New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Updated "Brain" Notes

by: Laura Dominguez

Updated "Brain" Notes HIS 151

Marketplace > La Salle University > History > HIS 151 > Updated Brain Notes
Laura Dominguez
La Salle
GPA 3.8

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Cover what will be on the test
Study Guide
psych, brain
50 ?




Popular in GLOBAL HIS TO 1500

Popular in History

This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Laura Dominguez on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIS 151 at La Salle University taught by DE ANGELIS in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see GLOBAL HIS TO 1500 in History at La Salle University.

Similar to HIS 151 at La Salle

Popular in History


Reviews for Updated "Brain" Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/28/16
The Brain Cells of nervous system Neurons – Nerve cells  Brain has 100 billion  Synthesize brain chemicals   Enable neural transmission Glial cells: they serve some supporting role for the neuron  Important in degenerative conditions  Their function is vital for normal, healthy processes  Involved in certain types of muscular dystrophy Neural Communication/structure of neuron  Dendrites: reception end. “branches” can proliferate. Complex intro­ neural connections largely have to do with these. o Suggest that brain has evolved enough to permit adaptation. o Skill development. o They receive information from other neurons  Cell Body: contains DNA of the cell. Synthesize brain chemicals  called neurotransmitters.  o Can receive info using neurotransmitters that it itself does not  manufacture.  Axon: transmits information  Terminal buds: where information is stored. When we say that a neuron is “activated” this means it is being moved from a state of rest to a state of movement. In between the “sending neuron” and “receiving neuron” there is a microscopic gap called the synaptic gap, or  cleft.  Each neurotransmitter has particular substance which fits specific  neuron.  Dendrites Cell body Axon  Axon terminal Synapse (receive) (collates  (relays)  (releases  (communicate incoming  neurotransmitters s between  signals) ) neurons) Molecular structure is exact match, so no two neurotransmitters can occupy the same space. In order for neuron to “fire” there is a threshold of excitability that must be  reached and/or exceeded. It depends on the amount of stimulation.   Letting positive ions enter neuron makes it more prone to an “action  potential”, this is called Depolarization. “Over­firing” in the brain: results in death, seizure, migraines, etc.  When negative ions enter the neuron and make it less prone to firing  an action potential, this is called Hyperpolarization. Some areas in the brain where particular neurotransmitters are, are  designed to exert inhibitory messages. Neuron fires = transmitter gets released into synapse, action occurs.  The Refractory Period is the brief period during which a neuron  cannot fire (because it is receiving the message of whether the  previous neuron was enough or not) aka “reloading period,” matter of  milliseconds. When the neuron is transmitted, there is excess that stays floating around  in the synapse. So there are enzymes that exist solely to break down  leftovers.  Re­uptake is the “taking­back” of excess neurotransmitter in the synapse.  In order to restore balance in neurochemistry, sometimes drugs need to be  used. Morphine, for instance, acts like a man­made version of endorphins.   The drugs that increase activity are called Agonists. They mimic the  activation as the neurotransmitter itself.   Drugs that block neurotransmitter are called antagonists. They go  against the normal activity of the neurotransmitter. Re­uptake Inhibitors Antidepressants like Prozac inhibit re­uptake of neurochemicals like  serotonin in the brain. There are pathways in the brain where serotonin travels, this is linked to  mood regulation.  Same with dopamine (which causes excess in activity, resulting in diseases such as schizophrenia), in conditions like Parkinson’s, brain becomes less  and less able to produce dopamine.  Drugs that are given to people who suffer of Parkinson’s reduce symptoms, increase creation of dopamine to allow normal amount of activity.  Some neurotransmitters and their functions Acetylcholine: muscle action, learning, memory Norepinephrine: alertness, arousal Dopamine: movement, learning, attention, emotion Serotonin: affects mood, hunger, sleep, arousal GABA (gamma­aminobutyric acid): major inhibitory neurotransmitter Glutamate: major excitatory neurotransmitter; involved in memory The neurotransmitter carries message and transmits neuron, whereas the neuron manufactures brain chemicals (called neurotransmitters, which are released when they become activated). The human brain has a lot of “open brain space” which makes us, humans,  capable to develop more complex skills than other species.  The Nervous System Central Nervous System & Peripheral Nervous System CNS: Brain and Spinal Cord Spinal Cord: reflexes. Thalamus: relays info from lower to higher brain regions. “switch board” Parts of the brain. First: limbic system Cerebellum: “little brain” mainly helps balance, motor activities Brain stem structures  Medulla, Pons, Reticular formation o Medulla: heart beat, respiration (breathing) o Reticular formation: wake/sleep cycles  Brain stem is in charge of survival Hypothalamus: orchestrating physiological restoration of balance, in  charge of emotions, hunger/thirst/need to pee/temperature basic needs. Amygdala: fear and anger. Hippocampus: memory; taking new learning and converting it into  memory, also spatial memory (what is the terrain like). Limbic system: basic needs, below cerebral cortex. Frontal cortex: initiating new action/motor skill. Broca’s area: Prefrontal cortex Parietal lobe: spatial NAVIGATION. Gauging speed etc, feeling/judging  movement related things. 


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.