception process of separating main elements from background

● Law of Simplicity / Law of Pragnanz (governing principle): objects are perceived in a way that makes them appear as simple as possible

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