ENVS 203 Final Exam Study Guide (DETAILED)
ENVS 203 Final Exam Study Guide (DETAILED) ENVS 203
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amy Notetaker on Sunday September 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ENVS 203 at University of Oregon taught by Wald S in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 93 views. For similar materials see Intro Env Stu: Hum >1 in Environmental Studies at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 09/06/15
Wilderness 12082013 Romanticism Reaction to Age of Reason 0 A movement in art literature and music during the 19th century as a reaction to the age of reason 0 Key Characteristics 0 Imagination and intuition Feelings and emotions were emphasized over reason Natural form of knowledge Imagination is necessary to create art 0 Inspiration and genius Being spontaneous rather than precise o Individuality The individual is celebrated Women s movement and abolitionism begin as major movements 0 Common folk Natural goodness of humans Celebrated rural life and those untouched by civilization and urban life 0 Untamed nature Awe of nature and the sublime Divine revelation Metaphor for creative process 0 Experience of the Sublime O O O 0 Bradford Cant use rational language to express one s feelings Complex experience of mixed emotions Requires removal of domestication where humans are insigni cant Beautiful but terrifying Going into a natural setting and feeling awe of beauty and sense of enlightenment but scary because of vastness Leads people to say some places are more valuable than others Wilderness as savage and desolate Thoreau Wildness and preservation of humanity O In wildness is the preservation of the world Symbolism of marrow and connection to race 0 O Marrow refers to bone marrow Source of our blood Marrow is a source of strength Blood is signi cant in race Inheritance Connection between how people understand race O O O O n Ex Black v Indigenous The Marrow of society is connected to wilderness Common aristocrat belief More pure your blood is the stronger you are Wilderness is the source of strength of life I Be alive in a wild place The marrow of the nation is the wild places Strength of the nation is bound in its soil We need wild places to stay a strong nation Some people are of a higher quality who need wild places 0 Wild places as sacred and as sources for genius and art 0 Problem with civilization and who is or is not t for it 0 Marshall Some people are not t for civilization so they should not have their natures broken 0 De nition of wilderness O O O No permanent human life Separation of culture and nature Humans do not belong in nature 0 Bene ts of value physical mental aesthetic O 0 Physical health competence self suf ciency adventure Mental Health independent cognition repose desire for adventure quotmoral equivalent to warquot o Aesthetic beauty timeless intangible dimension Masculine values associated with wilderness o Masculine vocabulary o quotUnpenetrated groundquot Nash How wilderness contributes to national character and environmental responsibility 0 How wilderness contributes to national character Without wilderness we cannot relate to our past Wilderness is our national character 0 How wilderness contributes to environmental responsibility Civilization has cluttered the basic elements in nature We forget that the earth supports the industry Man is a member not a master of the environment Teaches that man is not the purpose for the earth We nd ourselves limited in nature Acceptance of limits is necessary to living with nature Cronon Wilderness as constructed concept not a natural thing 0 Nothing natural about nature 0 We constructed nature 0 Key problems with idea of wilderness 0000 0 Removal of indigenous people Erases histories of con ict Re ects human values more than natural processes Establishes false standard of measure for environmental heath Places humans outside of nature dualism Paradox of wilderness concept 0 Wilderness embodies a dualistic vision in which the human is outside of what is natural Paradox We are a part of nature but we view nature as nonhuman If a human is a part of a landscape we don t view it as natural Where ever we are is no longer nature People who want to protect nature de ne it as almost impossible to protect Value of all places not just wilderness O O Waller Should care for the smallest and most humble places not just vast wilderness areas Focusing on wilderness diverts our attention from valuing where we are most of the time o Wilderness v wildness distinction O Wilderness is a cultural construct wildness is not Continuum or degrees of wildness o A gap between arti cial and wild Focus on human behaviors v pristine places 0 No place is pristine or free of human in uence 0 The key is to evaluate human behavior 0 Need large tracts for ecological reasons conservation biology 0 Conservation biologists largely concur that large tracts of land are necessary Mies 2 Key arguments for an two key assumptions of development 0 2 Key arguments for development Globalized markets and development will reduce or end poverty pro t and equity Economic growth can be coupled with environmental preservation pro t and ecology o 2 Key assumptions High standard of living is possible for all High standard of livinghigher quality of life Doublethink 0 We are aware of negative consequences of economic growth and we are aware our lifestyle is the cause 0 We fail to act on this knowledge by modifying how we live 0 Logical and material impossibility of catchingup development o It is not possible either logically or materially to catch up 0 It is not desirable to catch up 0 Inverse relation between standard of living GDP and quality of life 0 Increased standard of living does not equal increased quality of life 0 Effects of catchingup development on lives of women 0 O O 0 System foes not support women s possession of property or money resources Af uence cannot be extended to all women globally No basis for international solidarity System causes ecological degradation that impacts women the most 0 Example of ragi Millet O O Ragimillet is cheap and natural that contains all nutrients that babies need nutritionally dense If ragi hit the world market it would no longer be available for the poor because of soaring prices Also would begin to be made with pesticides and other chemicals 0 Grown in India Curtin 3 types of violence examples of institutionalsystemic violence 0 0 Individual Overt muggings murder Covert personal threats character assassination Institutional Overt Police brutality terrorism Covert Institutions of slaveryapartheid 0 Systemic Overt domestic violence genocidal violence land disenfranchisement Covert sexism racism colonialism Challenge of how to generalize about women s knowledge 0 There is an enormous amount of diversity in women s lives o If you study what people are doing there is a huge diversity huge diversity of knowledge Cant make generalizations because there is so much diversity Practices why focus on them to understand women s knowledge 0 Focus on actual practices of women not on de nitions of woman or feminine o Practices are fundamental ways of categorizing experiencing and valuing the world how people act what they do how they view the world relationships they develop o If you want to understand what someone know or how they know you must look at what they do 0 Ex Women wo educationno book knowledge but can name plants plant uses etc Only way to see this is to see what they do and how they interact with the natural world In the context of how they are living Understand their knowledge but understanding their practices 0 Practices relationship to knowledge 0 Women s practices are the primary forms of meditation between culture and nature the quotspots at which nature is nurtured into culturequot 0 Knowledge derives from doing Epistemology Dualism of development and why this undervalues women s knowledge 0 Backward labor intensive Modern capital intensive CO 0000 Backward Diversity Modern uniform monoculture Backward subjection to nature Modern complete control over nature Backward folk knowledge Modern scienti c knowledge Backward generalists Modern specialists The smaller the object of study the more modern All of these dualisms undervalue women s work in the home and garden being close to nature 0 Myths that women s knowledge challenges 0 O 0 Nature ought to be preserved museum like free from human interaction Nature is only here for human manipulation and consumption Women s practices are in between work with nature in a way that it is not destructive Women think long term and realize they must preserve for the future 0 Key tenets of women s knowledge and explain one 0 O O Relational between people and the earth Collaborative cooperative collaborate ideas with group Ex Home cooking Situated speci c based on what is there and possible cultural parallax Think in terms of context Temporal continual thinking of the long term In terms of responsibility of children and grandchildren Corporeal bodily integrates head and hand More thoughtful ways of doing Critical dystopia as a genre characteristics 0 Twitter like names of groups and organizations Focuses on the horrors of the 20th century and our current system 0 Themes of dystopia Exploitation Repression Violence War Genodde Disease Monopoly capitalism Globalization Environmental destruction OOOOOOOOO Utopian elements in the novel 0 Has a utopian horizon o Gardener s cult Neoprimitivism living off the earth returning to a primitive state close to nature Back to earth living Simpli ed Merge Christian religion with scienti c ecology 0 Genetic Engineering Utopian because it creates a vision of perfection and overcoming aws to create harmonious world a Seen in the genesplicing plants animals and humans a BlyssPlus Undercurrent of eugenics create a pure and perfect race o Is the garden really utopian 0 Not everyone is happy young generation longs for tech 0 Con icts generational young people are rebellious 0 Many people did not choose to be a gardener they were brought there Gardener utopia v technology utopia Human nature how viewed by Gardeners and Glenn problems with their views Gardeners believe that the world has fallen full of decay 0 Basic principles of living and small amounts of physical items Gardeners see humans as the problem because they have deviated from nature 0 Explain bad behavior has not obeying nature 0 Glenn believes humans are inherently awed not because of technology or nature 0 Bad behavior is natural Atwood suggests that the human nature argument is problematic 0 Environmental problems are complex and cant be dealt with the way the Gardeners or Glenn deals with them Characteristics of Gardener s ideology religion and science Gardeners mix ideology Take from both Christianity and science 0 Believe in DNA and big bang theory evolution 0 Also believe in God Schism between Adam One gardeners and Zeb MaddAddam Zeb focuses on quotecoterrorismquot and guerilla tactics that attack social and economic infrastructure processes Zeb takes actions where as Adam One takes a passive approach Opposing viewpoints o Zeb physical approach against corporations Doesn t want to kill people Take out dominant parts of society happicuppa their stimulant is taken away a Don t disable the system just makes it harder for them to work 0 Adam ideology based in a lifeboat Too standoffish critique of gardeners Signi cance of the size of the garden 0 14 acres Considered the largest urban garden in the united states Soccer elds why signi cant 0 3 acres of the garden were turned into soccer elds part of the deal when it was sold to Horowitz The rest remains empty Brown v Black con ict and its signi cance 0 Brown is Hispanic Black is African American 0 Two minority groups who are now discriminating against each other 0 Long history in gang violence 0 Cause of the con ict 0 Predominant African American community wanted soccer elds 0 Disagreement over what should be in the lot soccer elds or the garden Community dissent among South Central Farmers why it happens and its signi cance 0 Only so many plots of land per family Sacredness of the Garden 0 Their food supply 0 Saved them money 0 Local gathering area Family oriented groups Why Ralph Horowitz wouldn t sell to South Central Farmers He felt like he was being treated unfairly by the farmers Reported that racial slurs were brought said by the farmers directed towards Horowitz He was hurt and felt they did not deserve the land It is not an open to the public group Why he started and promotes gardening It is expensive to buy organic or healthy fruits and vegetables It is not easily accessible in city areas such as South Central LA Growing your own food is like printing your own money Promoting taking back your health Why gardening is signi cant for young people of color Gardening should be their art not graffiti Gives them an opportunity to take over their communities and have a sustainable life Differences between his approach and that of the South Central Fa rmers He grew crops on his front lawn It was open for the public to take He encouraged people to help him grow crops and eat his crops as well Klein Climate rage what it is who feels it and why 0 Less developed countries are in rage because developed countries contributes 75 of emissions they aren t willing to pay for the damage they have caused for less developed countnes Solution promoted by Bolivia for the developing world 0 1 Developed countries owe compensation to developing countries for the climate crisis 0 2 Invest in cleaner technology for the developing countries Poor countries do not have these funds 0 3 Rich countries must lower their emissions 0 Condition poor countries should have a say in the investments for climate crisis Ecuador s Yasuni National Park its signi cance 0 A land rich and full of life sits on 7 million dollars of oil More biodiversity in a few square miles than all of north America 0 Proposed that wealthy countries should pay them to keep it in the ground Willing to keep it in the ground to be environmentally conscious lf countries believe in protecting the earth then invest in it 0 Alternative way to invest in climate change 0 What happened to the proposal Less than 1 of the 35 billion came into the country Countries who talk about stopping climate change do not invest in their research or act upon their ndings Pentagon report about likely response of rich nations to effects of climate related con ict 0 Decide to build a defensive fortress around their countries Signi cance of resistance in climate models 0 Government deny or shields public from climate models because it disturbs the social and economic order 0 Why some scientists obscure depth of changes needed 0 Data reveals a serious problem 0 But we do not put pressure on it as a signi cant change People do not want to hear it Scienti c work is bound in a market a To get funding for research they do not reveal that the economic market must change Data is presented in an altered way in fear that funding could be cut or positions could be denied Must appear reasonable within economic circles Klare What to expect as climate and energy problems worsen 0 We should expect mass upheavals leading to a green energy revolution Spontaneous action 0 Climate rebellion spontaneous protests that may at any moment evoke into mass movements is on the horizon o Maniates 0 De nition of environmental imagination 0 Ability to imagine and pursue a variety of productive responses to the environmental problems before us 0 Signi cance of the Lorax o Realizes environmental harm when it is too late 0 Representative of a phenomenon Our thinking shrinks down to what individuals can do Not addressed what our who society can do to help plan a larger system 0 Don t wait until its too late We know what were are doing contributes to environmental harm but we continue because we cant individually make a change 0 lndividualization of Responsibility meaning and signi cance 0 Environmental degradation is viewed as the product of individual shortcomings 0 Leaves little room to consider institutions political power or collective ways of changing distribution of power and in uence in society 0 Confronting socioenvironmental problems thus falls to individuals acting alone mostly as consumers 0 People think that source of the problem is individuas responsibility is due to individuals Takes our focus away from institutions and whole systems 0 Factors that have contributes to individualization and its consequences 0 Baggage of mainstream environmentalism Promotes the idea of making individual decisions Doesn t disrupt government or economy because of political gain they can receive from politicians or government campaigns 0 Core tenets of liberalism Philosophical view not political n Individual revolving not a group a Power resides in the individuals a Values market place and economic growth 0 Ability of capitalism to commodify dissent Capitalism is good at turning a problem into itself a Ex Coal company promotes clean coal n Ex Protesters of pollution solution is to recycle Idea of reusable containers is thrown out Override complains with a decent solution but does not x the problem 0 Recent rise of global environmental threats To talk about environmental issues we need to address that we do not have institutions to make this possible a Our power is in consumerism In International conferences are inaccessible to general population IPAT What it means and its problems 0 Impact Population x Af uence x Technology Impact number of people x amount of stuff x energy to make and use the stuff 0 Problems with IPAT Systems thinking can obscure exercise of power and disempowers citizens Little room remains for questions of agency institutions political power or collective action Often reduces itself to amount of consumption and eco technoogy efficiency 0 IWAC what it means and why it matters 0 Impact quality of Work x meaningful consumption of Alternatives x political Creativity 0 Quality of work is meaningful and does not depend on monetary basis 0 Meaningful consumption of alternatives Buy green consume less O Cronon Political creativity spirited debate collective action not individuals discussing alternatives rather how to solve the problems 0 What a liberal education aspires to do 0 O O O 0 Prepare students for full participation as citizens In a free democratic society and enables the full development of human potential Competency in communication Competency in using the modes of thought characteristic of the major areas of knowledge A knowledge of our basic cultural heritage A thorough understanding of at least one subject area 0 Connection between human freedom and human community 0 O O 0 Human freedom helping young people discover and hone their talents Remind us of the obligations we have to use our power and knowledge responsibly lt binds us to the communities that gave us freedom and makes us responsible to those communities who in ways limit our freedom Exercise our freedom to make the world better 0 Obligation that a liberal higher education entails O 0 To use it responsibly Education is a privilege and we have more responsibility to do something larger with our education than simply getting a job 0 Signi cance of the two words Only connect 0 O 0 Answer to the question of what it means to be a liberally educated person Description of love that lies in religion Liberal education nurtures human freedom in the service of human community which in the end celebrates love
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