Biology 10 Study Guide Chapter 5
Biology 10 Study Guide Chapter 5 Biology 101
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jenna Zagrodniczek on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biology 101 at West Virginia University taught by Sydha Salihu (P) in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at West Virginia University.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
REVIEW SHEET FOR EXAM 2 Chap 5: DNA and gene expression This list is only a study guide, not a complete list of all the material on the test. The best approach would be to study your notes, powerpoint slides on ecampus, read textbook and then try to answer these questions. Any material discussed in class is potential test material. Please bring questions to office hours or by appointment Watson and Crick (1953) –were the first to describe the structure of DNA.Who got the Nobel Prize for discovering the DNA structure? Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Thomas Steitz, Ada E. Yonath. DNA Structure: Know the structure of a DNA nucleotide. It has a sugar molecule, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. Which 4 bases are found in DNA nucleotides? What are the base pairing rules in DNA? AT, GC. What type of bond is found between nitrogenous bases? Hydrogen bond (This is the bond that holds the opposite strands together.) What type of bond is between nucleotides of the same strand? Covalent bond (phosphorate) What type of backbone does a strand of DNA have? A sugar and a phosphate DNA to Proteins =Gene expression Transcription (Know where it occurs – know what is formed – know what enzyme is involved) Unwinds, copies DNA to make RNA If you had a gene that read ATTCGCAT, what base order would the TRANSCRIPT (mRNA sequence) have? UAAGCGUA Which nitrogenous bases are found in the nucleotides found in RNA? A,T,G, U. Is RNA a single stranded nucleic acid or a double stranded nucleic acid? Know the differences between RNA and DNA. Single strand. How many types of RNA are there? What are their names? What are their functions? 3. mRNA messenger RNA carries the genetic code. tRNA transfer RNA carries amino acids to the ribosomes. rRNA ribosomal RNA along with ribosomes help make proteins Can RNA leave the nucleus? Does DNA leave the nucleus during gene expression?. Yes, no. Translation (Know where it occurs – know what is formed – know what types of molecules are involved ) Starts with single RNA made from transcription, tRNA, amino acids, ribosomal subunit come, then amino acid chain builds up, after chain is formed, tRNA goes away to pick up something else. Finally, the release factor molecule comes and releases protein into cytoplasm. Codons (What are they? On what molecule are they found?) Each 3 base sequence in mRNA always matches with a tRNA that carries one particular amino acid. Anticodons (What are they? On what molecule are they found?) Genetic code (Explain what the genetic code is. Do all organisms have the same code Is it universal?) What is one application of the universal genetic code? Answer: to make genetically modified organisms. During Translation, which molecule acts as the translator? Explain how. RNA What types of bonds are formed during translation? (Hint: Think about what molecules are being formed during translation) Do all cells have ribosomes? What is a gene? Yes. Gene section of DNA that codes for an entire polypeptide.
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