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C OF C / Sociology / SOCY 349 / What is normal behavior?

What is normal behavior?

What is normal behavior?

Description

Sociology of Mental Health and Illness Study Guide for Test 1 (2/29) Chapter 1 – History of Mental Illness


What is normal behavior?



- Witch doctors

o Supernatural forces

o Selected from the mentally ill

- Greeks and Romans

o Advocated for mental illness like other illnesses and diseases o Earliest insanity defense – Roman law

- Middle Ages, Renaissance, Post-Renaissance

o Supernatural causes of MI

- Western witchcraft

o Women doing the devil’s work

- Historical treatment of MI

o When accused of witchcraft:

 Kept at home

 Shipped of

o Divine healing  

o 19th century

 Medical model  

o 20th century


Why does the medical model persist?



 The age of therapies

∙ Sigmund Freud

∙ Psychoactive drugs Don't forget about the age old question of What is sigmund freud's theory?

∙ Community mental health

o 21st century

 New and improved psychoactive drugs

 Advances in understanding brain chemistry

 Genetics  

Chapter 2 – Classifying Mental Illness

- DSM-V: Classifications under psychiatry

o New DSM-V (2013)

o NIMH rejected the DSM-V in 2013

- Problems with the DSM

o What is normal behavior?

o Odd categories

o Operational definitions don’t cover everything We also discuss several other topics like What is the mean of a bernoulli random variable?
If you want to learn more check out How a substance may be transported across a plasma membrane?

o Difficult to scientifically verify


When does deviance occur?



We also discuss several other topics like What happens to gdp is prices rise?

o Expanded in size and number of disorders

 Why is this a problem?

- Sociologist discussion

o Diagnosis and the classification system

o Arbitrary points on a continuum of symptoms that must be  present for a diagnosis

o DSM-V added severity scale

Chapter 3 – Causes and Cures of Mental Illness

- Theoretical models  

o The medical model

 Mental disorder as a disease to be treated medically  

 Mental disorders are diseases despite the fact that they  don’t meet criteria for physiological problems

 Why does the medical model persist?

 Psychopharmacology

 Behavioral genetics

 Electroshock therapy

 Psychosurgery  Don't forget about the age old question of How easy is it for consumers to get your product? how much coverage should the supplier have?

o The psychoanalytical model

 Focused on internal factors, but more psychological

 Based on Sigmund Freud

 Influenced psychiatry

 One of the most elaborate approaches  

 Personality (id, ego, superego)

 Psychosexual development

 Ego defense

 Treatments

∙ Psychoanalysis

∙ Psychoanalytic therapy

∙ Group therapy

 Criticisms If you want to learn more check out Is the church of england catholic or protestant?

∙ Based on speculation (Freud)

∙ No conclusive evidence between childhood stages  

and adult problems

∙ Emotional development prioritized over cognitive  

development

∙ Vague, hard to test for empirical evidence, lacks  

predictive power

 Praises

∙ One of the most comprehensive theoretical  

approaches

∙ Ofers a model related to physiological concepts

∙ Uses a classification system allowing for MI to be  

discussed and treated

∙ Still dominates psychiatry along with the medical  

model

o Behavior Modification or Social Learning Model

 Makes assumptions based on the idea that behavior is  learned therefore we can unlearn it and replace it with a  more desirable behavior

 Techniques to modify behavior (positive reinforcement)  Limitations

∙ Conditioning in humans?

∙ Does this work in the real world?

∙ Disorders can be more complex than that

∙ The patients must be willing to learn new behaviors

∙ Long-term efects?

o Social stress model

 Medical and sociological concepts

 Environmental demands and the inability to respond  

correctly

∙ Leads to a mental breakdown

 Medical aspects come in through the idea of predisposition  Social factors and the notion that stress comes from social  interaction or structure

 Stress as a precursor to MI

∙ Stressor

∙ Stress mediators

∙ Stress outcomes

∙ Pearlin’s Stress Process Model (1981)

o Antipsychiatric model

 Rejects the idea that mental disorder is an illness

 The myth of MI – Szasz

Chapter 4 – Mental Disorder and Deviance

- Mental disorder

- Deviance

- Social norm

- Deviation from norms

- Deviant behavior

- Structural approaches

o Focus on how social structure creates problems that distress  individuals

o Durkheim’s Suicide

 Egoistic

 Anomic

 Altruistic

 Fatalistic  

o Robert Merton’s Anomie

 When does deviance occur?

 5 diferent modes of adaptation

∙ Conformity

∙ Innovation

∙ Ritualism

∙ Retreatism

∙ Rebellion

o Economic Change

 MI rise and fall with economic changes

 Measured by?

 More common with breadwinners

 Emphasizes the importance of social support

- Agency approaches

o Focus on how people choose to behave based on how they  assess the situation (free will)

o Symbolic interaction

o Labeling theory

o Social constructionism

o Social learning theory

Chapter 5 – Becoming Mentally Ill

- Phases of the experience

o 1. Alienation from place

o 2. Recognizing symptoms

o 3. Madness as method of coping

o 4. The definitive outburst

o 5. Rendering of account

o 6. Paradox of Normalcy

o 7. Removal from place

Chapter 13 – Stigma and Mental Illness

- Stigma according to Gofman

o “Deeply discrediting attribute” that can lead to discrimination o Influences behavior, may keep people from getting treatment  and support

o Pressure on individuals

o MI stigma very strong

- Family response

o Embarrassment, guilt, shame

o Family members can be discredited, especially spouses o Contact hypothesis

o Family stays together while other relationships fade

o The burden of caregiving

- Community response

o Shapes family experiences and impacts community programs o Labeling theory approach

o Attitude change

- Where does stigma come from?

o Media portrayal

o The few images of MI people are all people see

- Activism

o Bring Change 2 Mind

- Self-labeling and Labeling theory

o Labeling as the cause of MI, not consequence

o What are the efects of a label? Of institutionalization? - Discredited vs discreditable

o What is passing?

o Durkheim and the functionalists

Chapter 15 – Mental Health and the Law

- Mental health law

o Lots of gray areas

- 1. Concept of dangerousness

o Often results in institutionalization or confinement

o Involuntary civil commitment is justified how?

o Defining danger

 Danger to self

 Danger to others

 Danger to property

o There is necessity for an overt act, a likelihood of harm, and a  burden of proof

o Parens patriae

o Danger predictors – are there any?

o Danger is over-predicted

- 2. False commitment

o Husband’s word was taken over their wives

 Not as big of a problem now

- 3. Insanity as a criminal defense

o Often used when innocence can’t be proven otherwise o Responsibility shifts to the disorder from the culprit

o Usually results in commitment to a hospital for the criminally  insane

o Rarely used because it’s expensive and difficult to prove o Only used for serious crimes, hospital confinement would be  preferable to criminal conviction

- 4. Right to treatment

o When the state takes away someone’s liberty to choose their  own treatment, they must give them treatment

o What happens when treatment can’t be provided?

o Can a patient refuse treatment?

- Social control and mental health law

o These 4 points are complicated by societal interest to maintain  social order

o Society tries to maintain order, not allow it to break down into  chaos

o The goal is rehabilitation, but most committed people won’t  return to society

Sociology of Mental Health and Illness Study Guide for Test 1 (2/29) Chapter 1 – History of Mental Illness

- Witch doctors

o Supernatural forces

o Selected from the mentally ill

- Greeks and Romans

o Advocated for mental illness like other illnesses and diseases

o Earliest insanity defense – Roman law

- Middle Ages, Renaissance, Post-Renaissance

o Supernatural causes of MI

- Western witchcraft

o Women doing the devil’s work

- Historical treatment of MI

o When accused of witchcraft:

▪ Kept at home

▪ Shipped off

o Divine healing  

o 19th century

▪ Medical model  

o 20th century

▪ The age of therapies

• Sigmund Freud

• Psychoactive drugs

• Community mental health

o 21st century

▪ New and improved psychoactive drugs

▪ Advances in understanding brain chemistry

▪ Genetics  

Chapter 2 – Classifying Mental Illness

- DSM-V: Classifications under psychiatry

o New DSM-V (2013)

o NIMH rejected the DSM-V in 2013

- Problems with the DSM

o What is normal behavior?

o Odd categories

o Operational definitions don’t cover everything

o Difficult to scientifically verify

o Expanded in size and number of disorders

▪ Why is this a problem?

- Sociologist discussion

o Diagnosis and the classification system

o Arbitrary points on a continuum of symptoms that must be present for a  diagnosis

o DSM-V added severity scale

Chapter 3 – Causes and Cures of Mental Illness

- Theoretical models  

o The medical model

▪ Mental disorder as a disease to be treated medically  

▪ Mental disorders are diseases despite the fact that they don’t meet  criteria for physiological problems

▪ Why does the medical model persist?

▪ Psychopharmacology

▪ Behavioral genetics

▪ Electroshock therapy

▪ Psychosurgery  

o The psychoanalytical model

▪ Focused on internal factors, but more psychological

▪ Based on Sigmund Freud

▪ Influenced psychiatry

▪ One of the most elaborate approaches  

▪ Personality (id, ego, superego)

▪ Psychosexual development

▪ Ego defense

▪ Treatments

• Psychoanalysis

• Psychoanalytic therapy

• Group therapy

▪ Criticisms

• Based on speculation (Freud)

• No conclusive evidence between childhood stages and adult  

problems

• Emotional development prioritized over cognitive  

development

• Vague, hard to test for empirical evidence, lacks predictive  

power

▪ Praises

• One of the most comprehensive theoretical approaches

• Offers a model related to physiological concepts

• Uses a classification system allowing for MI to be discussed and  

treated

• Still dominates psychiatry along with the medical model

o Behavior Modification or Social Learning Model

▪ Makes assumptions based on the idea that behavior is learned  

therefore we can unlearn it and replace it with a more desirable  

behavior

▪ Techniques to modify behavior (positive reinforcement)

▪ Limitations

• Conditioning in humans?

• Does this work in the real world?

• Disorders can be more complex than that

• The patients must be willing to learn new behaviors

• Long-term effects?

o Social stress model

▪ Medical and sociological concepts

▪ Environmental demands and the inability to respond correctly

• Leads to a mental breakdown

▪ Medical aspects come in through the idea of predisposition

▪ Social factors and the notion that stress comes from social interaction  or structure

▪ Stress as a precursor to MI

• Stressor

• Stress mediators

• Stress outcomes

• Pearlin’s Stress Process Model (1981)

o Antipsychiatric model

▪ Rejects the idea that mental disorder is an illness

▪ The myth of MI – Szasz

Chapter 4 – Mental Disorder and Deviance

- Mental disorder

- Deviance

- Social norm

- Deviation from norms

- Deviant behavior

- Structural approaches

o Focus on how social structure creates problems that distress individuals o Durkheim’s Suicide

▪ Egoistic

▪ Anomic

▪ Altruistic

▪ Fatalistic  

o Robert Merton’s Anomie

▪ When does deviance occur?

▪ 5 different modes of adaptation

• Conformity

• Innovation

• Ritualism

• Retreatism

• Rebellion

o Economic Change

▪ MI rise and fall with economic changes

▪ Measured by?

▪ More common with breadwinners

▪ Emphasizes the importance of social support

- Agency approaches

o Focus on how people choose to behave based on how they assess the  situation (free will)

o Symbolic interaction

o Labeling theory

o Social constructionism

o Social learning theory

Chapter 5 – Becoming Mentally Ill

- Phases of the experience

o 1. Alienation from place

o 2. Recognizing symptoms

o 3. Madness as method of coping

o 4. The definitive outburst

o 5. Rendering of account

o 6. Paradox of Normalcy

o 7. Removal from place

Chapter 13 – Stigma and Mental Illness

- Stigma according to Goffman

o “Deeply discrediting attribute” that can lead to discrimination

o Influences behavior, may keep people from getting treatment and support o Pressure on individuals

o MI stigma very strong

- Family response

o Embarrassment, guilt, shame

o Family members can be discredited, especially spouses

o Contact hypothesis

o Family stays together while other relationships fade

o The burden of caregiving

- Community response

o Shapes family experiences and impacts community programs

o Labeling theory approach

o Attitude change

- Where does stigma come from?

o Media portrayal

o The few images of MI people are all people see

- Activism

o Bring Change 2 Mind

- Self-labeling and Labeling theory

o Labeling as the cause of MI, not consequence

o What are the effects of a label? Of institutionalization?

- Discredited vs discreditable

o What is passing?

o Durkheim and the functionalists

Chapter 15 – Mental Health and the Law

- Mental health law

o Lots of gray areas

- 1. Concept of dangerousness

o Often results in institutionalization or confinement

o Involuntary civil commitment is justified how?

o Defining danger

▪ Danger to self

▪ Danger to others

▪ Danger to property

o There is necessity for an overt act, a likelihood of harm, and a burden of  proof

o Parens patriae

o Danger predictors – are there any?

o Danger is over-predicted

- 2. False commitment

o Husband’s word was taken over their wives

▪ Not as big of a problem now

- 3. Insanity as a criminal defense

o Often used when innocence can’t be proven otherwise

o Responsibility shifts to the disorder from the culprit

o Usually results in commitment to a hospital for the criminally insane o Rarely used because it’s expensive and difficult to prove

o Only used for serious crimes, hospital confinement would be preferable to  criminal conviction

- 4. Right to treatment

o When the state takes away someone’s liberty to choose their own treatment,  they must give them treatment

o What happens when treatment can’t be provided?

o Can a patient refuse treatment?

- Social control and mental health law

o These 4 points are complicated by societal interest to maintain social order o Society tries to maintain order, not allow it to break down into chaos o The goal is rehabilitation, but most committed people won’t return to society

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