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BSCI106 Evolutionary Biology Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Sabreenah Khan

BSCI106 Evolutionary Biology Exam 1 Study Guide BSCI106

Marketplace > University of Maryland > Biology > BSCI106 > BSCI106 Evolutionary Biology Exam 1 Study Guide
Sabreenah Khan
GPA 3.7

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These notes will be covering material from Exam 1! Best if luck studying! :)
Evolutionary Biology
Dr. Alexandra Bely
Study Guide
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sabreenah Khan on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BSCI106 at University of Maryland taught by Dr. Alexandra Bely in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Evolutionary Biology in Biology at University of Maryland.


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Date Created: 02/28/16
Physical Geography: The spatial distributions of Earth's climates and surface features. Biogeography: The spatial distributions of species Abiotic/Biotic: Non­Living & Living components Ecological System: One or more organisms and the environment with which they exchange                                    energy and materials. Ecology: The entire science of the relations of the organism to its external environment.  Interactions of organisms with each other and their biotic/abiotic environments. Ecological Unit/System: The individual organism and its immediate environment. These  individuals remove materials and energy from the environment, convert those materials and  energy into forms that can be used by other organisms. Population: A group of individuals of the same species that live, interact and reproduce in a  particular geographic area. Community: The assemblage of interacting populations of different species within a particular  geographic area. Biosphere: All the organisms of Earth and the environments they occupy. Ecosystem Complexity of Ecosystems: Includes the abiotic components of the environment, and  in particular when they are considering communities and their environmental context. Large ecosystems tend to be more complex, but small ecosystems can also be complex.  EXAMPLE: Human stomach (Lined with biofilms) Weather: The atmospheric conditions ­­ Temp, humidity, precipitation, wind direction and speed. Climate: The state of atmospheric conditions and their pattern of variation over time. Climate vs. Weather: Climate is what you expect; weather is what you get. Responses to climate: Usually tolerable by the specific organisms that inhabit the area, for  example, Cacti can tolerate hot climates. Responses to weather: Short term, for example, animals may seek shelter if it rains. Climate Global Patterns: Earth is spherical, so that means the sun's rays strike the planet at a  shallower angle near the poles than near the equator. This makes it hotter at the equator. Seasonality: A consequence of the 23.5 degree tilt of the Earth's axis of rotation relative to the  plane of its yearly orbit around the sun. Hadley Cells: Two cycles of vertical atmospheric circulation ­­ one north and one south of the  equator. Cell circulation produces strong latitudinal patterns of precipitation. Drop most of the moisture around the equator as rain. Ocean Currents: Carry materials, organisms, and heat with them. Gyre: Large scale circular ocean currents caused by prevailing winds and Earth's rotation. Deep Ocean Currents: Return to the surface in areas of upwelling, completing a vertical ocean  circulation. Topography: Variation in elevation Influence physical conditions Biome: A distinct physical environment that is inhabited by ecologically similar organisms with  similar adaptions. Major life zones characterized by vegetation type or physical environments. Ecology Imporances:  ­ Determine where species are found ­ Context for evolution ­ Management of resources ­ Evaluation of human impacts Ecology Levels of Study:  1. Organismal 2. Population 3. Community 4. Ecosystem Ecology Levels of Study­ Organismal: Individual interactions with environment Ecology Levels of Study­ Population: Factors regulating population growth and population size Ecology Levels of Study­ Community: Interactions among different species in an area. Ecology Levels of Study­ Ecosystem: Interactions between communities and their environments  (abiotic/biotic). Why are the Earth's poles colder?: ­ Tilt of the Earth ­ Light bounces off the Earth (Class demonstration) Regional Processes:  ­ Topography ­ "Rain Shadows" ­ Local ocean currents ­ Temperature and precipitation ­ Water depth and rate of water movement How do populations grow?:  ­ Survival rate ­ Birth rate ­ Population size ­ Death rate ­ Location ­ Reproductive rate ­ Life expectancy Population Characteristics: Number (N) ­ Important for assessing potential for increase ­ Particular importance in conservation ­ Estimated by mark and recapture method Density (N/area or volume) ­ Ecological factors influence this (competitive interactions) Dispersion ­ Pattern of spacing among individuals Mark and Recapture Method:  1st sample­ capture, mark, return Allow waiting time 2nd sample­ capture, count how many have a mark EQUATION: # recaptured in sample 2 (r)/ # captured in sample 2(n) = # captured in  sample #1/population size (N) Population Dynamics: Change in N overtime ­ Birth ­ Death ­ Immigration ­ Emigration Absolute Numbers: Total Births (B) ­ B/DeltaT Total Deaths (D) ­ D/DeltaT Change in N per unit of time ­ (B­D)/DeltaT Per Capita (Per Individual): Per capita birth rate (b) ­ B/Delta T = b*N Per capita death rate (d) ­ D/DeltaT = d*N Per capita growth rate (r) ­ r = b ­ d Life History: Major events in life cycle of a species Important factor in population dynamics (Not all individuals are equivalent) Survivorship Curves: Survival and reproduction at different ages Fecundity curve: avg. offspring produced Life Table: Age specific summary of survival and reproduction patterns in a population. Usually only females, age classes, age specific survivorship, age specific fecundity, survivorship  * fecundity = avg. offspring Exponential Growth: Simple Doubling Population growth (dN/dt) is a function of rMax and N r does NOT change over time (fixed #) r does NOT depend on the number of individuals in a population Cannot last, but possible in short term b/c of things like carrying capacity, food shortages, environmental changes. Logistic Growth: More realistic Populations typically:  increase r at decreased N OR decreased r at increased N Density dependence: growth rate depends on N Population eventually stops growing (r=0) [(K­N)/K) ­­ Equation Carrying Capacity (K): Maximum number of individuals in a population that can be  supported in a particular habitat over a sustained period of time. Increase population density = Low growth Decrease population density = high growth Factors that Affect K:  Climate New/Invasive species Water condition Nutrient pollution Logistic Growth Limiting Factor:  When N=0 [(K­0)/K] = 1 (Exponential Growth) When N=K [(K­K)/K] = 0 (No Growth) >>>>>Essentially a measure of unused space. r = rMax[(K­N)/K] Subpopulation: The portion of a larger metapopulation that occupies a given piece of suitable  habitat. Metapopulation: A "population of population's"; the group of spatially separated subpopulations  that occurs within a defined geographic area. Population Growth Rate:  ­ Additions: bN ­ Losses: dN ­ Change: bN­dN OR (b­d)N OR rN r VS rMax: r = per capita growth rate ­ Actual growth rate of the population OR r actual ­ r < rMax ­ can be negative if there is a decline in the population. rMax = maximum per capita growth rate ­ b­d under ideal conditions Additive Growth: Population growth in which a constant number of individuals is added to the  population during successive time intervals. Contrast to multiplicative growth Multiplicative Growth: The period the population will add a number of individuals that is  precisely r times its initial size. A constant r differs dramatically in its form from additive growth. Constant doubling time Stage of Human Population Growth:  12,000 years ago: ­ Hunter/Gather ­ Resources/Nomadic ­ Limited population because of infant mortality and short term life span 10,000­8,000 years ago: ­ Agriculture ­ Settled lifestyle = stable food supply and food storage ­ Manage resources and local environment ­ Increase in births and decrease in deaths 1650­Now: ­ Major technical/scientific advances (Hygiene, medicine) ­ Super increase in births and super decrease in deaths ­ N (population) growing exponentially ­ Major effect on human conditions and environment ~7,300,000,000 (7.3 billion): World Population ** ~50 years: Recent Avg. Doubling Time ** ~10 years: Recent average time to add a billion ** ~2060: Projected to reach 10 billion by... ** Consequences of Increased Population:  ­ Habitat loss ­ Global environment change ­ Depletion of resources ­ Species extinction ­ Decrease in living standards ­ Political instability ­ Acute shortages in basic resources Demographic Transition: Industrialization ­ living conditions increase ­ birth and death decrease Problem? ­ Decreased death rate precedes decrease birth Population Control: N is still increasing Even at current N, lifestyle of developed countries is NOT sustainable. ­ Per capita resource use ­ uneven and rising ­ American's are only 5% of the population, but use about 25% of resources. Ecological Footprint: Land and water area needs to produce resources and absorb waste. The current N's sustainable footprint is ~ 2 hectares/per person American's are at 5x that amount... 10 hectares/per person for what we use. Interspecific interactions: Affect each individuals life history and its survival/reproduction. Competition: ­/­ interaction in which members of different species decrease one another's fitness  because they require some of the same resources. Consumer­Resource Interations: +/­ interactions where organisms gain their nutrition by  consuming other living organisms or are themselves consumed. Parasitism: Type of Consumer­Resource Interaction +/­ interactions where a parasite consumes part of a individual but does NOT usually harm it. Mutualism: +/+ interaction where both species benefit. Commensalism: +/0 interaction where one benefits and the other is unaffected. Amensalism: ­/0 interaction where one is harmed and the other is unaffected. Primary Producer: Convert energy and inorganic materials into organic compounds that can be  used by the rest of the community... (Photosynthesis) Primary Consumer: Species that obtain energy by breaking apart organic compounds that have  been assembled by other organisms. Secondary Consumers: Eat herbivores Tertiary consumers: Eat the flesh of secondary consumers Autotroph: Create their own food from inorganic sources Heterotroph: Obtain energy from organic compounds Omnivores: Feed from multiple trophic levels (eat meat and plants) Decomposers: Feed on waste products or dead bodies of organisms Food Web: Shows who eats whom; arrows from resource to consumer; energy flow; trophic  levels Trophic Cascade: History of removal and re­introduction illuminates a cascade of effects across  trophic levels. Conservation Ecology: Attempts to avoid the loss of elements or functions of an existing web of  interactions. Restoration Ecolo0gy: Provides scientific guidance for restoring loss elements of functions of a  web. Invasive Species: A species that increase in abundance and spread widely, often to the detriment  of other species. NON NATIVE


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