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BU / Music / SAR HP252 / What is the difference between life span and life expectancy?

What is the difference between life span and life expectancy?

What is the difference between life span and life expectancy?


School: Boston University
Department: Music
Professor: Professor
Term: Fall 2018
Tags: health
Cost: 50
Name: HP 252: Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: These notes outline topics from the study guide, as well as some additional topics, for Exam 1.
Uploaded: 09/25/2020
9 Pages 38 Views 5 Unlocks

Lecture 2: Theories of Development

What is the difference between life span and life expectancy?

Life Span vs. Life Expectancy:

- Life expectancy: how long the average person in the population is expected to live

- average life expectancy in US = 79 years

- In the 20th century, expected life has increased by 32 years

- Due to improved sanitation, nutrition, medicine

- Currently, there are more people above 60 than under 15

- Life span: upper-boundary oldest age documented

- Longest age documented for a human: 122 years

Developmental Theories:

1. Nature vs. Nurture

a. Is development primarily influenced by biology or environment?

2. Continuity - Discontinuity

What is the content of erikson’s psychosocial theory?

a. Extent to which development involves gradual, cumulative change or distinct stages

3. Stability - Change

a. Consistency: are we an older rendition of our early experience or do we develop into someone quite different from who we were at an earlier point in development

b. Impact: to what extent to which earlier experiences (especially in infancy) determine development?

Theories of Development:



Application to Developmental Issues

Psychoanalytic Theory


● Early experiences and family relationships shape development

● Focuses on unconscious aspects of the mind and heavily influenced by emotion

● Personality: a developmental process

● Psychosexual stages: oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital

Nature vs. nurture

- Freud was more nature: biological determination interacting with early family experiences

- Erikson: more balanced

biological-cultural interaction

Continuity vs. discontinuity

Who is vygotsky?

Don't forget about the age old question of What is the type of matter that is mostly space?

Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory

● Psychosocial stages

● Primary motivation for behavior = social, affiliate with others

- Discontinuity between stages

Stability vs. change




● Conscious mental processes

● Cognitive processes influenced by biological maturation ● Four stages of cognitive development

○ Sensorimotor: Birth to 2 years

■ Constructing understanding of the world by

using senses

○ Preoperational: 2 to 7 years

■ Representing the world with words and

images; go beyond sensory information and

physical action

○ Concrete Operational: 7 to 11 years

■ Can reason logically without concrete events,

classify objects into different sets

○ Formal Operational: 11+ years

■ Reasoning in more abstract, idealistic, logical


● Adaptation: how we perceive and adapt to new info ○ Assimilation: process of taking new info and fitting it into pre-existing cognitive schemas (fitting things into the buckets we already have)

○ Accommodation: process of taking new info and

altering one’s pre-existing schemas to fit new info

(acquiring new buckets)


● Children actively construct their knowledge

● Social interaction and culture guide cognitive development ● Learning based on inventions of society

● Knowledge created through interactions and objects in

Nature vs. nurture 

- Piaget = nurture, environment

influences cognitive development

Continuity vs. discontinuity 

Stability vs. change

We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of flow rate/throughput?


● Less skilled learning from more skilled

○ Scaffolding: teaching someone and giving support until they can do it on their own

○ Zone of proximal development

Behavioral and Social



● Pavlov’s classical conditioning

● Watson applies association and generalization

● Operant conditioning - positive and negative reinforcement ● Social cognitive theory focused on observation and imitation

Nature vs. nurture 

Continuity vs. discontinuity

- No stages

Stability vs. change



● Behavior strongly influenced by biology

● Behavior tied to evolution

● Behavior characterized by critical periods

● Konrad Lorenz - imprinting

● John Bowlby - attachment to a caregiver over first year of life has important consequences through lifespan

Nature vs. nurture

Continuity vs. discontinuity 

- But no stages

- Critical periods and early

experiences = very important

Stability vs. change (not addressed)



● Urie Bronfenbrenner

● Five environmental systems:

○ Microsystem: family, school, health services, etc.

○ Mesosystem: where micro and exo mix

○ Exosystem: neighbors, mass media, family friends… ○ Macrosystem: attitudes and ideologies of the culture ○ Chronosystem: patterning of environmental events and transitions over life course

Nature vs. nurture 

Continuity vs. discontinuity (not really relevant here)

Stability vs. change

We also discuss several other topics like What are the contributions to potential energy?

Lecture 5: Prenatal Development and Infancy

3 Stages of Prenatal Development:

Germinal Period

0 - 2 weeks

Fertilization → Blastocyst → Trophoblast → Implantation



2 to 8-10 weeks

● Blastocyst attaches to uterine wall then called an embryo

● Amnion

● Umbilical Cord

● Placenta

● Organogenesis

● Important Developments:

○ Week 3: Neural Tube

○ 21 days: Eyes

○ 24 days: heart cells

○ Week 4: urogenital, arms and leg buds, heart chambers, blood vessels ○ Week 5-8: arms and legs, face, intestinal tract

○ Week 8: 1/30 ounce, 1 inch long

Fetal Period

10 to 38-42 weeks

● Viability: chance of life outside womb

If you want to learn more check out How much has repertoire size changed?

Reproductive Challenges:

- Infertility: inability to conceive a child after 12 months of trying

- In Vitro Fertilization (IVF): egg and sperm are combined in a laboratory and fertilized egg is transferred to woman’s uterus - As age increases, pregnancy rate and live birth rate decrease



● Definition: any agent that can negatively affect the structure, function, cognitive and behavior outcomes ● Severity of damage depends on:

○ Dose

○ Genetic susceptibility

○ Time of exposure

● Critical period: fixed time period during which certain experiences/events can have a long-lasting effect on development ● examples :

○ Drugs (prescription or not)

■ Differential resilience: some drugs are safe while others cause birth defects

■ Prescription: antibiotics, some antidepressants, some hormones, accutane

■ Non-prescription: aspirin, diet pills

■ Psychoactive drugs: drugs that act on nervous system to alter states of consciousness, modify perceptions, and change moods

● Ex. caffeine, alcohol, nicotine If you want to learn more check out Who are tecumseh and tenskwatawa?

○ Caffeine: small risk of miscarriage and low birth weight at > 150 mg. Daily

■ Increased risk of fetal death > 300 mg. Daily

○ Fetal Alcohol syndrome: facial deformities, defective limbs, face, heart; deficits in intellectual

disability; ADHD, emotional/ behavioral/ social issues

■ Cocaine, methamphetamine, marijuana, heroin 

○ Incompatible blood types 

■ Can cause mother’s immune system to produce antibodies that attack the fetus

○ Environmental pollutants We also discuss several other topics like Columbus was born when?

■ Radiation

■ Environmental pollutants

■ Toxic wastes

○ Infectious disease 

○ Nutritional deficiencies 

○ Maternal stress 

○ Advanced age of the parent 

○ Maternal diseases:

■ Sexually transmitted diseases (syphilis, genital herpes, AIDS)

■ Rubella

■ Diabetes

APGAR scores

● 1 min and 5 min after birth

● Score of 10 is highest, 3 or less is life threatening/ emergency

Genetic Foundations - Chromosomal Conditions:

Down syndrome

AKA Trisomy 21

Extra chromosome causes mild to severe learning disability and physical abnormality

Klinefelter syndrome (XXY)

Extra X chromosome causes physical abnormalities

Fragile X syndrome

Abnormality in X chromosome causes learning disabilities or short attention span

Turner syndrome (XO)

Missing X chromosome in females can cause learning disabilities and sexual underdevelopment

XYY syndrome

Extra Y chromosome can cause above-average height

Genetic Foundations - Gene Linked Conditions:

Ex. cystic fibrosis, diabetes, hemophilia, huntington disease, sickle-cell anemia, spina bifida, tay-sachs disease, phenylketonuria Anoxia: condition in which fetus has an insufficient supply of oxygen

Infant Mortality:

- US is 26th in infant mortality rate in economically developed countries

- Leading causes of infant death:

- Congenital malformations

- LBW/preterm


SIDS - Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Risk factors, prevention

● Infants stop breathing and die without apparent cause

○ Highest risk first 4-6 weeks of life

○ Highest cause of infant death in U.S. annually

○ Risk decreases when infant sleeps on its back

● Risk factors:

○ Abnormal brain stem functioning involving the neurotransmitter serotonin

○ Do not use a pacifier when they go to sleep

○ Sibling with SIDS

○ Sleep apnea or LBW

○ Cigarette smoke

○ Lower SES

○ Soft bedding

○ African American or Eskimo 4-6 times as likely

Low weight babies vs preterm babies: differences and significance

● Low birth weight means > 5.5 lbs at birth

○ Preterm are those born 3 weeks or more before full term

○ Small-for-date infants are those whose birth weight is below normal in terms of the length of the pregnancy ● Rate of preterm has increased:

○ Number of births to mothers 35 or older

○ Rates of multiple births

○ Management of maternal and fetal conditions

○ Substance abuse

● Causes of low birth weight:

○ Poor health and nutrition

○ Cigarette smoking

○ Adolescent births

○ Use of drugs

○ Multiple births/reproductive technology

○ Maternal complications

○ Improved technology and prenatal care

Patterns of growth and development the first year: height, weight, head measurements ● Height and weight:

○ Average North American newborn = 20 in. long, 7 lbs

○ Most newborns are 18-22 in. long and 5-10lbs.

○ Newborns lose 5-7% of body weight in first few days of life

○ Gain 5-6 ounces per week during first month

○ Weight usually triples by 1st birthday

■ Newborns gain about 1 in. per month during first year

■ By age 2 = 26-32 lbs, 32-35 in. long

The Postpartum Period:

● Emotional fluctuations are common (70%)

○ “Baby blues”

○ Typically resolved in 1-2 weeks, without treatment

● Postpartum depression (10%)

○ Excessive sadness, anxiety, and despair that lasts longer than 2 weeks

○ Hormonal changes

○ May affect mother-child interactions

● Bonding

○ Forming a connection, especially physical bond

○ Isolation of premature babies and use of drugs in birth process can harm bonding process ○ Close contact in the first few days may not be necessary for premature babies ○ Most hospitals offer rooming-in arrangement for mother and child

Brain development first two years

● 100 billion neurons (nerve cells) at birth

● from third trimester to age 2: increases in connectivity and functioning

● Neural tube: 18-24 days post conception

○ Anencephaly

○ Spina bifida

● Shaken Baby Syndrome: brain swelling and hemorrhaging from child abuse trauma

● Brain imaging technologies cannot be used with babies

● At birth, brain is 25% of its adult weight

○ At 2 years = 75% of its adult weight

● Depressed brain activity has been found in children who grow up in deprived environment ○ Enriched environment → faster brain development

● 5 senses help shape brain’s neural connections

Breast Feeding: Benefits

● Fewer gastrointestinal and lower respiratory tract infections

● Potentially decreased risk of asthma

● Less likely to become overweight or obese

● Less incidence of diabetes or SIDS

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