Exam (1+2+3) Study Guides
Exam (1+2+3) Study Guides PSYC 2070
Popular in Child And Lifespan Development
verified elite notetaker
BIOH 112 - 01
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 27 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kat Nguyen on Sunday September 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 2070 at University of Denver taught by Dr. Pamela Miller in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 369 views. For similar materials see Child And Lifespan Development in Psychlogy at University of Denver.
Reviews for Exam (1+2+3) Study Guides
Same time next week teach? Can't wait for next weeks notes!
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/06/15
CHAPTER 1 1 Life span maximum of years an individual can live has not changed over time Life expectancy average of years that a person born in a particular year can expect to live has changed over time 2 Development is 0 Multidimensional consists of biological cognitive and socioemotional dimensions 0 Multidirectional throughout life some dimensionscomponents of a dimension expand While others shrink 0 Plastic Whether people are capable of changing 0 Multidisciplinary development is a matter that cuts across disciplines psychology sociology neuroscience 0 Contextual all development occurs Within a context setting 0 Coconstruction development comes from biological cultural and individual factors in uencing each other 3 3 types of contextual influences on development 0 Normative age graded similar of individuals in a particular age group 0 Normative history graded common to people of a particular generation because of historical circumstance 0 Nonnormative life events unusual occurrences that have a major impact on the individual s life 4 It is important to consider sociocultural contexts when studying development because development is shaped by the sociocultural context 5 Processes of development 0 Biological changes in an individual s physical nature 0 Cognitive changes in an individual s thinking intelligence and language 0 Socioemotional changes in the individual s relationships with other people changes in emotions and changes in personality 6 Chronological age of years that have elapsed since birth Biological age a person s age in terms of biological health involves knowing the functional capacities of a person s vital organ Psychological age individual s adaptive capacities compared with those of other individuals of the same chronological age Social age connectedness with others and the social roles individuals adopt 7 Development issues 0 Nature vs Nurture the extent to which development is influenced by nature and by nurture 0 Stability vs Change the degree to which early traits and characteristics persist or change over time 0 Continuity vs Discontinuity the degree to which development involves either gradual cumulative change continuity or distinct stages discontinuity 8 Theory interrelated coherent set of ideas that helps to explain phenomena and make predictions Hypothesis specific assertions or predictions often derived from theories that can be tested 9 Psychoanalytic perspective development depends on the unconscious mind and is heavily couched in emotion behavior is merely a surface characteristic it is important to analyze the symbolic meanings of behavior early experiences are important in development I discontinuity 0 Freud s Theory emphasizes sexual motivation if the need for pleasure at any of the five psychosexual stage is not satisfied an individual may become fixated at that stage of development Erikson s Theory there are eight stages of psychosocial development unfold throughout the life span each stage consists of a unique task that confronts individuals with a crisis that must be faced 10 Cognitive perspective emphasizes conscious thoughts Piaget s Cognitive Developmental Theory children go through four stages of cognitive development as they actively construct their understanding of the world organization and adaptation child s recognition is qualitatively different in one stage compared with another Vygotsky s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development Informationprocessing Theory individuals manipulate info monitor it and strategize about it processes of memory and thinking are central 11 Operant conditioning Skinner consequences of a behavior produce changes in the probability of the 12 13 behavior s recurrence rewards and punishments shape development Social Cognitive Theory B andura behavior environment and personcognition factors are key factors in development Bronfenbrenner s Ecological Theory development reflects the influence of several environmental systems Microsystem setting in which individual lives Mesosystem relations between microsystemsconnections between contexts Exosystem links between a social setting in which the individual does not have an active role and the individual s immediate context Macrosystem culture in which individuals live Chronosystem patterning of environmental events and transitions over the life course as well as sociohistorical circumstances 14 Methods for collecting data 0 Observation 0 Survey and Interview 0 Standardized Test uniform procedures for administration and scoring 0 Case Study in depth look at a single individual 0 Physiological Measures 15 3 main types of research designs 0 Descriptive Research aims to observe and record behavior 0 Correlational Research describes the strength of the relation between two or more events or characteristics 0 Experimental Research carefully regulated procedure in which one or more of the factors believed to influence the behavior being studied is manipulated and all other factors are held constant permits the determination of cause 16 Ways in which researchers can look at developmental change 0 Crosssectional Approach simultaneously compares individuals of different ages 0 Longitudinal Approach the same individuals are studied over a period of time CHAPTER 2 1 Evolutionary Psychology emphasizes the importance of adaptation reproduction and survival of the fittest in shaping behavior 2 Mitosis results in two 2n cells Meiosis results in four n cells Genotype a person s genetic heritage Phenotype the way genotype is expressed in observed and measurable characteristics 3 genetic principles 0 Dominant and Recessive Genes 0 SexLinked Genes 0 Polygenic Inheritance many characteristics are determined by the interaction of many different genes Twin study behavioral similarity of identical twins is compared with the behavioral similarity of fraternal twins Adoption study investigators seek to discover whether the behavior and psychological characteristics of adopted children are more like those of their adoptive parents nurture or more like those of their biological parents nature 3 periods of prenatal development 0 Germinal week 0 2 creation of the zygote continued cell division and the attachment of the zygote to the uterine wall 0 Embryonic week 2 8 rate of cell differentiation intensifies support systems for the cells form and organs appear 0 Fetal week 9 38 growth and development continue dramatically Prenatal tests available to women 0 Ultrasound Sonography noninvasive prenatal medical procedure in which high frequency sound waves are directed into the pregnant woman s abdomen 0 Chorionic Villus Sampling a tiny tissue sample from the placenta is removed and analyzed 0 Amniocentesis a sample of amniotic fluid is withdrawn by syringe and tested for chromosome or metabolic disorders o Maternal Blood Screening 0 Fetal MRI 0 Noninvasive Prenatal Diagnosis NIPD 8 Stages of the birth process 0 Stage 1 6 12 hours uterine contractions are 15 20 minutes apart at the beginning and last up to a minute each dilating the cerviX to an opening of about 10cm so that the baby can move from the uterus to the birth canal 0 Stage 2 45 minutes 1 hour begins when the baby s head starts to move through the cerviX and the birth canal and terminates when the baby completely emerges from the mother s body 0 Afterbirth minutes placenta umbilical cord and other membranes are detached and expelled 9 Apgar Scale widely used to assess the health of newborns at one and five minutes after birth 0 Low birth weight infant weighs less than 51b at birth consequences 0 Low survival rate high rate of severe brain damage 0 Likely to develop a learning disability breathing problems autism etc 0 Small for date infant has birth weight that is below normal when the length of the pregnancy is considered 0 Preterm infant is born three weeks or more before the pregnancy has reached its full term 38 weeks CHAPTER 3 1 Cephalocaudal pattern sequence of growth that occurs from top to bottom Proximodistal pattern growth starts at the center of the body and moves toward the extremities 2 Brain s development during infancy Brain weighs 25 of its adult weight at birth and 75 of its adult weight by 2nd birthday Brain s areas do not mature uniformly Myelination begins prenatally and continues throughout childhood connectivity among neurons increases as well Blooming and pruning of synapses vary considerably by brain region Basic reflexes that the newborn has Rooting cheek stroked or side of mouth touched I turns head opens mouth begins sucking Sucking object touching mouth I sucks automatically Moro sudden stimulation I startles arches back throws head back flings out arms and legs and then rapidly closes them to center of body Babinski sole of foot stroked I fans out toes twists foot in Grasping palms touched I grasps tightly Gross motor skills involve large muscle activities moving one s arm walking postural control Fine motor skills involve finely tuned movements grasping a toy using a spoon finger dexterity Methods available to study infant perception Visual Preference Method studying whether infants can distinguish one stimulus from another by measuring the length of time they attend to different stimuli Habituation decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentations of the stimulus Equipment eye tracking device Infants perceptual capabilities for Vision 0 Visual Acuity and Color 0 Perceiving Occluded Objects 0 Depth Perception 0 Hearing 0 Changes during infancy consist of perception of loudness pitch and localization Intermodal Perception involves integrating info from two or more sensory modalities 7 Perceptual Motor Coupling action can guide perception and vice versa action educates perception 8 Piaget s Theory 0 Schemes actions or mental representations that organize knowledge 0 Assimilation using existing schemes to deal with new info or experiences 0 Accommodation adjusting schemes to fit new info and experiences 0 Organization grouping isolated behaviors and thoughts into a higher order more smoothly functioning cognitive system 0 Equilibration mechanism by which children shift from one stage of thought to the next 9 Sensorimotor Stage Piaget lasts from birth 2 years during which infants construct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences with motoric actions 0 Object Permanence understanding that objects continue to exist even when they cannot be seen heard or touched 10 Evaluation of Piaget s Sensorimotor Stage 0 AnotB error tendency of infants to reach where an object was located earlier rather than where the object was last hidden I sensitive to delay between hiding the object at B and the infant s attempt to find it I failure in memory 0 Infants perceptual abilities develop much earlier than Piaget would have predicted I understanding that objects are substantial and permanent 0 Core knowledge approach Spelke infants are born with domain specific innate knowledge systems space number sense object permanence language I these domains form a foundation around which more mature cognitive functioning and learning develop 0 In sum Piaget was not specific enough about how infants learn about their world and infants especially young infants are more competent than Piaget thought 11 Meltzoff found in his studies with infants that 0 Joint attention in which individuals focus on the same object or event considerably increases infants ability to learn from other people language enhances longterm memory and is associated with self regulation 0 Infants imitative abilities are biologically based involving flexibility and adaptability I beginning at birth there is an interplay between learning by observing and learning by doing 0 Deferred imitation occurs after a time delay 0 Memory involves the retention of info over time I Implicit memory memories of skills and routine procedures that are performed automatically I Explicit memory conscious memory of facts and experiences Look back to chapter 3 for early language development information CHAPTER 4 1 Emotion feelingaffect that occurs when a person is in a stateinteraction that is important to him or her especially to his or her well being Emotions have important roles in infancy 0 Communication with others 0 Behavioral organization Early emotions include surprise interest joy anger sadness fear and disgust all of which do not require thought 3 main types of cries 0 Basic cry rhythmic pattern usually consisting of a cry a briefer silence a shorter inspiratory whistle that is higher pitched than the main cry and then a brief rest before the next cry 0 Anger cry similar to basic cry with more excess air forced through the vocal chords 0 Pain cry sudden outburst of loud crying without preliminary moaning followed by breath holding Temperament individual differences in behavioral styles emotions and characteristic ways of responding 3 classifications of temperament 0 Chess and Thomas Classification 0 Easy child generally in a positive mood quickly establishes regular routines and adapts easily to new experiences 0 Dif cult child reacts negatively cries frequently engages in irregular routines slow to accept change 0 Slowtowarmup child low activity level somewhat negative displays low intensity of mood 0 Kagan s Concept of Behavioral Inhibition focuses on the differences between a shy child and a sociable child 0 Inhibition to the unfamiliar inhibited children react to unfamiliarity with initial avoidance distress or subdued affect 0 Effortful Control Self Regulation 0 Infants who are high in effortful control show the ability to keep their arousal from getting too intense and have strategies for soothing themselves 0 Infants who are low in effortful control are often unable to control their arousal easily agitated and become intensely emotional 4 How children acquire a specific temperament 0 Biological In uences physiological characteristics have been linked with different temperaments 0 Many aspects of the environment can encouragediscourage the persistence of temperament characteristics gender and culture 5 Goodness of fit match between a child s temperament and the environmental demands the child must cope with 6 Attachment close emotional bond between two people does not emerge suddenly but rather develops in a series of phases Strange Situation Ainsworth observational measure of infant attachment in which the infant eXperiences a series of introductions separations and reunions with the caregiver and an adult stranger in a prescribed order 0 Securely attached babies use caregiver as a secure base from which to eXplore their environment 0 Insecure avoidant babies show insecurity by avoiding their mothers 0 Insecure resistant babies often cling to the caregiver then resist her by fighting against the closeness 0 Insecure disorganized babies show insecurity by being disorganized and disoriented It is proposed that secure attachment in the first year of life provides an important foundation for psychological development later in life CHAPTER 3 0 Review language development p 99 106 CHAPTER 5 1 Changes that occur in the brain during early childhood 0 Local patterns within the brain change dramatically the amount of brain material in some areas increases while that in other areas decreases 0 Prefrontal cortex which plays a key role in planning organizing new actions and maintaining attention to tasks grows rapidly I Number and size of dendrites increase while myelination continues 2 Guidelines for children regarding exercise 0 Preschool children are to engage in two hours of physical activity per day comprising one hour of structured activity and one hour of unstructured free play 3 Piaget s Preoperational Stage ages 2 7 child begins to represent the world with words images and drawings stable concepts are formed mental reasoning emerges child s cognitive world is dominated by eg0centrism and magical beliefs 0 Operations which are reversible mental actions that allow children to do mentally what before they could do only physically are yet to exist I 2 substages O Symbolic Function ages 2 4 child gains ability to mentally represent an object that is not present limitations include I Egocentrism inability to distinguish between one s own perspective and someone else s perspective I Animism belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities and are capable of action 0 Intuitive Thought ages 4 7 child begin to use primitive reasoning and want to know the answers to all sorts of questions child seems so sure about their knowledge and understanding yet are unaware of how they know what they know 0 Other limitations 0 Centration centering of attention on one characteristic to the exclusion of all others I Lack of concentration awareness that altering an object s appearance does not change its basic properties 4 Vygotsky s Social Constructivist Approach emphasizes the social contexts of learning and the construction of knowledge through social interaction 0 Zone of Proximal Development range of tasks that are too difficult for a child to master alone but can be learned with the guidance and assistance of adults or more skilled children 0 Lower limit level of skill reached by the child working independently 0 Upper limit level of additional responsibility the child can accept with the assistance of an able instructor Scaffolding changing the instructor s level of support to fit the child s current performance Language and Thought 0 Children use private speech for self regulation 0 All mental functions have externalsocial origins I children must communicate with others before they can focus inward on their own thoughts and they must communicate externally and use language for a long time before they can make the transition from external to internal speech which becomes their thoughts Teaching Strategies Based on Vygotsky s Theory Assess the child s ZPD skilled helper presents child with tasks of varying difficulty to determine the best level at which to begin instruction Use the child s ZPD in teaching teaching should begin near the zone s upper limit so that the child can reach the goal with help and move to a higher level of skill and knowledge Use more skilled peers as teachers Monitoring and encourage use of private speech Place instruction in a meaningful context Limitations and advances in young children s ability regarding 0 Attention Executive attention involves planning actions allocating attention to goals detecting and compensating for errors monitoring progress on tasks and dealing with novel or difficult circumstances Sustained attention focused and extended engagement with an objecttaskeventaspect Salient vs Relevant Dimensions children are likely to pay attention to stimuli that stand out or are salient even when those stimuli are not relevant to solving a problemperforming a task Planfulness child does not examine all of the details before making a judgment 0 Memory 0 Shortterm memory memory component in which individuals retain info for up to 30 seconds assuming that there is no rehearsal of the info I increases during early childhood e iciency and speed of processing info both of which improves with age are important 0 Memory becomes more accurate 0 Executive functioning umbrella like concept that consists of a number of higher level cognitive processes linked to the development of the brain s prefrontal cortex involving managing one s thoughts to engage in goal directed behavior and exercise self control 0 In early childhood executive functioning involves developmental advances in cognitive inhibition cognitive exibility goal setting and delay of gratification How language develop during early childhood 0 Phonology sound system of a language including the sounds used and how they may be combined I preschool children become more sensitive to the sounds of spoken words and increasingly capable of producing all the sounds of their language 0 Morphology units of meaning involved in word formation I children begin using plural and possessive forms of nouns putting appropriate endings on verbs using prepositions articles and various forms of ltto begt overgeneralization 0 Syntax the way words are combined to form acceptable phrases and sentences 0 Semantics aspect of language that refers to the meaning of words and sentences 0 Vocabulary development is dramatic 0 Pragmatics appropriate use of language in different contexts I children become able to talk about things that are not here and not now and learn to change their speech style to suit the situation CHAPTER 6 1 How concept of self changes during early childhood 0 Initiative vs Guilt Erikson children become convinced that they are persons of their own and on their own initiative they exuberantly move out into a wider social world I their initiative and enthusiasm bring them not only rewards but also guilt which lowers selfesteem 0 Selfunderstanding representation of self the substance and content of self conceptions 0 In early childhood children think the self can be described by material characteristics physical activities they also begin to include psychological and emotional traits in their self descriptions 0 Young children s self descriptions are typically unrealistically positive because they have yet distinguished between the desired and the actual competence tend to confuse ability and effort and tend to compare present abilities with what they could do at an earlier age 0 Understanding others young children s theory of mind includes understanding that other people have emotions and desires and that people do not always give accurate reports of their beliefs children also develop the understanding of joint commitments 2 Emotioncoaching parents monitor their children s emotions view negative emotions as opportunities for teaching assist children in labeling emotions and coach them in how to deal effectively with emotions they interact with children in a less rejecting manner use more scaffolding and praise and are more nurturant Emotiondismissing parents view their role as to deny ignore or change negative emotions 3 Stages of moral reasoning Piaget 0 Heteronomous morality ages 4 7 children think of justice and rules as unchangeable properties removed from the control of people 0 Immanent justice concept that if a rule is broken punishment will be meted out immediately 0 Autonomous morality ages 10 and older children become aware that rules and laws are created by people and in judging an action they consider the actor s intentions as well as the action s consequences 4 Gender identity the sense of being male or female Gender roles sets of expectations that prescribe how females or males should think act and feel Social theories of gender Social Role Theory the social hierarchy and division of labor are important causes of gender differences in power assertiveness and nurture Psychoanalytic Theory preschool child develops a sexual attraction to the opposite sex parent and by ages 5 6 renounces this attraction because of anxious feelings and subsequently identifies with the same sex parent unconsciously adopting the same sex parent s characteristics Social Cognitive Theory children s gender development occur through the observation and imitation of gender behavior and through the rewards and punishments children experience for genderappropriate and genderinappropriate behavior Gender Schema Theory cognitive theory gender typing emerges as children gradually develop gender schemas of what is gender appropriate and gender inappropriate in their culture Schema cognitive structure a network of associations that guide an individual s perceptions I a gender schema organizes the world in terms of female and male children are motivated to act in ways that conform with these gender schemas Baumrind s Parenting Styles Authoritarian restrictive punitive style in which parents exhort the child to follow their directions and respect their work and effort places firm limits and controls on the child and allows little verbal exchange Authoritative encourages children to be independent but still places limits and controls on their actions extensive verbal give and take is allowed parents are warm and nurturant toward the child show pleasure and support in response to children s constructive behavior and expect independent age appropriate behavior Neglectful parent is uninvolved in child s life child develops the sense that other aspects of parent s life are more important than heshe is Indulgent parents are highly involved with their children but places few demandscontrols on them Punishment Corporal punishment is linked to higher levels of immediate compliance and aggression by the children as well as lower levels of moral internalization and mental health It is recommended that misbehavior is handled by reasoning with the child especially explaining the consequences of the child s actions for others How birth order in uences behavior Variations in interactions associated with a particular position in the family When all the factors that in uence behavior are considered birth order itself has limited ability to predict behavior Effects of having working parents What matters for children s development is the nature of the parents work I parents who experience poor working conditions are likely to be more irritable at home and engage in less effective parenting and vice versa Children whose mothers are employed engage in less gender stereotyping and have more egalitarian views of gender than do children whose mothers do not work outside the home 10 11 Few differences have been found between children growing up with lesbian gay couples and those growing up with heterosexual parents Functions of play 0 Helps child master anxieties and conflicts because pent up tensions are released through play child can cope better with life s problems 0 Important context for cognitive development permit children to practice their competencies and acquired skills in a relaxed pleasurable way 0 Satis es child s exploratory drive by offering possibilities of novelty complexity uncertainty surprise and incongruity 0 Important context for the development of language and communication skills Types of play 0 Sensorimotor play behavior engaged in by infants to derive pleasure from exercising their existing sensorimotor schemes 0 Practice play repetition of behavior when new skills are being learned or when physicalmental mastery and coordination of skills are required for gamessports 0 PretenseSymbolic play occurs when child transforms the physical environment into a symbol 0 Social play involves interaction with peers turn taking conversations social games and routines physical play 0 Constructive play combines sensorimotorpractice play with symbolic representation occurs when children engage in the self regulated creation of a productsolution CHAPTER 7 1 Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD disability in which children consistently show one or more of these characteristics over a period of time 0 Inattention children have difficulty focusing on any one thing 0 Hyperactivity children show high levels of physical activity seeming to be almost constantly in motion 0 Impulsivity children have difficulty curbing their reactions they tend not to think before they act ADHD is most likely caused by delays in brain development specifically in the prefrontal regions that are important in attention and planning Autism Spectrum Disorders ASD range from the more severe disorder called autistic disorder to the milder disorder called Asperger syndrome 0 Characterized by problems in social interaction problems with verbal and nonverbal communication and repetitive behaviors children may also show atypical responses to sensory experiences 0 Autistic disorder severe developmental ASD that has its onset in the first three years of life and includes deficiencies in social relationships abnormalities in communication and restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior 0 Asperger syndrome child has relatively good verbal language skills milder nonverbal language problems and a restricted range of interests and relationships I child often engages in obsessive repetitive routines and preoccupation with a particular object Autism is most likely a brain dysfunction characterized by abnormalities and brain structure lack of connectivity between brain regions and neurotransmitters Piaget s Concrete Operational Stage ages 7 11 children can perform concrete operations and they can reason logically as long as reasoning can be applied to specific or concrete examples 0 Concrete operations allow child to consider several characteristics rather than focus on a single property of an object 0 Child gains the ability to classify or divide things into di erent setssubsets and to consider their interrelationships 0 Child becomes capable of seriation which is the ability to order stimuli along a quantitative dimension 0 Child also develops transitivity which is the ability to combine relations to understand certain conclusions Memory in middle and late childhood 0 Longterm Memory relatively permanent and unlimited type of memory increases with age during middle and late children improvements in memory reflect children s increased knowledge and increased use of strategies 0 Expertise when one has eXpertise about a particular subject hisher memory also tends to be good regarding material related to that subject 0 Strategies deliberate mental activities to improve the processing of info 0 Guild children to elaborate about the info they are to remember 0 Encourage children to engage in mental imagery O Motivate children to remember material by understanding it rather than by memorizing it 0 Repeat and vary instructional info and link it to other info early and often 0 Embed memory relevant language when instructing children 0 Fuzzy Trace Theory memory is best understood by considering two types of memory representations verbatim memory trace precise details of info and gist central idea of the info I at some point during the early elementary school years children begin to use gist more which contributes to the improved memory and reasoning of older children because fuzzy traces are more enduring Thinking involves manipulating and transforming info in memory 0 Critical thinking involves thinking reflectively and productively and evaluating evidence 0 Creative thinking ability to think in novel and unusual ways and to come up with unique solutions to problems 0 Convergent thinking produces one correct answer and characterizes the kind of thinking that is required on conventional tests of intelligence 0 Divergent thinking produces many different answers to the same question and characterizes creativity Intelligence ability to solve problems and to adapt and learn from eXperiences How intelligence is measured 0 The Binet Tests 0 Mental Age MA an individual s level of mental development relative to others 0 Intelligence Quotient IQ a person s mental age divided by chronological age and multiplied by 100 0 The Wechsler Scales provides not only an overall IQ score but also yield composite indexes which allow the examiner to quickly identify the areas in which the child is strong or weak Sternberg s Triarchic Theory intelligence comes in 3 forms 0 Analytical intelligence analyze judge evaluate compare and contrast 0 Creative intelligence create design invent originate and imagine 0 Practical intelligence use apply implement and put ideas into practice Gardner s Eight Frames of Mind 0 Verbal think in words and use language to eXpress meaning 0 Mathematical carry out mathematical operations 0 Spatial think three dimensionally 0 Bodilykinesthetic manipulate objects and be physically adept 0 Musical sensitivity to pitch melody rhyme and tone 0 Interpersonal understand and interact effectively with others 0 Intrapersonal understand oneself 0 Naturalist observe patterns in nature and understand natural and human made systems 7 Gifted having above average intelligence IQ of 130 or higher andor superior talent for something three criteria that characterize gifted children 0 Precocity gifted children begin to master an area earlier than their peers usually because they have an inborn high ability in a particular domain 0 Marching to a different drummer gifted children learn in a qualitatively different way than ordinary children they need minimal help or scaffolding from adults to learn and tend to resist any kind of eXplicit instructions they often make discoveries of their own and solve problems in unique ways 0 A passion to master gifted children are driven to understand the domain in which they have high ability they display an intense obsessive interest and an ability to focus and they motivate themselves CHAPTER 8 1 Selfunderstanding in middle and late childhood 0 Children increasingly describe themselves with psychological characteristics and traits 0 Children become more likely to recognize social aspects of the self 0 Children also increasingly refers to social comparison Selfesteem refers to global evaluations of the self also called self worthself image Selfconcept refers to domain specific evaluations of the self 0 The foundations of self esteem and self concept emerge from the quality of parentchild interaction in infancy and early childhood 0 Selfesteem reflects perceptions that do not always match reality 0 Children with high self esteem have greater initiative but this can produce positive or negative outcomes Kohlberg s Three Stages of Moral Thinking 0 Preconventional reasoning children interpret good and bad in terms of external rewards and punishments 0 Heteronomous morality moral thinking is tied to punishment 0 Individualism instrumental purpose and exchange individuals pursue their own interests but also let others do the same 0 Conventional reasoning individuals apply certain standards which are set by others such as parents or government 0 Mutual interpersonal eXpectations relationships and interpersonal conformity individuals value trust caring and loyalty to others as a basis of moral judgments 0 Social systems morality moral judgments are based on understanding the social order law justice and duty 0 Postconventional reasoning individual recognizes alternative moral courses eXplores the options and then decides on a personal moral code 0 Social contractutility and individual rights individuals reason that values rights and principles undergirdtranscend the law 0 Universal ethical principles person has developed a moral standard based on universal human rights Criticisms of Kohlberg s theory 0 Kohlberg s theory has been criticized for placing too much emphasis on moral thought and not enough emphasis on moral behavior 0 Kohlberg emphasized the universality of his theory but some critics claim his theory is culturally biased O Kohlberg s system does not recognize the higher level moral reasoning of certain cultures 0 Kohlberg underestimated the contribution of family relationships to moral development 0 Kohlberg s theory reflects a gender bias for it is based on a male norm that puts abstract principles above relationships and concern for others and sees the individual as standing alone and independently making moral decisions I justice perspective 0 Care perspective Gilligan views people in terms of their connectedness with others and emphasizes interpersonal communication relationships with others and concern for others Gender similarities and differences 0 Physical development 0 Women have about twice the body fat of men 0 On the average males grow to be 10 taller than women 0 Females have a longer life eXpectancy than males and are less likely than males to develop physical and psychological disorders 0 Female brains are smaller than male brains but they have more folds 0 Areas that functions in visuospatial skills are larger in males than females 0 Areas of the brain involved in emotional expression show more metabolic activity in females 0 Cognitive development 0 Females have slightly better verbal skills than males 0 Socioemotional development 0 Boys are more physically aggressive than girls are though sometimes verbal aggression is more pronounced in girls 0 Relational aggression which involves harming someone in manipulating a relationship comprises a greater percentage of girls overall aggression 0 Females eXpress emotion more than males do are better than males at decoding emotion smile more cry more and are happier O Males usually show less self regulation of emotion than females do 0 Females engage in more prosocial behavior than males do Androgyny the presence of positive masculine and feminine characteristics in the same person 5 peer statuses 0 Popular children are frequently nominated as a best friend and are rarely disliked by peers 0 Average children receive an average number of both positive and negative nominations from peers 0 Neglected children are infrequently nominated as a best friend but are not disliked by peers 0 Rejected children are infrequently nominated as a best friend and are actively disliked by peers 0 Controversial children are frequently nominated both as a best friend and as being disliked CHAPTER 9 1 G Stanley Hall proposed the stormand stress view that adolescence is a turbulent time charged with conflict and mood swings 2 Puberty period of rapid physical maturation involving hormonal and bodily changes that occur primarily during early adolescence 0 Physical changes in males increase in penis and testicle size appearance of pubic hair hair in armpits and facial hair voice change first ejaculation onset of maximum growth in height and weight 0 Physical changes in females 0 Breasts enlarge pubic hair hair in armpits appear growth in height and hips become wider than shoulders 0 Menarche first menstruation appears rather late in the pubertal cycle 0 The growth spurt occurs approximately 2 years earlier for girls than for boys 0 The concentrations of testosterone in males and estrogen in females increase dramatically during adolescence Early and Late Maturation 0 Earlymaturing boys perceive themselves more positively and have more successful peer relations during adolescence 0 Latematuring boys develop a stronger sense of identity later in life 0 Earlymaturing girls are vulnerable to a number of problems 3 Changes in the brain during adolescence 0 By the end of adolescence individuals have fewer more selective and more e ective neuronal connections than they did as children 0 Corpus callosum where fibers connect the brain s hemispheres thickens in adolescence and this improves adolescents ability to process info 0 Development of the prefrontal cortex continues 0 Amygdala the seat of emotions matures 4 Sexuality changes during adolescence 0 Adolescence is a time of sexual exploration and experimentation of sexual fantasies and realities of incorporating sexuality into one s identity 0 Adolescent s sexual identity involves activities interests styles of behavior and an indication of sexual orientation 0 Early sexual activity is linked with risky behaviors such as drug use delinquency and school related problems 5 Adolescence is a critical juncture in the adoption of behaviors that are relevant to health 0 Many of the behaviors that are linked to poor health habits and early death in adults begin during adolescence 6 Leading causes of death in adolescence unintentional injuries homicide and suicide 0 The majority of deaths due to unintentional injuries involves motor vehicle accidents 7 Piaget s 4th stage of cognitive development formal operational stage age 11 onward 0 Formal operational thought is more abstract than concrete operational thought I adolescents can conjure up make believe situations abstract propositions and events that are purely hypothetical and can try to reason logically about them 0 Verbal problem solving ability 0 Increased tendency to think about thought itself 0 Thought full of idealism and possibilities especially during the beginning of the stage when assimilation dominates 0 Adolescents begin to think more as a scientist thinks devising plans to solve problems and systematically testing solutions 0 Hypotheticaldeductive reasoning formal operational thinkers develop hypotheses about way to solve problems and then systematically deduce the best way to follow to solve the problem 8 Adolescent egocentrism heightened selfconsciousness of adolescents 2 key components Elkind 0 Imaginary audience adolescents belief that others are as interested in them as they themselves are attention getting behavior motivated by a desire to be noticed visible and on stage 0 Personal fable part of adolescent egocentrism involves a sense of uniqueness and invincibility I adolescents feel that no one can understand how they really feel and believe that they themselves are invulnerable to dangers and catastrophes that happen to other people CHAPTER 10 1 Erikson s View on Identity 0 Identity vs Identity Confusion 5th developmental stage during this time adolescents are faced with deciding who they are what they are all about and where they are going in life 0 Psychosocial moratorium gap between childhood security and adult autonomy during which society leaves adolescents relatively free of responsibilities and able to try out different identities I adolescents search their identity les experimenting with di erent roles and personalities Crisis period of identity development during which the individual is exploring alternatives Commitment personal investment in identity 4 statuses of identityways of solving identity crisis Marcia 0 Identity diffusion individuals have not yet experienced a crisis or made any commitment 0 Identity foreclosure individuals have made a commitment but have not experienced a crisis 6 Identity moratorium individuals are in the midst of a crisis but whose commitments are either absent or are only vaguely defined Identity achievement individuals have undergone a crisis and have made a commitment Ethnic identity enduring aspect of the self that includes a sense of membership in an ethic group along with the attitudes and feelings related to that membership Most adolescent from ethnic minorities develop a bicaltaral identity Individuals consciously confront their ethnicity for the first time in adolescence or emerging adulthood I with their advancing cognitive skills of abstract thinking and self reflection adolescents increasingly consider the meaning of their ethnicity and also have more ethnicrelated experiences Because adolescents are more mobile and independent from their parents they are more likely to experience ethnic stereotyping and discrimination For non European ethnic groups racism and discrimination influence whether ethnic identity is retained Much of parent adolescent conflicts involve the everyday events of family life Con ict with parents often escalates during early adolescence remains somewhat stable during high school years and then lessens as the adolescent reaches 17 20 years of age Everyday con icts that characterize parent adolescent relationships may actually serve a positive developmental function facilitating the adolescent s transition from being dependent on parents to becoming an autonomous individual The new model of parent adolescent relationships 0 Emphasizes that parents serve as important attachment figures and support systems while adolescents eXplore a wider more compleX social world 0 Emphasizes that in most families the conflicts are rather than severe Peers in the lives of adolescents Beginning in early adolescence teenagers typically prefer to have a smaller number of friendships that are more intense and intimate than those of young children The need for intimacy intensifies during early adolescence motivating teenagers to seek out close friends Young adolescents conform more to peer standards than children do 0 Adolescents are more likely to conform to their peers when they are uncertain about their social identity and when they are in the presence of someone they perceive to have higher status than they do Cliques small groups that range from 2 12 individuals and average about 5 6 individuals members are usually of the same seX and about the same age Crowds larger than cliques and less personal adolescents are usually members of a crowd based on reputation Rite of passage ceremony or ritual that marks an individual s transition from one status to another most of which focus on the transition to adult status Juvenile Delinquent adolescent who breaks the law or engages in behavior that is considered illegal Possible causes include heredity identity problems community in uences and family experiences Erikson believes that delinquency is an attempt to establish an identity even if it is a negative one Some characteristics of lower socioeconomic status might promote delinquency Certain characteristics of family support systems are also associated with delinquency 7 Suicide is the 3rd leading cause of death in adolescents today Far more adolescents contemplate or attempt suicide than actually commit it Females are more likely to attempt suicide than males but males are more likely to succeed in committing suicide Suicidal adolescents often have depressive symptoms CHAPTER 11 1 Emerging adulthood occurs from approximately 18 25 years of age 5 key features Arnett Identity exploration especially in love and work Instability Selffocused especially in the sense that emerging adults have little in the way of social obligations duties and commitments to others which leaves them a great deal of autonomy in running their own lives Feeling in between Age of possibilities a time when individuals have an opportunity to transform their lives 0 Many emerging adults are optimistic about their future 0 For those who have experienced difficult times while growing up emerging adulthood presents an opportunity to reorient their lives in a more positive direction 2 Common markers for becoming an adult Holding a more or less permanent full time job Economic independence Taking responsibility for oneself Marriage in developing countries 3 Not only do people reach their peak in physical performance during early adulthood between ages 19 and 26 it is also during this age period that they begin to decline in physical performance The lessening of physical abilities is a common complaint among the justturned thirties 4 Patterns of heterosexual behavior for males and females in emerging adulthood include Males have more casual sex partners while females is more selective about their choice of sex partners Casual sex is more common in emerging adulthood than in young adulthood Heterosexual Attitudes and Behavior Americans either have sex weekly or monthly or yearly or not at all Married and cohabiting couples have sex more often than noncohabiting couples Most Americans do not engage in kinky sexual acts Adultery is clearly the exception rather than a rule Men think about sex far more than women do Men have slightly more sexual experiences and more permissive attitudes than women for most aspects of sexuality Many gender differences that appear in heterosexual relationships occur in same sex relationships Sexually transmitted infections STIs diseases that are primarily contracted through sex Among the most common STIs are bacterial infections and STIs caused by viruses HIVAIDS is the most dangerous disease Strategies for protecting against STIs 0 Knowing your own and your partner s risk status 0 Obtaining medical examinations 0 Having protected sex 0 Not having sex with multiple partners Postformal thought is Re ective relativistic and contextual Provisional young adults come to see the search for truth as an ongoing and perhaps never ending process Realistic thinking cannot always be abstract In uenced by emotion CHAPTER 12 1 Similar to securely attached infants adults may count on their romantic partners to be a secure base to which they can return and obtain comfort and security in stressful times Adults attachment is categorized as Secure adults have positive views of relationships find it easy to get close to others and are not overly concerned with or stressed out about their romantic relationships Avoidant individuals are hesitant about getting in romantic relationships and once they are in a relationships they tend to distance themselves from their partner Anxious individuals demand closeness are less trusting and are more emotional jealous and possessive Erikson s 6th Developmental Stage Intimacy vs Isolation 0 Erikson describes intimacy as nding oneself while losing oneself in another person and it requires a commitment to another person 0 Inability to develop meaningful relationships with others can harm an individual s personality 0 Many youth want to be apprenticesdisciples of leadersadults who will shelter them from the arm of the out group world If this fails and it must individuals recoil into a self search to discover where they went wrong This introspection sometimes leads to depression and isolation and contributes to mistrust of others T riarchic Theory of Love Sternberg love is a triangle with three main dimensions 0 Passion involves physical and sexual attraction to one another 0 Intimacy relates to the emotional feelings of warmth closeness and sharing in a relationship 0 Commitment cognitive appraisal of the relationship and the intent to maintain the relationship even in the face of problems 4 types of love in Stemberg s theory 0 Consummate fullest form of love which involves all three dimensions 0 Infatuated passion is the only ingredient in the relationship with intimacy and commitment lowabsent 0 Affectionate relationship marked by intimacy and commitment but lowlacking in passion 0 Fatuous passion and commitment are present but intimacy is not Benefits of a good marriage 0 Longer healthier lives 0 Lower portion of adult life spent in marriage was linked to increased likelihood of dying at an earlier age 0 Being married benefits the longevity of men more than women 0 Those in happy marriages are likely to feel less physically and emotionally stressed which puts less wear and tear on the body Characteristics associated with divorce 0 Youthful marriage low educational level low income not having a religious affiliation having parents who are divorced having a baby before marriage 0 Characteristics of one s partner which increase the likelihood of divorce alcoholism psychological problems domestic violence infidelity inadequate division of household labor Advantages of having children early 0 Parents are likely to have more physical energy 0 Mother is likely to have fewer medical problems with pregnancy and childbirth 0 Parents may be less likely to build up expectations for their children as do many couples who have waited many years to have children Advantages of having children late Parents will have had more time to consider and achieve some of their goals in life Parents will be more mature and will be able to benefit from their life experiences to engage in more competent parenting Parents will be better established in their careers and have more income for child rearing expenses Ways of communicating Rapport talk language of conversation a way of establishing connections and negotiating relationships 0 Women enjoy rapport talk and men s lack of interest in rapport talk bothers them Report talk talk that is designed to give info which includes public speaking 0 Men prefer to engage in report talk Where they hold center stage through such verbal performances as telling stories and jokes for they learn to use talk as a way of getting and keeping attention
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'