Study Guide 1
Study Guide 1 ANT 102
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kelsey Gaudette on Sunday September 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANT 102 at Illinois State University taught by Fred Smith in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 445 views. For similar materials see Human Origins in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 09/06/15
Anthropology 102Study Guide 1 Terms crossingover exchange of genetic material between chromosomes endemic disease when a disease is prevalent in a certain area for an extended period of time as exposed to epidemic where the disease is prevalent in during short reoccurring periods of time Founder effect a loss of genetic variation that happens when a small group of people are geographically isolated and begin a new population Homozygote identical pairs of alleles for a certain trait Heterozygote different pairs of alleles for a certain trait Polymorphism two or more different phenotypes existing in the same population sickle cell trait a type of anemia where red blood cells collapse in on themselves causing a sickle shape and risk for blood clots and other health problems Largely found in African populations and people of African descent as it is bene cial when malaria is contracted Lyel Charles Lyell wrote Principles of Geology which was one of the books Darwin brought with him on the Beagle Uniformitarianism was introduced in this book and it proposes a new way to observe geoogica changeEarth is thousands to millions of years old DNA deoxyribonucleic acid carries the genetic instructions for all living things Cosmology the study of the Universe in its totality and by extension humanity39s place in it Allele gene An allele is a variant form of a gene A gene is the basic unit of inheritance passed from parents to offspring to signal speci c traits Microevoution the change in allele frequencies over time within a population The four forms are mutation selection gene ow and genetic drift quotCreation Science An attempt to scienti cally prove the creation story from the Bible and discredit scienti c facts about Earth39s historycosmologyevolution Discredited by scientists as a religion and not an actual science Hardy Weinberg equilibrium no deviation from the norm or What is expected from one generation to the next if there is no in uence from other factors such as mates or mutations Pquot2PQQquot21 random genetic drift change in the frequency of an allele in a population randomly lndependentAssortment principle by Gregor Mendel describing how different genes independently separate from one another during reproductive cell development Segregation separation of paired alleles during meiosis so members of each pair of alleles appear in different gametes Population genetics the study of the distributions and changes of allele frequency in a population subject to four evolutionary processes natural selection genetic drift mutation recombination Natural Selection survival and reproduction of individuals who differ in phenotype Physical anthropology biological and behavioral aspects of humans Balanced polymorphism two different versions of a gene are maintained in a population of organisms because individuals carrying both versions are better able to survive than those who have two copies of either version alone Huntergatherer niche survival by hunting and gathering A niche is a place or position in something Theistic evolution religious and scienti c teachings are compatible with each other quotIrreducibe complexityquot certain biological systems are too complex to have evolved from simpler predecessors through natural selection acting upon naturally occurring chance mutations This idea is part of intelligent design which is rejected by the scienti c community Reproductive isolation prevents members of different species from producing offspring or ensuring that the offspring from two different species is sterile ex horsedonkeymule Breeding population deme a deme is a local population of organisms of one species that interbreed with each other and share a distinct gene pool Cuvier established extinction as a fact and believed in multiple creations FiXity ofspecies all species remained unchanged throughout Earth39s history Point mutation causes a single nucleotide base change insertion or deletion of genetic material Biocutura approach scienti c exploration of the relationships between human biology and culture Adaptation a trait with a functional role in the life of an organism that is maintained and evolved by natural selection Epidemic disease rapid spread of infectious disease to a large number of people in a population in a short span of time Great Chain ofBeing a religious hierarchical structure of matter and life starting with God at the top and descending with angels saints humans animals in order of importance to humans and plants at the bottom Theorytheory a scienti cally supported factan unproved assumption lnteigent Design certain features of the universe and of living things are best explained by intelligent cause and not by a process such as natural selection Macroevoution evolution on a large scale change that occurs at or above species opposite microevolution Balanced polymorphism two different versions of a gene are maintained in a population of organisms because individuals carrying both versions are better able to survive than those who have two copies of either version alone Fugates the quotblue peoplequot a family known for having a genetic trait leading to blue skin It was very prominent due to interbreeding among the family but now due to the family spreading out over a larger area there hasn39t been a blue Fugate in decades articles about them on Reggienet Cystic brosis a lifethreatening genetic disease dealing with infections in the lungs and build up of mucus Mutation permanent change of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism can cause genetic diseases Holistic comprehension of the parts of something as interconnected and explainable only by reference to the whole Dominant a trait that is more likely to appear in the offspring Recessive a trait that is less likely to appear in the offspring Linnaeus created binomial nomenclature which is the formal naming of living things using Latin gene ow transfer of alleles from one population to another Mendel pea plant experiments established some rules of heredity Crossbreeding to achieve certain desirable traits Wallace independently came up with the theory of evolution and jointly published ndings with Charles Darwin Darwin theory of evolution through natural selection 0n the Origin ofSpecies Lamarck proponent of evolution and natural law Adaptation a trait with functional role in the life of an organism that is maintained and evolves Mathus warned of the dangers of population growth and believed that population growth will be checked by famine and disease Selection a process that results in reproduction so that inheritable traits of certain individuals are passed on to the next generation Monogenism one creation Polygenism multiple creations Archaeology the study of the past through material remains Mitosis part of the cell cycle where chromosomes in a cell nucleus are separated into two sets of chromosomes each with their own nucleus Meiosis type of cell division that reduces chromosome number by half Dunkers a religious group that was isolated from the normal population and so had a small gene pool to reproduce from articles about the Dunkers on Reggienet Fixation change in the gene pool from previously existing two particular alleles or genes to one PTC tasting depending on the genetic makeup of the taster the test strip will either taste bitter or like nothing at all Goiter enlargement on thyroid gland Iodine required in synthesizing thyroid hormones Malaria a disease caused by being bitten by mosquitos resources about it on Reggienet know malaria in reference to sickle cell disease Questions 1 What is anthropology The study of humans past and present 2 What is biological anthropology The study of the evolution of life and behavioral aspect of life 3 What is cosmology The study of the Universe in its totality and by extension humanity39s place in it 4 What was preDarwinian cosmology quotThe ladder of lifequot Life organized by a hierarchy with God at the top and plants at the bottom included in key terms section 5 Was evolution the rst challenge to Christian cosmology No it was previously challenged by the heliocentric theory that eventually replaced the geocentric theory sun being the center of the universe vs earth being the center of the universe 6 What is polygenism and what role did it play in the development of evolutionary theory Polygenism means multiple creations Instead of believing in just the story of Adam and Eve or one creation some people started believing in polygenism or multiple creations This meant that different species could appear and disappear at different times throughout Earth39s history 7 What was Darwin39s particular contribution to evolutionary Theory The transmutation of species If you ll recall Darwin studied nches speci cally in the Galapagos Islands He noticed variations in the species from island to island and realized that the nches were evolving based on what kind of foods they were able to nd on each island 8 What parts could he not explain The mode of inheritance He noticed a quotblendingquot process meaning that the offspring ended up a mixture of the two parents How the species maintained diversity 9 What are Mendel39s two laws of inheritance Segregation of Characteristics states that in a pair of characteristics only one can be represented For example if a mom had blue eyes and a dad had brown eyes their child would have either brown or blue eyes but not both Law of independent assortment in two characteristics the genes inherit independently of each other For example if you were referring to hair and eye color and had the genotype AaBb you could get four different combinations from that AB Ab aB or ab 10What was Mendel39s contribution to evolutionary theory How variability is maintained in a population Dominant and recessive traits 11How does meiosis contribute to the maintenance of variation in a population and how is it evolutionarily important Because in meiosis there is a crossing over process which means an increase in variation of genetic material 12What is the HardyWeinberg Law of Equilibrium used for It is used to demonstrate how the frequency of sickle cell trait stays constant even after selection weeds out the victims of malaria and of sicklemia 13How is tasting for PTC inherited Through a bitter taste allele gene that determines whether or not people taste PTC as bitter or not bitter 14ls there an adaptive advantage to PTC testing Early on it evolved as a mechanism for tasting poisonous plants because most poisonous plants have a bitter taste to protect themselves from getting eaten 15What is population genetics The study of the allele frequency distribution and change over time 16What is a breeding population or deme A local population of one species that interbreed with each other 17Why does it complete theory of evolution Because a simple de nition of Evolution is a change in gene frequency over time 18What role does HardyWeinberg play in Evolution Frequencies between generations are mathematically predictable unless something is altering it like drift or evolution 19What are the four forces of evolution mutation random genetic drift gene ow natural selection 20How is variation maintained in a population Different combinations of alleles Mutations 21What role does mutation play in the maintenance of variation Mutations allow for populations to diversify 22What is random genetic drift The change in the frequency of an allele in a population 23What is gene ow Transfer of alleles from one population to another 24What do the frequencies of blood group alleles tell us about the Dunkers The Dunker39s continued to reproduce within a small population which increased the percentage of certain blood types within the population This means that the frequency of certain alleles in the Dunker population increased and decreased over time random genetic drift articles about the Dunker39s on Reggienet 25What do the Fugates show us about genetic drift That if a population produces within a small enough group problems can occur and certain mutations can appear more often than others 26What is the sickle cell trait See key terms section 27What evidence suggests that selection is operating at the sickle cell allele The fact that malariaprone areas are most prevalent for the sickle cell allele suggests that the sickle cell allele is an evolutionary trait 28How is sickle cell trait a balanced polymorphism Selection for the heterozygote 29What ecological circumstance led to the selection for such a deleterious gene The prevalence of mosquitos and therefore malaria in certain areas led to the selection of the sickle cell trait seeing as the sickle cell trait kills off malaria 30 How is the ABO blood group Rhesus factor like the sickle cell trait Deleterious effects of maternalfetal incompatibility and selection against incompatible sperm If a male and female have opposing blood types and conceive a child with the father39s blood type the mother39s body could think of the baby as an enemy to the body and send red blood cells to attack it This could lead to problems with the child such as jaundice 31Why keep these alleles in the population Because different blood groups have different susceptibilities to different diseases O vulnerable to plague cholera tuberculosis mumps peptic ulcers leprosy in uenza A2 A vulnerable to small pox stomach cancer pernicious anemia bronchial pneumonia syphilis esophageal cancer B vulnerable to streptococcus pneumonia gonorrhea tuberculosis e coli typhoid fever scarlet fever AB vulnerable to salmonella small pox lepromatous leprosy e coli IF THERE IS AN EPIDEMIC AT LEAST ONE PORTION OF THE POPULATION WILL SURVIVE 32How is the deleterious gene for cystic brosis adaptive It might provide resistance against tuberculosis 33What is quotscience A way of knowing that operates under strict rules and must be refutable 34How is Evolution quotscience Evolution is actually a speci c process exclusively associated with life but not about the origin of life Evolution is the process by which living populations adapt to an ever changing physical environment 35What are the major arguments against evolution quotif evolution is true show me how crocodiles evolve into ducksquot Evolution is a religion 36What is a quotTheoryquot How does it differ from quottheoryquot A Theory capital T is actually a speci c process exclusively associated with life but not about the origin of life This differs from theory because a theory is a cosmology which is de ned in the key terms section 37What is quotIntelligent Design Is it science How does it differ from Theistic Evolution Intelligent design is when certain features of the universe and of living things are best explained by intelligent cause and not by a process such as natural selection Intelligent design is not considered a science by scientists It differs from theistic evolution because theistic evolution is an idea that allows religion and science to coincide
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