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ALBANY / OTHER / BMGT 341 / What is interpersonal citizenship behavior?

What is interpersonal citizenship behavior?

What is interpersonal citizenship behavior?


School: University at Albany - State University of New York
Department: OTHER
Course: Behavioral Foundations of Management
Professor: Professor
Term: Spring 2019
Tags: Management
Cost: 50
Name: BMGT 341: Behavioral Foundations of Management Midterm Study Guide
Description: This study guide covers material from Chapters 1-6.
Uploaded: 09/30/2020
13 Pages 5 Views 11 Unlocks

Klaudia Rogala

What is interpersonal citizenship behavior?

BMGT 341 Behavioral Foundations of Management Midterm Study Guide

Chapter 1: Organizational Behavior 

• Items for exam:

o “Organizational behavior is a field of study devoted to understanding, explaining,  and ultimately improving the attitudes and behaviors of individuals and groups in  organizations” (McGraw-Hill Education 5)

o “While management teams focus on the accomplishment of core operational level production and service tasks, work teams focus on integrating the activities  of subunits across business functions” (McGraw-Hill Education)

Chapter 2: Job Performance 

• Job performance: “Employee behaviors that contribute either positively or negatively to  the accomplishment of organizational goals” (McGraw-Hill Education 30) • Task performance: “Employee behaviors that are directly involved in the transformation  of organizational resources into the goods or services that the organization produces” (McGraw-Hill Education 31)

What is goal setting theory?

o Routine task performance: “Well-known or habitual responses by employees to  predictable task demands” (McGraw-Hill Education 32)

o Adaptive task performance/adaptability: “Thoughtful responses by an employee  to unique or unusual task demands” (McGraw-Hill Education 32)

o Creative task performance: “The degree to which individuals develop ideas or  physical outcomes that are both useful and novel” (McGraw-Hill Education 32) • Citizenship behavior: “voluntary employee behaviors that contribute to organizational  goals by improving the context in which work takes place” (McGraw-Hill Education 35) o Interpersonal citizenship behavior: “going beyond normal jobs expectations to  assist, support, and develop coworkers and colleagues” (McGraw-Hill Education 35)

▪ Helping: “Assisting coworkers who have heavy workloads, aiding them  with personal matters, and showing new employees the ropes when they  are first on the job” (McGraw-Hill Education 36)

What are the oncepts that can make work tasks motivating?

▪ Courtesy: “Sharing important information with coworkers” (McGraw-Hill  Education 36) If you want to learn more check out What is Armchair psychology?

▪ Sportsmanship: “Maintaining a positive attitude with coworkers through  good and bad times” (McGraw-Hill Education 36)

o Organizational citizenship behavior: “going beyond normal expectations to  improve operations of the organization, as well as defending the organization  and being loyal to it” (McGraw-Hill Education 36)

▪ Voice: “when an employee speaks up to offer constructive suggestions  for change, often in reaction to a negative work event” (McGraw-Hill  

Education 37)

• Counterproductive behavior: “employee behaviors that intentionally hinder  organizational goal accomplishment” (McGraw-Hill Education)Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of The “Triple Bottom Line” Performance?

o Strong negative relationship with citizenship behavior

o Weak positive relationship with task performance

o Property deviance: “behaviors that harm the organization’s assets and  possessions” (McGraw-Hill Education 38)

▪ Sabotage: “purposeful destruction of equipment, organizational  

processes or company products” (McGraw-Hill Education 38)

▪ Theft: “stealing company products or equipment from the organization” (McGraw-Hill Education 39)

o Production deviance: “intentionally reducing organizational efficiency of work  output” (McGraw-Hill Education 40)

▪ Wasting resources: “using too many materials or too much time to do too  little work” (McGraw-Hill Education 40)

▪ Substance abuse: “the abuse of drugs or alcohol before coming to work  or while on the job” (McGraw-Hill Education 40)

o Political deviance: “behaviors that intentionally disadvantage other individuals” (McGraw-Hill Education)

▪ Gossiping: “casual conversations about other people in which the facts  are not confirmed as true” (McGraw-Hill Education 40)

▪ Incivility: “communication that is rude, impolite, discourteous, and  lacking in good manners” (McGraw-Hill Education 40)

o Personal aggression: “hostile verbal and physical actions directed toward other  employees” (McGraw-Hill Education 40)

▪ Harassment: “unwanted physical contact or verbal remarks from a  colleague” (McGraw-Hill Education 41)

▪ Abuse: “Employee assault or endangerment from which physical and  psychological injuries may occur” (McGraw-Hill Education 41) We also discuss several other topics like Protein in the red blood cells containing heme groups, is what?

• Performance management: Don't forget about the age old question of What is the most important aspect of psychotherapy?

o Management by objectives (MBO): “a management philosophy that bases  employee evaluations on whether specific performance goals have been met”  (McGraw-Hill Education 45)

o 360-degree feedback: “a performance evaluation system that uses ratings provided by supervisors, coworkers, subordinates, customers, and the  employees themselves” (McGraw-Hill Education 47)

o Social networking systems

▪ Performance feedback through applications such as Facebook or Twitter  (McGraw-Hill Education 48)

• Vitality curve

o Managers rank employees in the top 20%, vital middle 70%, or bottom 10%  (McGraw-Hill Education 47)

• Item for exam:

o “As the manager of the local Express Package Services, a retail shipping facility,  DeAnna is evaluating the employees who work at the counter. She looks at such  factors as positive or negative customer comments about each employee, their  sales relative to those of their coworkers, the amount of time they spend with

each customer, and so forth. DeAnna is evaluating each of these employees in  terms of their task performance” (McGraw-Hill Education) We also discuss several other topics like what is Semiotics?

Chapter 3: Organizational Commitment 

• Organizational commitment: “an employee’s desire to remain a member of an  organization” (McGraw-Hill Education 61)

o Affective commitment: “an employee’s desire to remain a member of an  organization due to a feeling of emotional attachment” (McGraw-Hill Education 62) If you want to learn more check out According to Erikson, what is the chief crisis during adolescence?

▪ Staying because you want to

o Continuance commitment: “an employee’s desire to remain a member of an  organization due to an awareness of the costs of leaving” (McGraw-Hill  

Education 62)

▪ Staying because you need to

▪ Embeddedness: “an employee’s connection to and sense of fit in the  organization and the community” (McGraw-Hill Education 67)

o Normative commitment: “an employee’s desire to remain a member of an  organization due to a feeling of obligation” (McGraw-Hill Education 62)

▪ Staying because you ought to

• Withdrawal behavior: “employee actions that are intended to avoid work situations”  (McGraw-Hill Education 61)

o Low withdrawal behavior means high organizational behavior

o High withdrawal behavior means low organizational behavior

o 4 responses to negative work events:

▪ Exit 

• “one becomes often absent from work or voluntarily leaves the  

organization” (McGraw-Hill Education 70)

• Physical withdrawal: “a physical escape from the work  

environment” (McGraw-Hill Education 72)

o Tardiness

▪ Arriving to work late and leaving early

▪ Avoidable, exceptions are bad weather and car  


▪ Represents calculated desire to spend less time at  


o Missing meetings

▪ Do not attend organization meetings, therefore do  

not contribute job performance

o Quitting

▪ Voluntarily leaving the organization

o Long breaks

▪ Longer-than-normal lunches and coffee breaks

▪ Important work functions neglected while away  

from office

o Absenteeism

▪ Employees miss an entire day of work for normal  

reasons (e.g. family emergency, sick) or abnormal  

reasons (e.g. because it is Monday)

▪ Voice 

• “when an employee speaks up to offer constructive suggestions  

for change” (McGraw-Hill Education 70)

▪ Loyalty 

• “a passive response […] in which one publicly supports the  

situation but privately hopes for improvement” (McGraw-Hill  

Education 70)

▪ Neglect 

• “a passive, destructive response […] in which one’s interest and  

effort in work decline” (McGraw-Hill Education 70)

• Psychological withdrawal: “mentally escaping the work  

environment” (McGraw-Hill Education 72)

o ‘Warm-chair attrition’

▪ Your chair is still warm, but psychologically you  

have left the organization

o Daydreaming

▪ Provides mental escape from work

▪ Distraction by random thoughts or concerns

o Looking busy

▪ Indicates an intentional desire by employees to  

look like they are performing work tasks

o Cyberloafing

▪ Using the internet, email, instant messaging, or  

social media for pleasure and not business

o Socializing

▪ Gossiping in restrooms or pantry with friends

▪ Not directly relevant to job

o Moonlighting

▪ Using time and resources in the office for things  

not relevant to job duties

• 4 types of employees:

o Stars 

▪ High commitment levels  

▪ High task performance levels  

▪ “Serve as role models within the organization” (McGraw-Hill Education  70)

o Citizens

▪ High commitment levels

▪ Low task performance levels

▪ “Volunteer to do additional activities around the office” (McGraw-Hill  Education 70)

o Lone wolves 

▪ Low commitment levels

▪ High task performance levels

▪ “Focus on their own career rather than what benefits the organization”  (McGraw-Hill Education 70-71)

o Apathetics 

▪ Low commitment levels

▪ Low task performance levels

▪ “Exert the minimum amount of effort needed to keep their jobs”  

(McGraw-Hill Education 71)

• 1 item for exam

o “Looking busy is an intentional desire on the part of employees to appear like  they are working, even when they are not performing work tasks” (McGraw-Hill  Education)

Chapter 4: Job Satisfaction 

• Job satisfaction: “A pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job  or job experiences” (McGraw-Hill Education 93)

• Values: “things that people who to consciously or unconsciously want to seek or attain”  (McGraw-Hill Education 93)

o Pay

▪ Pay satisfaction: “employees’ feelings about the compensation for their  jobs” (McGraw-Hill Education 95), depends on:

• High salary

• Secure salary

▪ (Paywant – Payhave) x (Payimportance)

▪ Moderate correlation with job satisfaction

o Promotion

▪ Promotion satisfaction: “employees’ feelings about how the company  handles promotions” (McGraw-Hill Education 95) , depends on:

• Frequent promotions

• Promotions based on availability

▪ (Promotionwant – Promotionhave) x (Promotionimportance)

▪ Moderate correlation with job satisfaction

o Supervision

▪ Supervision satisfaction: “employees’ feelings about their boss, including  his or her competency, communication, or personality” (McGraw-Hill  

Education 96), depends on:

• Rewards for good performance

• Supportiveness or instructiveness

▪ (Supervisionwant – Supervisionhave) x (Supervisionimportance)

▪ Strong correlation with job satisfaction

o Coworkers

▪ Coworker satisfaction: “employees’ feelings about their coworkers,  including their abilities and personalities” (McGraw-Hill Education 96),  depends on:

• Reliability/responsibility

• Enjoyable/amicable

▪ (Coworkerswant – Coworkershave) x (Coworkersimportance)

▪ Strong correlation with job satisfaction

o Work itself

▪ Satisfaction with the work itself: “employees’ feelings about their actual  work tasks” (McGraw-Hill Education 96)

▪ Fully utilizes ability

▪ Allows you freedom and independence

▪ Stimulation

▪ Creative expression

▪ Sense of achievement

▪ (Workwant – Workhave) x (Workimportance)

▪ Strong correlation with job satisfaction

o Altruism

▪ Whether you want to help other people

o Social status

▪ Prestige

▪ Dominance

▪ Fame

o Environment

▪ Comfortable

▪ Safe

• Value-percept theory: “a theory that argues that job satisfaction depends on whether  the employee perceives that his or her job supplies those things that he or she values”  (McGraw-Hill Education 93)

o Dissatisfaction = (Vwant – Vhave) x (Vimportance)

▪ Vwant = the value of want

▪ Vhave = what you currently have, the value of what the job can provide ▪ Vimportance = how important the value is to the employee

▪ If the discrepancy between Vwant – Vhave is large and Vimportance is high, you  are very dissatisfied with your job

▪ If the discrepancy between Vwant – Vhave is large and Vimportance is low, you  are only a bit dissatisfied with your job

• Job characteristics theory: “a theory that argues that five core characteristics (variety,  identity, significance, autonomy, and feedback) combine to result in high levels of  satisfaction with the work itself” (McGraw-Hill Education 99)

o Variety: “the degree to which a job requires different activities and skills” (McGraw-Hill Education 99)

o Identity: “the degree to which a job offers completion of a whole, identifiable  piece of work” (McGraw-Hill Education 99)

o Significance: “the degree to which a job really matters and impacts society as a  whole” (McGraw-Hill Education 99)

o Autonomy: “the degree to which a job allows individual freedom and discretion  regarding how the work is to be done” (McGraw-Hill Education 100)

o Feedback: “the degree to which the job itself provides information about how  well the job holder is doing” (McGraw-Hill Education 101)

• Items for exam:

o “Value-percept theory suggests that people evaluate job satisfaction according  to specific "facets" of the job” (McGraw Hill-Education)

o “According to the value-percept theory, the relation between dissatisfaction,  value (importance), and value (want) is given by: (Vwant – Vhave) x (Vimportance) ”  (McGraw Hill-Education)

o “According to the job characteristics theory, the degree to which the job  provides freedom, independence, and discretion to the individual performing the  work is known as autonomy” (McGraw-Hill Education)

• Moods: “states of feeling that are mild in intensity, last for an extended period of time,  and are not directed at anything” (McGraw-Hill Education 104)

o Pleasantness: “the degree to which an employee is in a good versus bad mood”  (McGraw-Hill Education 105)

▪ Unpleasant moods

• Bored

• Sluggish

• Drowsy

▪ Pleasant moods

• Happy

o Activation: “the degree to which moods are aroused and active, as opposed to  unaroused and inactive” (McGraw-Hill Education 105)

▪ Activated moods

• Surprised

• Astonished

▪ Deactivated moods

• Quiet

• Inactive

• Emotions: “intense feelings, often lasting for a short duration, that are clearly directed  at someone or some circumstance” (McGraw-Hill Education 107)

o Positive emotions: “employees’ feelings of joy, pride, relief, hope, love, and  compassion” (McGraw-Hill Education 108)

o Negative emotions: “employees’ feelings of fear, guilt, shame, sadness, envy,  and disgust” (McGraw-Hill Education 108)

• Emotional labor: “when employees manage their emotions to complete their job duties  successfully” (McGraw-Hill Education 108)

• Emotional contagion: “the idea that emotions can be transferred from one person to  another” (McGraw-Hill Education 108)

Chapter 5: Stress 

• Stress: “the psychological response to demands when there is something at stake for  the individual, and where coping with these demands would tax or exceed the  individual’s capacity or resources” (McGraw-Hill Education 125)

• Stressor: “demands that cause the stress response” (McGraw-Hill Education 126) • Strains: “negative consequences of the stress response” (McGraw-Hill Education 126) • Transactional theory of stress: “a theory that explains how stressful demands are  

perceived and appraised, as well as how people respond to the perceptions and  appraisals” (McGraw-Hill Education 126)

o Primary appraisal: “evaluation of whether a demand is stressful and, if it is, the  implications of the stressor in terms of personal goals and well-being” (McGraw Hill Education 126)

▪ Hindrance stressors: “stressors that tend to be appraised as thwarting  progress toward growth and achievement” (McGraw-Hill Education 127)

• Have a weak negative relationship with job performance

• Have a strong negative relationship with organizational  


• Role conflict: “when others have conflicting expectations of what  

an individual needs to do” (McGraw-Hill Education 127)

o Work-family conflict: “a form of role conflict in which the  

demands of a work role hinder the fulfillment of the  

demands in a family role (or vice versa)” (McGraw-Hill  

Education 129); also a nonwork hindrance stressor

• Role ambiguity: “when an individual has a lack of direction and  

information about what needs to be done” (McGraw-Hill  

Education 127)

• Role overload: “when an employee has too many demands to  

work effectively” (McGraw-Hill Education 128)

• Daily hassles: “minor day-to-day demands that interfere with  

work accomplishment” (McGraw-Hill Education 128)

• Nonwork hindrance stressors:

o Negative life events: “events such as death or divorce of a  

family member that tend to be appraised as a hindrance”  

(McGraw-Hill Education 129)

o Financial uncertainty: “uncertainties with regard to the  

potential for loss of livelihood, savings, or the ability to pay  

expenses” (McGraw-Hill Education 129)

▪ Challenge stressors: “stressors that tend to be appraised as opportunities  for growth and achievement” (McGraw-Hill Education 127)

• Have a weak positive relationship with job performance

• Have a moderate positive relationship with organizational  


• Time pressure: “The sense that the amount of time allotted to do  a job is not quite enough” (McGraw-Hill Education 128)

• Work complexity: “the degree to which job requirements tax or  

just exceed employee capabilities” (McGraw-Hill Education 128)

• Work responsibility: “the number and importance of the  

obligations that an employee has to others” (McGraw-Hill  

Education 129)

• Nonwork challenge stressors:

o Family time demands: “the amount of time committed to  

fulfilling family responsibilities” (McGraw-Hill Education  


o Personal development: “participation in activities outside  

of work that foster learning and growth” (McGraw-Hill  

Education 130)

o Positive life events: “events such as marriage or the birth  

of a child that tend to be appraised as a challenge”  

(McGraw-Hill Education 130)

• Items for exam

o “Challenge stressors are stressful demands that are perceived as opportunities  for learning, growth, and achievement” (McGraw-Hill Education)

o “Hindrance stressors are stressful demands that are perceived as hindering  progress toward personal accomplishments or goal attainment” (McGraw-Hill  Education)

o Role overload is a work hindrance stressor

• Secondary appraisal: “when people determine how to cope with the various stressors  they face” (McGraw-Hill Education 131)

• Coping: “Behaviors and thoughts used to manage stressful demands and the emotions  associated with the stressful demands” (McGraw-Hill Education 131)

o Behavioral coping: “physical activities used to deal with a stressful situation” (McGraw-Hill Education 131)

o Cognitive coping: “thoughts used to deal with a stressful situation” (McGraw-Hill  Education 131)

o Problem-focused coping: “behaviors and cognitions of an individual intended to  manage the stressful situation itself” (McGraw-Hill Education 131)

o Emotion-focused coping: “behaviors and cognitions of an individual intended to  manage emotional reactions to stressful demands” (McGraw-Hill Education 131) • 1 item for exam

o “Coping strategies can be viewed as either problem or emotion focused”  (McGraw-Hill Education)

• Factors that affect the way people manage stress:

o Social support: “the help people receive from others when they are confronted  with stressful demands” (McGraw-Hill Education 138)

▪ Instrumental support: “the help people receive from others that can be  used to address a stressful demand directly” (McGraw-Hill Education 138) ▪ Emotional support: “the empathy and understanding that people receive  from others that can be used to alleviate emotional distress from  

stressful demands” (McGraw-Hill Education 138)

• Type A behavior pattern: “people who tend to experience more stressors, appraise  more demands as stressful, and be prone to experiencing more strains” (McGraw-Hill  Education 137)

• Stress management

o Assess the level and sources of stress at work

o Managing hindrance stressors

▪ Eliminating or significantly reducing stressful demands

o Improving work-life balance

▪ How hard life is often depends on us and not reality

o Improving hardiness

▪ “A sort of mental and physical health that can act as a buffer, preventing  stress from resulting in strain” (McGraw-Hill Education 151)

Chapter 6: Motivation 

• Motivation: “a set of energetic forces that determine the direction, intensity, and  persistence of an employee’s work effort” (McGraw-Hill Education 163)

• Engagement: “a term commonly used in the contemporary workplace to summarize  motivation levels” (McGraw-Hill Education 164)

• 1 item for exam

o “Expectancy theory focuses on describing the cognitive process that employees  go through to make choices among different voluntary responses” (McGraw-Hill  Education)

• Expectancy: “the belief that exerting a high level of effort will result in successful  performance on some task” (McGraw-Hill Education 164)

o Self-efficacy: “the belief that a person has the capabilities needed to perform the  behaviors required on some task” (McGraw-Hill Education 165)

▪ Past accomplishments: “the level of success or failure with similar job  tasks in the past” (McGraw-Hill Education 165)

▪ Vicarious experiences: “observations of and discussions with others who  have performed some work task” (McGraw-Hill Education 166)

▪ Verbal persuasion: “pep talks that lead employees to believe that they  can ‘get the job done’” (McGraw-Hill Education 166)

▪ Emotional cues: “positive or negative feelings that can help or hinder task  accomplishment” (McGraw-Hill Education 166)

• Instrumentality: “the belief that successful performance will result in the attainment of  some outcomes” (McGraw-Hill Education 166)

o Can be hindered by poor methods for measuring performance, inadequate  budget to provide outcomes, use of policies that rewards things besides  attendance or seniority, or time delays in payment

• Items for exam

o “Which of the following scenarios demonstrates how workers determine efficacy  levels through vicarious experiences?” (McGraw-Hill Education)

▪ Bill, just named sales manager, asks Fred what his job was like when he  was the sales manager.

• Vicarious experience is not personal real experience

• Asks someone else about the same task they have already  

completed successfully

o “Evander has been asked to lead a team of educators. He is afraid his employees  will not take him seriously because he is a nice guy, and he is nervous that his  supervisors will see him as weak and ineffective. He is also excited by some great  ideas he has for how to improve educational delivery methods that he knows will  work. Evander's efficacy is moderated by his fears and anxieties, as well as his  pride and enthusiasm, which are all examples of emotional cues” (McGraw-Hill  Education)

o “Employees at Carpet Lot were given a survey about the workplace. One of the  questions asked them about their wages. Which of the following respondents  gave a response that shows a belief in a high level of instrumentality at Carpet  Lot? ” (McGraw-Hill Education)

A) Leah, who said most people get raises because they are related to  someone  

B) Irvin, who said wages are determined by employee job performance a. Direct linkage to instrumentality because he believes salary is  

determined by performance

C) LaShawn, who said that the highest wages go to dishonest people  D) Skylar, who said that most people are paid based on seniority

E) Marti, who said that wages should be the same for everyone

• Valence: “the anticipated value of the outcomes associated with successful  performance” (McGraw-Hill Education 166)

• Needs: “groupings or clusters of outcomes viewed as having critical psychological or  physiological consequences” (McGraw-Hill Education 167)

• Extrinsic motivation: “desire to put forth work effort due to some contingency that  depends on task performance” (McGraw-Hill Education 167)

• Intrinsic motivation: “desire to put forth work effort due to the sense that task  performance serves as its own regard” (McGraw-Hill Education 167)

• Meaning of money: “the idea that money can have a symbolic value (e.g. achievement,  respect, freedom) in addition to economic value” (McGraw-Hill Education 168)

• Expectancy theory explains that the direction of effort or motivation to perform a  specific action is dictated by expectancy, instrumentality, and valence (McGraw-Hill  Education 170)

o The multiplier effect : M = E x I x V

▪ M = Motivation

▪ E = Expectancy

▪ I = Instrumentality

▪ V = Valence

▪ Higher levels of motivation occur when three factors (E, I, V) are high ▪ If one of factors is zero, motivation is zero

• Goal setting theory: “a theory that views goals as the primary drivers of the intensity  and persistence of effort” (McGraw-Hill Education 170)

o Specific and difficult goals: “goals that stretch an employee to perform at his or her maximum level while still within the boundaries of his or her ability”  (McGraw-Hill Education 170)

▪ Self-set goals: “the internalized goals that people use to monitor their  own progress” (McGraw-Hill Education 171)

• Task strategies: “learning plans and problem-solving approaches  

used to achieve successful performance” (McGraw-Hill Education  


• Persistence of effort

• Intensity of effort

• As a supervisor, you provide feedback once employees internalized goal, task  complexities to learn more knowledge and skills, and goal commitment approaches  o Feedback: “refers to progress updates on work goals” (McGraw-Hill Education  171)

o Task complexity: “the degree to which information and actions needed to  complete a task are complicated” (McGraw-Hill Education 171)

o Goal commitment: “the degree to which a person accepts a goal and is  determined to reach it” (McGraw-Hill Education 171)

• S.M.A.R.T. goals

o Specific

▪ Used to give clear information or detail

o Measurable

▪ Quantified criteria

o Attainable

▪ Challenging and difficult, yet does not surpass one’s capability)

o Relevant/Results-Based

▪ Show task is important to accomplish

o Time-oriented/Time-sensitive

▪ How long task should take

• Items for exam

o “The "A" in the S.M.A.R.T. goals acronym stands for Attainable/Achievable”

o “Bill lays out a goal for Larry, the head of his printing department. He wants Larry  to print exactly 500,000 books, which will be tracked by the counter on the book  binding machine. Bill knows Larry can do this because they have printed that  many books before. What does Bill need to add to make this a S.M.A.R.T. goal?” A) a list of suggested ways to improve efficiency  

B) a deadline for when the books should be printed  

a. There is no time limit, so this is good for persistence

C) the promise of a monetary bonus for making the goal  

D) the contact information for the authors whose books will be printed E) a sample book so Larry can see what the finished product looks like • Equity theory: “a theory that suggests that employees create a mental ledger of the  outcomes they receive for their job inputs, relative to some comparison other” (McGraw-Hill Education 174)

• Comparison other: “another person who provides a frame of reference for judging  equity” (McGraw-Hill Education 174)

• Equity distress: “an internal tension that results from being overrewarded or  underrwarded relative to some comparison other” (McGraw-Hill Education 175) o If another’s ratio of outcomes to inputs is more than yours, assuming your input  is equal, you are underrewarded

o If your ratio of outcomes to inputs is more than another’s, assuming your input is  equal, you are overrewarded

• Cognitive distortion: “a reevaluation of the inputs an employee brings to the job, often  occurring in response to equity distress” (McGraw-Hill Education 176) • Psychological empowerment: “an energy rooted in the belief that tasks are contributing  to some larger purpose” (McGraw-Hill Education 177)

o Concepts that can make work tasks motivating:

▪ Meaningfulness: “captures the value of a work goal of purpose, relative  to a person’s own ideals or passions” (McGraw-Hill Education 178)

▪ Self-determination: “a sense of choice in the initiation and continuation  of work tasks” (McGraw-Hill Education 178)

▪ Competence: “the capability to perform work tasks successfully”  

(McGraw-Hill Education 179)

▪ Impact: “the sense that a person’s actions ‘make a difference’—that  progress is made towards fulfilling some[thing] important” (McGraw-Hill  Education 179)

• Motivation has a strong positive correlation with job performance • Motivation has a moderate correlation with organizational commitment

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