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Exam 2 Study Guide - Intro to Psychology (PSYCH 1101)

by: Brooke Mays

Exam 2 Study Guide - Intro to Psychology (PSYCH 1101) PSYCH 1101

Marketplace > Georgia Regents University > Psychlogy > PSYCH 1101 > Exam 2 Study Guide Intro to Psychology PSYCH 1101
Brooke Mays


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About this Document

This is a study guide for the 2nd exam for Professor Verlaque's class at Augusta University. I will be uploading other study guides as well as new notes weekly. Thanks for looking!
Introduction to Psychology
Verlaque, L.
Study Guide
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brooke Mays on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 1101 at Georgia Regents University taught by Verlaque, L. in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 119 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Georgia Regents University.


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Date Created: 02/28/16
Intro to Psychology Study Guide for Exam #2 Developmental Psychology 1) Nature vs. Nurture 2) Continuity vs. Stages (need to develop certain stages before others but continuous) 3) Change vs. Stability (temperament, potential IQ, eye color) Stability – Nature Stages – Nature Cognitive development – development of how you think, learning through experience Piaget noticed young children were all making the same errors, errors in the way they think as  they develop Teratogens – “monster makers”, can cause birth defects Habituate – get used to, so don’t habituate them to silence when its time to sleep! Rooting reflex – trying to find nipple Sucking reflex – will suck really hard Crying – cry when they are hungry for survival Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development  Sensorimotor ­ Birth to about 2 years ­ Experience the world through the senses ­ Looking, touching, sucking ­ Object permanence & stranger anxiety  Preoperational ­ 2 to 7 years ­ Represent things with language & images but lack logic ­ Pretend play, egocentrism, language development, theory of mind  Concrete operational ­ 7 to 11 years ­ Have trouble with abstract concepts (analogies & metaphors) but can think logically  and solve arithmetic problems ­ Logical thought, conversation, mathematical transformations, reversibility  Formal operational ­ 11 to Adulthood ­ Can explore concrete & abstract concepts ­ Abstract reasoning, potential for mature moral reasoning Schema – folders, how we categorize things, children don’t encounter things as much so they  assimilate things together Accommodation – new schema with new formation Harlow Wire Mother/Cloth Mother ­ Food over warmth/security? NO! ­ Attachment – more towards who provided comfort and safety than who provided food ­ Monkeys were never able to recover because of their isolation 3 Main Types of Attachment 1) Secure 2) Ambivalent 3) Avoidant Caregiver in room with child, how does the child interact with them? How does the child react  when the caregiver leaves? And how does the child react when the caregiver returns? 1) Secure Attachment ­ Caregiver is secure base, checking back with them while exploring ­ Child is upset when the caregiver leaves ­ Child is soothed when the caregiver returns 2) Ambivalent Attachment ­ Child is wanting to play with the caregiver ­ Child is devastated when the caregiver leaves ­ Child cannot be comforted when the caregiver returns 3) Avoidant Attachment ­ Child avoids caregiver ­ Child is startled when they leave ­ Child avoids caregiver when they return Not just the mother’s behavior to the child but the temperament of the child also factors into the  child’s attachment. Parenting Styles 1) Authoritarian – strict, no reasons given, harsh consequences, high control, “because I  said so” 2) Authoritative – firm but flexible, give and take, realistic and consistent, communication  is key 3) Permissive – lets them do whatever they want, warm and nurturing, trying to be their  friend 4) Neglectful – not there for the child Repercussions for Early Puberty  ­ For females – jealously, bullies, sexual harassment, more likely to engage in sex  earlier, substance and alcohol abuse ­ For males – sexual activity earlier, substance and alcohol abuse, more popular and  confident Trust vs. Mistrust ­ 1  18 months ­ Trying to develop trust in people ­ Attachment style is developing Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt ­ 1 – 3 years old ­ Walking ­ Potty training ­ Independence ­ Failures – shame and doubt Initiative vs. Guilt ­ 3­5 years old ­ Learning to dress selves ­ Explore surroundings ­ Pretend play ­ Sense of purpose and control Industry vs. Inferiority ­ 6 – 11 years old ­ School focus ­ Finding something that you excel at ­ Need to feel that they can excel Identity vs. Identity/Role Confusion ­ Who are you? ­ Your identity ­ Trying different roles ­ Confused about your role and how you fit in the world Psychological Moratorium ­ Period proposed by Erikson linked to Identity vs. Identity Confusion ­ Society gives permission to teen/adolescents so that they could experiment with different  roles so they could sample them before going out in the world ­ Chance to try different hats ­ More likely to be more comfortable with their identity Intimacy vs. Isolation ­ Young adulthood ­ Not necessarily sexual relationships ­ Developing intimate relationships, close friendships ­ If they are not able to feel that then they may have feelings of isolation ­ Alone time is ok ­ But not having those bonds and feelings of sharing and caring can lead to isolation Importance of parents decreases while the importance of peers increases Parents influence ­ Religious views ­ Education and career paths ­ Self­discipline ­ Responsibility ­ Cooperation ­ Style of interacting with authority Peers influence ­ Cultural choices ­ Recreations ­ Good and bad habits ­ Choices in clothes, music, etc. Emerging Adulthood ­ 19­25 years old ­ In between stage where you’re technically an adult but still dependent ­ You want to be independent but you can’t afford to move out ­ Parents also want you to be able to live on your own too ­ Compromise, work it out ­ Show them you’re an adult, be considerate, ask them for advice, contribute to the home in lots of different ways (doesn’t have to be financially) Potential Life Span ­ Human body we think has the capacity to live 122 years Aging Body ­ Women outnumber men 5 to 1 ­ Men tend to do more dangerous things ­ Young boys are more reckless than young girls ­ Jobs – armed service, construction jobs, jobs with high mortality rates ­ Decline in visual acuteness ­ Decline in quality of hearing ­ Slower reaction time and processing speed ­ 65­70 year olds experience an increase in car accidents ­ Immune System ­ Decreases as we age ­ You don’t get small stuff because you already have antibodies Brain ­ Shrinks and deteriorates, 5% lighter by the age of 80 ­ Frontal lobe atrophy ­ Inhibition and self­control lost – they can be super blunt Generativity vs. Stagnation ­ Middle adulthood, 35 ­50/65 years old ­ Pass down money, ideas, energy ­ Family or jobs ­ Looking towards the next generation through biological children or through your own  work ­ Leaving your legacy, showing you can be useful ­ Stagnation – not really accomplishing or moving forward Ego Integrity vs. Despair ­ 65+ years ­ Life review? Good or “coulda/woulda/shoulda” Midlife Change is common It’s if you can’t handle the change that it becomes a Midlife crisis (but that is less common) Erikson’s levels build up on each other, but you can go back and work on others Do you get happier or sadder as you age? ­ Depends on your personality, how you lived your life ­ More of what you were in life ­ Work out kinks – most tend to be happier ­ Better sense of self but experience more loss so it evens out Kübler­Ross – Stages of Greif ­ Denial ­ Anger * ­ Bargaining ­ Depression * ­ Acceptance (not all can accept) ­ * major ones that most experience ­ Not necessarily experienced in this order ­ Not all necessarily experience all of them ­ Easier to go through process with prior warning Grief­ natural process, be kind to them and to yourself, no set time or formula Day After Christmas spike ­ Will to make it through the last family holiday Cross Sectional studies ­ Info on all sorts of things ­ Benefit – differences between different age groups, getting it all today and quickly, less  expensive ­ But they are all raised in different generations so they all experienced different impacts Longitudinal studies ­ 1 group of people and seeing how they change over time ­ You see how they change over time and age ­ No changes in cohort ­ But it takes a long time and its expensive Sequential Design studies ­ Start with Cross sectional study and then add a cohort every couple of years, add another  group ­ Some people die, move, drop from the study ­ Constantly adding people in Classical Conditioning ­ reflexive, psychological, not a lot of control if you’re aware of it then it  doesn’t have as much power ­ US – Unconditioned Stimulus (naturally happens) ­ UR – Unconditioned Response (naturally happens) ­ NS – Neutral Stimulus ­ CS – Conditioned Stimulus ­ CR – Conditioned Response ­ US – UR (naturally occurring stimulant and response) ­ NS – US – UR (add in neutral stimulant, but it has to be first to associate bell with food) ­ CS – X – CR (neutral stimulant becomes conditioned stimulant, can exclude the  unconditioned stimulant, and get a conditioned response) Extinction ­ If you use the CS to get the CR but you exclude the US, after a while it goes away ­ Important to the treatment of phobias Spontaneous Recovery ­ Learned again suddenly ­ Reemergence of a previously learned condition response after a delay Generalization ­ Drool to more stimuli  ­ All different kinds of bells, lights, sounds Discrimination ­ Drool to less stimuli ­ Only a certain bell ­ Much more narrower range Operant Conditioning – level of choice involved, choice in behavior Positive Reinforcement ­ Add a positive stimulus ­ Treats ­ Strengthen a behavior Negative Reinforcement ­ Take away a negative stimulus ­ Stop annoying beeping by putting on seatbelt ­ Strengthen a behavior Positive Punishment ­ Adding a negative stimulus ­ Spanking ­ Weakens a behavior Negative Punishment ­ Taking away a positive stimulus ­ Taking away cell phone ­ Weaken a behavior Shaping – process of getting someone or something to do what you want Punishment > Reinforcement in the case of avoiding dangers and in natural settings Immediate and certain more effective than severe punishments Discriminating  ­ Will do trained behavior when you’re around but do whatever they want when you’re  gone ­ Happens a lot when using negative punishment ­ Attitude of fear and hatred Schedules of Reinforcement 1.) Interval – time based ­ Fixed – every so often (getting paid on Friday) ­ Variable – after an unpredictable amount of time 2.) Ratio – behavior/instances ­ Fixed – after every so many behaviors ­ Ratio – after an unpredictable amount of behaviors (a pat on the back at work) Fixed ratio – high rate of response Variable ratio – high consistent responders even without a reward, slot machines! They resist  extinction Interval – slow rates of responding Fixed interval – checking clock at the end of class


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