Test 1A study guide
Test 1A study guide 2451
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Meghan Frankson on Sunday September 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 2451 at Texas State University taught by Pesthy in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 93 views. For similar materials see Human anat and phy in Biology at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 09/06/15
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY TEST 1A STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER ONE Anatomy is the science of body structures and the relationships among structures while physiology is the science of the body functions Branches of anatomy o Embryology Developmental biology Cell biology Histology Gross anatomy Systemic anatomy Regional anatomy Surface anatomy Imaging anatomy 0 Pathological anatomy Branches of physiology 0 Neurophysiology Endocrinology Cardiovascular physiology Immunology Respiratory physiology Renal physiology Exercise physiology 0 Pathophysiology Body organization 0 Chemical atoms molecules compounds Cellular level cells Tissue level tissues Organ level organs example heart Organ system level example respiratory system 0 Organismal level example humans There are 11 body systems definitely know all of them and their functions what organs are in that system 0 Integumentary Skeletal Muscular Nervous Endocrine Lymphatic Cardiovascular Respiratory Digestive Reproductive Urinary 00000000 000000 0 O O 0 0000000000 Basic life processes 0 Metabolism ANY chemical process that happens in the body I Anabolismbuild up I Catabolism break down Responsiveness Growth Differentiation cells becoming specialized o Reproduction Homeostasis 0 Know body uids I Intracellular extracellular interstitial lymph blood plasma cerebrospinal uid aqueous humor vitreous body synovial uid 0 Know Feedback systems I Positive vs Negative I Parts of the system Stimulus 9 controlled condition receptors control center effectors response 0 Know the differences between disorders diseases signs and symptoms Anatomical terminology 0 Know what the anatomical position is Know the regional names upper limbs lower limbs ect Know the anatomical names for all the body parts Know directional terms Know the planes Know the body cavities and what body parts lie within those cavities I Cranial brain I Vertebral spinal cord and spinal nerves I Thoracic chest cavitity contains pleural pericardial and mediastinum Pleural cavity lungs Pericardial cavity heart Mediastinum extends from sternum to vertebral column and from the first rib to the diaphragm contains heart thymus esophagus trachea and several large blood vessels I Abdominopelvic Abdominal stomach spleen liver gallbladder small and most of the large intestine serous membrane of this cavity is called the peritoneum Pelvic contains urinary bladder portions of the large intestine and organs of reproduction 0 Know the abdominopelvic regions and quadrants and what organs lie in each region quandrant 000 00000 Medical Imaging 0 Know the different types of medial imaging CHAPTER TWO Know the parts of an atom and what the atomic numbermass is Know what isotopes free radicals and radioactive isotopes Know the difference between ions compounds molecules and elements are Know the different types of chemical bonds and why they occur 0 Ionic I Cation vs anion I Ionic compounds are normally solids I electrolytes o covalent bonds atoms share electrons I nonpolar shared equally I polar shared unequally have a greater electronegativity the ability to attract electrons to itself 0 hydrogen bonds I very weak compared to ionic and covalent but become stronger when there are more of them I cohesion I adhesion I surface tension Know the different types of chemical reactions 0 Endergonic vs exergonic 0 Synthesis decomposition exhchange reversible oxidationreduction Inorganic vs organic compounds Water 0 Universal solvent 0 Hydrophobic vs hydrophilic o Dehydration synthesis reaction water is one of the product of the reaction Know what a mole is Acids bases and salts INORGANIC COMPOUNDS 0 Acid dissociates into H PROTON DONOR o Bases dissociates into OH PROTON ACCEPTOR o Salts dissociates into cations and anions 0 pH scale Carbon ORGANIC COMPOUNDS 0 Carbon skeleton sometimes a hydrocarbon tail with functional groups attached 0 Monomers are the building blocks I Carbohydrates Monosaccharides disaccharides and polysaccharides o Glycogenhumans startches plants and celluloseplants cannot be digested by humans are all polysaccharides Lipids o Lipidproteins soluble 0 Fatty acids 0 Triglycerides I Most plentiful in the body I Made of glycerol backbone and 3 fatty acids I Fats and oils Unsaturated and saturated o Phospholipids I Glycerol backbone and 2 fatty acids attached to a polar head 0 Steroids I Have 4 rings of carbon atoms I Sterols Proteins 0 Amino acid building blocks linked by peptide bonds and dehydration synthesis reactions 0 Know the primary secondary tertiary and quaternary structures 0 Know enzymes and their characteristics Nucleic Acids 0 DNA and RNA 0 Nitrogenous base pentose sugar 5 carbon sugar called deoxyribose and phosphate group 0 Purines adenine and guanine o Pyrimidines Thymine and Cytosine I ATZ hydrogen bonds I CG 3 hydrogen bonds ATP ENERGY o Anaerobic phase vs aerobic phase
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