Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide ATTR 210 - 003 (Human Anat. & Allied Health Prof.)
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anne Watson on Sunday September 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ATTR 210 - 003 (Human Anat. & Allied Health Prof.) at Indiana State University taught by Amber Young in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 218 views.
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Date Created: 09/06/15
Anatomy Lecture Exam 1 Unit 1 Study Guide Basic Anatomy Skeletal System Articulations Intro Muscular System Nervous System A Vocab for Basic Anatomy a b c d Anatomy the study of structures Physiology study of function Microscopic Anatomy structures that are too small to be seen by the unaided human eye Gross Anatomy structures that can be seen with the unaided human eye Comparative Anatomy examine similarities and differences in anatomy of species Developmental Anatomy study of structure changes in an individual from conception to birth Embryology study of developmental changes occurring prior to birth Regional Anatomy study of structures with in a single region i Axial Skeleton Head neck or abdomen ii Appendicular Skeleton upper and lower limbs Systematic Anatomy study of structures involved with a speci c activity i Digestion or reproduction Surface Anatomy the study of internal structures as their locations relate to the regions of skin or other surface markings Anatomic Position Standing upright feet parallel and on oor head level looking forward arms outside of body palms facing forward thumbs facing away from body Section a cut of slice through a structure a piece removed by a slicing a structure Plane imaginary at surfaces passing through the body or an organ CoronalFrontal Plane a plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts TransverseHorizontal Plane a plane that divides the body into superior and inferior parts MidsagittalMedian Plane plane that divides body into equal left and right halves Sagittal Plane plane that divides body into unequal left and right halves Oblique Planes planes that do not have an exact straight cut can be diagonal or cuts into irregularly shaped bones or parts of the body B Anatomic Directions LthrDQpOp Posterior back of body Anterior front of body Superior topabove Inferior bottombelow Medial close to the midline Lateral farther away from the midline Proximal for extremities close to the trunk of the body or origin of the extremity i Ex the elbow is closer or proximal to the shoulder than the wrist h Distal for extremities farther from the trunk of the body or origin of the extremity i Ventral front of thorax j Dorsal back or thorax k Palmar palm of hand I Plantar bottom of foot m Super cial shallow n Deep deep C Body Cavities a Posterior Cavities 1 Brain b Ventral Cavities D Regions of Abdominopelvic Cavity Two Types of Division Pelvic 2 Lungs 1 Stomach 2 Small and Large Intestines 3 Liver 4 Kidneys 5 Other smaller organs like the spleen and pancreas inside pelvis 1 Bladder 2 Reproductive organs a 9 Divisions Ex where the n is on a dolphin Cranial formed by the skull bones Vertebral formed by the vertebral column bones 1 Spine Thoracic superior cavity 1 Heart Abdominopelvic inferior cavity Right Epigastric Left Hypochondriac Region Hypochondriac Right Lumbar Umbilical Left Lumbar Region Right lliac Hypogastric Left lliac Right Left Upper Upper Quadrant Quadrant Right Left Lower Lower Quadrant Quadrant Need Exam Ex The wrist is farther or distal to the shoulder than the elbow To ow for E Organ Systems Know the basis of each system a lntegumentary System body covering i Skin hair sweat glands sebaceous glands ii blocks infection and disease controls temperature b SkeletalMuscular System support and movement i Skeletal bones cartilage ligaments ii Muscular muscles iii walk sit support c Nerves and Endocrine i Nervous brain spinal cord sensory receptors sensory glands ii Endocrine hormone secreting glands iii react pain voluntary movement ve senses d Respiratory System absorption and secretion i Trachea bronchi lungs ii breath e Cardiovascular System blood i Heart pump ii Arteries take blood away from heart iii Veins take blood to heart iv Capillaries supply blood to organs v Pulse heartbeat life f Lymphatic System i Lymph nodes lymph ducts thymus spleen ii Sewage system g Digestive System absorption and secretion i Mouth salivary glands esophagus stomach liver gall bladder pancreas intestines ii Eat h Renal System absorption and secretion i kidneys bladder ureter urethra ii urinate i Tissue Types i Epithelial on the inside of organs and body cavities covers surfaces ii Connective binds supports organs protects iii Muscle creates movement of organ walls and skeletal iv Nervous activates controls processes information Skeletal System Unit 1 A The adult body has 206 bones a Axial Skeleton consists of the skull vertebral column and thoracic cage totaling 80 bones b Appendicular Skeleton consists of shoulder hip bones and the bones in te upper and lower extremities totaling 126 B Axial Skeleton Skull Vertebral Column Thoracic Cage Total 80 bones apem C Appendicular Skeleton Upper a Pectoral Girdle 4 bones total i Scalpula ii Clavicle b Upper Extremity 60 total bones I Humerus ii Radius iii Ulna iv Carpals 1 Scaphoid Lunate Triquetrium Capitate Pisiform Trapezium Trapezoid Hamate v Metacarpals vi Phalanges 1 Prox Phalanx Mid Phalanx Dist Phalanx D Appendicular Skeleton Lower a Pelvic Girdle Os Coxae 2 total i lllium ischium pubis fuse form 05 coxae b Lower Extremity 60 total Bones E Bones a I Femur ii Patella iii Tibia iv Fibula v Tarsals 1 Calcaneous talus Navicular Cuboid Medial Cuneiform lnter Cuneiform Lat Cuneiform vi Metatarsals vii Phalanges Used for support for soft tissue protection or internal organs movement work as levers hemopoiesis production of blood cells storage minerals Bone Classi cation i Long Bones Humerus radius ulna femur tibia bula 1 Have a greater length than width 2 Long Bone Anatomy Epiphysis rounded ends knobby and enlarged strengthens joints attachment sight for tendons and ligaments production of red blood cells Metaphysis located between Diaphysis and epiphysis contains epiphyseal plates major function is bone growth long ways until skeleton is done growing Diaphysis shaft Medullary Cavity space inside shaft yellow bone marrow replaces red Endostem lines medullary cavity covers insides of bones Periosteum connective tissue covers bones Nutrients and Arteries supply diaphysis normally only via 1 artery Proximal epiphysis Metaphysis Diaphysis Metaphyeis Distal epiphysis a Partially sectioned humerus arm bone F Bone Growth and Nerve Supply a Primary Nerves accompany blood vessels innervate the periosteum endosteum and medullary cavity have sensory functions serves the motor control of the arteries b Bone Growth constantly being remodeled is more dense in early adulthood Compact i Osteoprogenitors in endosteum and periosteum produce more stem cells and osteoblasts Osteoblasts make nbone matrix Osteocytes in lacunae maintain matrix communicate with osteoblasts to create more deposit of bone matrix Osteoclasts large multiple nuclei cells that dissolve bone to release calcium v Interstitial Growth length vi Appositional Growth diameter G Bone Aging a Lose ability to produce organic matrix by losing osteocyte activity to inform osteoblasts to build matrix Articular cartilage Spongy bone contains red bone marrow Red bone marrow Epiphyseal line Endosteum lines medullary cavity Nutrient artery Medullary cavity contains yellow bone l l marrow in adults i i i Periosteum l Articular cartilage b Lose calcium and other bone salt c Can have a decrease in bone density called Osteoprosis i Why elderly people have more bone fractures when they fall H Cartilage a Semi rigid connective tissue i Not as strong as bone more resilient and exible b Covers articulating surfaces i Smooth low friction gliding surfaces forjoints C Is avascular when matures not very much blood supply Davascular d Cells i Chondroblasts produce matrix ii Chondrocytes surrounded by matrix reside in lacunae e Types i Hyaline most commonly found heaviest form of cartilage provides support by exibility and resilience forms majority of fetal skeleton 1 Location articulations nose larynx trachea costal cartilage ii Fibro very durable shock absorber resists compression 1 Location intervertebral discs pubic symphysis menisci iii Elastic similar to hyaline very resilient and exible 1 Location epiglottis external ear f Functions i Supports soft tissue 1 Airways in respiratory system 2 Auricle in ear ii Articulations 1 Smooth surfaces where bones meet iii Model for bone growth 1 Fetal long bones Articulations Unit 1 A Articulations a joint where the bones meet another bone teeth cartilage vary in stability and mobility a Normally named for the articulating bones i Radioulnarjoints ii Sternoclavicle B Classi cation a Anatomically by structure b Physiologically by function C Joint Mobility and Joint Stability a NOTE The more mobility a joint has the less stability The less mobility a joint has the more stability i Ex Shouldermore mobieess stable to Skull less mobile more stable b Joint Stability sutures help provide stability to the joints I Ligaments ii Capsule iii Shape of articulation iv Muscles v Fat pads vi Other bones vii Tension in tendons D Structural joint Classes a AnatomicalStructural Classi cation i Fibrous bones held together by collagen bers 1 No joint cavity brous lled a Gomphoses resembles a peg in a socket Teeth to maxilla and mandible b Sutures immobile joints that occur between certain bones of the skull c Syndesmoses joints in which articulating bones are joined by long strands of dense regular connective tissue only Between the radius and ulna and tibia and bula ii Cartilaginous bones attached by cartilage no joint cavity 1 Synchondroses articulation where bones are joined by hyaline cartilage Usually immobile 2 Symphyses articulation where bones are joined by a pad of brocartilage Slightly mobile lntervertebral joints iii Synovial bones separated by uid freely mobile joints 1 Anatomy a Articular Capsule two layers outer layer made of dense reg connective tissue strengthens joint Inner synovial membrane secretes synovial uid which lubricates and nourishes cartilage Absorbs shock during compression ofjoint Joint Cavity Synovial Fluid Articular Cartilage articular surfaces covered by hyaline cartilage Prevents bone to bone contact during joint compression e Ligaments connect bone to bone strengthen and reinforce capsule f Nerves signal pain when joint is overstretched Blood Vessels nourish tissues in joint 2 Synovial Accessories a Bursa brous sack like structure which contains synovial uid and line by synovial membrane b Tendon Sheath wraps around tendons where there may be excessive friction Common in con ned spaces like the wrist and ankle 3 Synovial Joint Classes classi ed anatomically by shape of articulating surface a Uniaxial bone moves in one plane or axis b Biaxial bone moves in two planes or axes c Multiaxial bone moves in multiple planes or axes 4 Synovial Joint Shapes a PlaneGliding Joint simplest synovial articulation least mobile type of diarthrosis Uniaxial Found in hand and wrist b Hinge Joints Uniaxial movement con ned to a single axis Found in elbow or the Humerus and ulna c Pivot Joint Uniaxial one bone with a rounded surface ts into a ring formed by a ligament and another bone Found in the rst two cervical vertebrae d Condylar Ellipsoid Joints Biaxial Can move in two axes back and forth and side to side Found in the metacarpophalangeal joints 25 ngers e Saddle Joint resemble shape of a saddle greater range of movement Found in the thumb f Ball and Socket multiaxial found in hip and femur and scalpula and Humerus 5 Synovial Joint Movements a Gliding Motion surface slide back and forth or side to side b Angular Motion angel between articulating bones increases or decreases 995 vi vii Flexion angle decreases Extension angle decreases Hyperextension extension movement continues past anatomical position Lateral Flexion vertebral column moves in lateral dir along coronalfrontal plane Abduction movement of bone away from midline Adduction movement of bone to midline Circumduction continuous movement that combines exion abduction extension and adduction in succession c Rotational Motion bone pivots around its longitudinal axis Pronation rotation of forearm where palm is turned downwards Supination rotation of forearm where palm is turned upwards d Special Movements iv V vi vii viii Depression movement of body part inferiorly Elevation movement of body part superiorly Dorsi exion where ankle is moved downward pointing you toes down Plantar Flexion where ankle is moved upward pointing your toes up Inversion twisting motion of the foot where sole of foot is rolled inwards Eversion twisting motion of the foot where sole of foot turned outwards Protraction stick tongue out moved body part farther anteriorly than anatomical position Retraction return tongue to normal position returned to anatomical position Opposition taking your thumb and touching the tips of your other ngers on that same hand b Physiological Classi cation i Synarthroses immobilejoints ii Amphiarthroses slightly mobilejoints iii Diarthroses freely mobile joints Introduction to the Muscular System A Properties of Muscle Tissue C d Excitability equated with responsiveness outside stimuli initiate electrical changes in the muscle bers leading to contraction of muscle ber Contractility stimulation of the muscle cells generates tension within the cell which may cause the cell to shorten Shortening results in either a pull on bones of skeleton or movement of speci c body parts Elasticity a contracted muscle cell recoils to its resting length when the applied tension is removed Extensibility A muscle cell must be capable of extending in length in response to the contraction of opposing muscle cells B Function of Muscle Tissue Body Movement b Maintenance of Posture c Temperature Regulation d Storage and Movement of Materials e Support C Muscle Types Cardiac striated have one or two nuclei Y shaped branches and join to adjacent muscle cells at junctions called intercalated discs arrange with in the thick bundles in the heart walls short and thick involuntary meaning they contract on their own autorhythmic contraction causes movement of blood Smooth short muscle cells found in walls of visceraorgans and blood vessels fusiform shape9widest in middle tapered at each end one central nucleus not striated laments attached to dense bodies involuntary control contraction causes movement of blood and food Skeletal constructed of four different tissue types epithelial connective muscle nervous striated voluntary 4050 of body weight D Skeletal Muscle Composition Copyright The McGrawaliiili Companies Inc Permission required for reprorl uclion or display Tendon Deep fascia Perimysium Nuclei 1uscle fiber Fascicle lb Faslcirzle V 39 139 Enilomysium Muscle litre quot J la lu39ilusclie c Muscle liber E Connective Tissue Components a b Each muscle has three layers of connective tissue comprised of elastic and collagen bers Connective tissue provides sites for blood vessels nerve distribution protection and a way of attachment for the muscle to skeleton Connective Tissue layers i innermost layer surrounds and electrically insulates each muscle ber ii surrounds individual fascicles iii surrounds entire muscle iv Deep and Super cial Fascia surround each muscle and separate muscles F Muscle Attachments a th Tendon attaches muscle to bone at the ends of a muscle the connective tissue layers form to make a brous tendon Thick corded like structure Aponeurosis when a tendon forms a thin attened sheet Muscles extend over a joint often attaching to both articulating bones with in that joint When a muscle contracts one articulating bones moves the other does not Origin less mobile attachment of a muscle Insertion more mobile attachment of a muscle G Skeletal Muscle Contraction Rules a Muscles both contract and relax b Pull on bones do not push c If crosses a joint then muscle has the ability to control the joint stabilize or provide movement d 3 factors to determine type of muscular contraction i Resistance H Speed in Length e Isometric Contraction i Resistance can change ii Speed same iii Length same iv NO MOVEMENT f lsotonic Contraction i Resistance same ii Speed changes iii Length changes iv MOVEMENT OCCURS v 2 TYPES OF CONTRACTION 1 Concentric Muscle shortens 2 Eccentric Muscle Lengthens g Actions of Skeletal Muscles i Agonist PRIMARY MOVER creates a speci c movement when contraction occurs ii Antagonist muscle whose action opposes that of an agonist iii Synergist muscle assists the agonist H Muscle Classi cation based on Articulations a Uniarticulate crosses 1 joint b Bimultiarticulate crosses 2 or more joints i Advantages 1 Ef cient 2 Smoother movements 3 Less complex innervation 4 Less muscle mass required I Exercise and Skeletal Muscle a Muscle Atrophy tissue wastes and causes a reduction in muscle size power and tone Can be a result of no stimulation of muscles lack of exercise b Muscle Hypertrophy increase in muscle ber SIZE not number of bers results from constant stimulation or exercise J Skeletal Muscle Fiber Organization a Circular bers are arranged around an opening such as the mouth Functions a sphincter b Parallel fascicles are parallel to long axis of muscle muscle body increases in diameter with contraction c Convergent triangular muscle with common attachment direction of pull can change d Pennate muscle body has 1 or more tendon fascicles at oblique angle to tendon i UniPennate muscle bers on same side of tendon ii BiPennate muscle bers on both sides of tendon iii Multi Pennate tendon branches within muscle K Naming Skeletal Muscles 9n h Muscle Action Body Region Muscle Attachments Orientation Muscle Shape and Size Muscle HeadsTendons of origin L Tend n vs Ligament F Earhme Tendon muscle turns into connective tissue i Connects muscle to bone ii Causes movement Ligament tough cartilage binding bone to bone resists outside forces i Prevents movement creates stability Fascia connective tissue between muscles Retinaculum cartilage holding tendons in place Menisci cartilage padding reduce friction between 2 bones Labrum ring of brocartilage that deepens a joint ex the hip socket Bursae sac lled with synovial uid at a synovial joint which facilitates musclejoint movement
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