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Define taxonomy.

Define taxonomy.


School: Louisiana State University
Department: Biological Sciences
Course: General Biology
Professor: Professor
Term: Spring 2020
Tags: Biology
Cost: 50
Name: Biology Final Exam Study Guide Part 1
Description: This is the first half of the key terms for the final exam.
Uploaded: 05/05/2020
4 Pages 106 Views 5 Unlocks

Biology Final Exam Study Guide 

Define taxonomy.

Chapter 19 Key Terms 

Taxonomy- branch of biology that is concerned with naming and classifying organisms Scientific name- two-part Latin name that designates its genus and species Genus- a group that includes a number of very closely related species

Systematics- the science of reconstructing phylogeny

Clades- a group of organisms believed to have evolved from a common ancestor, occording to the principles of cladistics

Domains- the broadest category for classifying organisms; classified into three domains: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya

Chapter 20 Key Terms 

Common Prokaryote shapes- Spherical, Rod-shaped, Corkscrew- shaped

Biofilm- a community of prokaryotes of one or more species, in which the prokaryotes secrete and are embedded in slime that adheres to a surface.

What is the one of the major proteins of muscle, the interaction of which with the protein actin produces muscle contraction?

Endospores- a protective resting structure of some rod-shaped bacteria that withstands unfavorable environmental conditions

Anaerobes- an organism that can live and grow in the absence of oxygen

Prokaryotic fission- the process by which a single bacterium divides in half, producing two identical offspring

Conjugation- In prokaryotes, the transfer of DNA from one cells to another via a temporary connection; in single-celled eukaryotes, the mutual exchange of genetic material between two temporarily joined cells If you want to learn more check out Why are these five ids the most significant ids in western civilization?

Nitrogen-fixing bacteria

Bioremediation-the use of organisms to remove or detoxify toxic substances in the environment Pathogenic- capable of producing disease; referring to an organism with such a capability

What do you call a mature bone cell?

Viruses- a noncellular parasitic particle that consists of a protein coat surrounding genetic material; multiplies only within a cell of a living organism

Bacteriophages- a virus that specifically infects bacteria

Viroids- a particle of RNA that is capable of infecting a cell and of directing the production of more viroids

Study the Virus Replication Chart on pg. 364 

Prions- a protein that acts as an infectious agent that causes certain neurodegenerative diseases Chapter 41 

Skeletal muscle- the type of muscle that is attached to and moves the skeleton and is under the direct control of the nervous system Don't forget about the age old question of What did cicero believe was the responsibility of romans?

Tendons - a tough connective tissue band connecting a muscle to a bone

Muscle Fibers- an individual muscle cell

Myofibrils- a cylindrical subunit of a muscle cell, consisting of a series of sarcomeres, surrounded by sarcoplasmic reticulum

Sarcoplasmic reticulum- the specialized endoplasmic reticulum in muscle cells; forms interconnected hollow tubes. Stores calcium ions and releases them into the interior of the muscle cell, initiating contraction

T-tubules- a deep infolding of the plasma membrane of a muscle cell; conducts that action potential inside the cell

Sarcomeres- the unit of contraction of a muscle fiber; a subunit of the myofibril, consisting of thick and thin filaments, bounded by Z lines

Z-discs- a fibrous protein structure to which the thin filaments of skeletal muscle are attached; forms the boundary of a sarcomere. (z -line)

Thin filament- in the sarcomere, a protein strand that interacts with thick filaments, producing muscle contraction; composed primarily of actin, plus the accessory proteins troponin and tropomyosin

Thick filament- in the sarcomere, a bundle of myosin that interacts with thin filaments, producing muscle contraction

Actin- a major muscle protein whose interactions with myosin produce contraction; found in the thin filaments of the muscle fiberDon't forget about the age old question of What adaptations do cuttlefish have to enable them to blend into their background? how have they used their ‘electric skin’ for a new purpose?

Myosin- one of the major proteins of muscle, the interaction of which with the protein actin produces muscle contraction; found in the thick filaments of the muscle fiber

Myosin head- the part of a myosin protein that binds to the actin subunits of a thin filament; flexion of the myosin head moves the thin filament toward the center of the sarcomere, causing muscle fiber contraction

Motor unit- a single motor neuron and all the muscle fibers on which it forms synapses

Cardiac muscle- the specialized muscle of the heart; able to initiate its own contraction, independent of the nervous system

Intercalated discs- junctions connecting individual cardiac muscle cells that serve both to attach adjacent cells to one another and to allow electrical signals to pass between cells

Smooth muscle- the type of muscle that surrounds hollow organs not stripped in appearance and normally not under voluntary control

Antagonistic muscles- a pair of muscles, one of which contracts and in so doing extends the other, relaxed muscle; this arrangement allows movement of the skeleton at joints

Hydrostatic skeleton- in invertebrate animals, a body structure in which fluid-filled Don't forget about the age old question of What is the free-rider problem?

Exoskeletons-a rigid external skeleton that supports the body, protects the internal organs, and has flexible joints that allow for movement

Flexor- a muscle that flexes (decreases the angle of) a joint

Extensor- a muscle that straightens (increases the angle of) a joint

Endoskeletons- a rigid internal skeleton with flexible joints that allow for movement

Joints- a flexible region between two rigid units of an exoskeleton, allowing for movement between the units

Axial Skeleton- the skeleton forming the body axis, including the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage

Appendicular Skeleton- the portion of the skeleton consisting of the bones of the extremities and their attachments to the axial skeleton; consists of the pectoral and pelvic girdles and the arms,legs, hands, and feet

Cartilage- a form of connective tissue that forms portions of the skeleton; consists principally of cartilage cells their major extracellular secretion, collagen proteinDon't forget about the age old question of How costly it is for the rm to replace a worker?
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Ligaments- a tough connective tissue band connecting two bones

Chondrocytes- a living cell of cartilage

Spongy bone- porous, lightweight bone tissue in the interior of bones; the location of bone marrow

Compact bone- the hard and strong outer bone; composed of osteons

Osteoblasts- a cell type that produces bone

Osteocytes- a mature bone cell

Osteoclasts- a cell type that dissolves bone

Hinge joints- a joint at which the bones fit together in a way that allows movement in only two dimensions, as at the elbow or knee

Ball-and-socket joints- a joint in which the rounded end of one bone fits into a hollow depression in another, as in the hip; allows movement in several directions

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