STUDY GUIDE: Chapter 1&2 of Intro to Psych
STUDY GUIDE: Chapter 1&2 of Intro to Psych PSY 100
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jlyon on Saturday September 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 100 at State University of New York at Oswego taught by Mark T Mirabito (P) in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 193 views. For similar materials see INTRO TO PSYCHOLOGY in Psychlogy at State University of New York at Oswego.
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Date Created: 09/05/15
Introduction to Psychology Ch 1amp2 Study Guide Chapter One Vocab o Hypothesis A formal prediction about a relationship between two variables 0 Population All those to whom the results apply even if they are not in a study Ex all adults all children 0 Population Sample Those who volunteered to be in the study and are accepted Ex all adults IN the study 0 Experimental Group Group that gets the new treatment 0 Control Group Group that does NOT get the treatment but a placebo 0 Assignment of Participants Random method used to divide the volunteers into experimental subjects and controlled subjects Ex individuals wearing jeans are in experimental group those not are in control group 0 Independent Variable The new treatment that is hypothesized to affect the second variable 0 Dependent Variable Variable that the researcher suspects is affected by changes in the independent variable 0 Operational Definitions Variables that MUST be measured in precise mathematical terms numbers Ex the amount of independent variable to give the experimental group 0 Confounding Variables Other variables that could affect the dependent variable Ex other meds 0 Blind Experiment Subjects don t know which group they re in to prevent bias 0 Subject Bias Subjects who tend to behavefeel differently because they re in experimental group Ex placebo effect 0 DoubleBlind Experiment The subjects and researchers don t know who is in which group o Experimenter Bias Temptation to treat subjects in the two groups differently to get results to support hypothesis EX being nicer to experimental group Modern Psychology Psychology is the scientific study of 0 Behavior 0 Feelings 0 Thoughts o Consciousness o Perception Mental Life Because psychology is a Social Study there are many Schools of Thought 0 Psvchodvnamic Focuses on the dynamic relationship between the conscious and unconscious mind I Sigmund Freud The world s first psychiatrist MD He believed that most of mental life is unconscious and that most people had seX food and violence on their mind People also had Oedipus effect and wanted to be with parent of different gender at young age EX daddy issues I Most modern psychodynamic psychologists see unconscious as less important 0 Behaviorism All nurturing Psychologists thought they should x study behavior not in Mental Life I 1920 s John Watson Conducted the Little Albert Experiment where they studied phobias on a baby named Albert They gave him a rat that he liked to play with and then they made loud noises whenever they gave him the rat to make him cry He then had a phobia whenever he saw the rat afraid of the noises that came with it Watson then reversed the effect and made Albert unafraid of the rat again 0 Humanism The idea that humans are all unique not the same as other animals and we have I Free will I Sense of self I Can look at and critique our own life I 1950 s Abraham Maslow Psychiatrist related to Humanism o gnitive Psychology Thoughts are the main driving force in the human mind I 1960 s Albert Bandura Top psychologist related to Cognitive Psychology 0 Bio Psychology The brain is the mind there is no soul brain chemicals and DNA play the biggest part 1980 s Methods of Psychological Research 0 Experimental Method Best Method proves cause and effect One variable is altered in experimental group to see if it affects the second variable Ex depression self reporting scales 1 10 Often illegalunethical 0 Observation Good Method No manipulation of variable Researcher watches and tries to draw conclusions Ex Jane Goodell 0 Survey Poor because people lie Researcher asks questions or questionnaire The most research made using method I Used to study Thoughts emotions sexuality 0 Case Studv Weakest Method The study of a few subjects usually a rare condition Not statistically significant Ex Phinneus Gage man who had a pole shot through his frontal lobe and had changes in his behavior Statistical Analysis of Research Data 0 Standard Deviation Bell Curve Used in psychology to compare people to each other to determine what is norma o Coefficient of Correlation Mathematical expression of how often two variables appear together It is so often that coincidence is unlikely Correlation does not equal causation 0 Levels of Significance A formula that considers I How overwhelming the results were I The sample size number of subjectstrials I If results and sample size are convincing the score will be PO5 or lower Chance of coincidence is less than 1 in 20 Statistically Significant PO1 means chance of coincidence is less than 1 in 100 o MetaAnalvsis Mathematically combining the results of several small studies to collectively reach Statistical Significance PO5 and lower Ethical Treatment of Research Subjects For volunteer humans m that can quit anytime without penalty No stress beyond everyday life Confidentiality no names Debriefing after deception the subject is told of why there was any and the results Minimal deception Chapter Two Vocab Core of Brain Brainstem Oldest part evolutionarily of the brain Controls functions that are generally not under consciousness control and not within conscious awareness Cerebellam Controls muscle memory Autopilot Reticalar F armation Nerves running through the brain stem Controls sleepdreaming waking up to an important sound and Cocktail Part Effect hearing your name over the noise of a large crowd of people Evolutionary being aware of surroundings Medalla Controls basic functions to survive heart rate blood pressure breathing and consciousness Middle of Brain Limbic System 0 Evolutionarin middle aged 0 Controls functions in general within conscious awareness Sometimes under voluntary control T halamas Relay station for 5 senses except smell Hippocampas Stores and retrieves memories factual memories Amygdala Stores emotional memories EX Phobias hatred and triggers impulsive behavior Hypothalamas Basic survival instincts desire to have sex hunger aggression Nucleus Accambens Pleasure center addictions The Cerebral Cortex Newest and most advanced Generally associated with functions that are within conscious awareness and under conscious control 0 Parietal Lobe Sense of touch and spatial reasoning right side o Occipital Lobe Vision 0 Temporal Lobe Hearing understanding speech and music right side o Frontal Lobe Logic deception planning moral reasoning seat of conscious awareness Hemispheric Lateralization 0 Right and Left hemispheres have separate duties gig Propositional Thought I Imaginal Thought To think with words To think in pictures Logical Depression Emotional Depression Sees parts of an object I Sees wholeness of objects I EX Familiar faces Follows sequence of events Understands moral of the In a storyjoke storyjoke Understandscreates metaphors and sarcasm Neurons Are information carrying brain cells 0 Dendrites receiVing end 0 m Sends neurotransmitters o Synagse Area where the first neuron sends neurotransmitters across to the dendrite of the second neuron Nerve Message Ends 0 Re uptake Makes neurotransmitters go back into axons for future use Increases the amount of NT 0 Enzymetric Regredation Sends and enzyme to break up neurotransmitter Decreases amount of NT Psychotrogic Drugs All are either 0 Agonists Drug that increases activity of target NT 0 Anta gonist Drug that decreases activity of target NT Brain Imaging wMeasures Hydrogen atoms concentrated to show brain structures PET Shows activity level of the brain by the amount of blood ow greenlow yellowmoderate redhigh But this is poor at showing detailed anatomy of the brain and just has a rough outline FMRI Is a mix of and MRI and a PET Shows anatomy and physiology of brain
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