Lab Exam 1 Study Guide
Lab Exam 1 Study Guide BIOL 10513
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This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sijil Patel on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 10513 at Texas Christian University taught by Dr. Demarest in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 271 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology II in Biology at Texas Christian University.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
INTRO BIO LAB EXERCISE 3 -plants are multicellular, photosynthetic in Kingdom Plantae -more than 280,000 species -evolved from green algae -chlorophyll a as primary pigment -store carbs as starch in chloroplasts -cellulose cell walls -exhibit sporic meiosis with alternation of generations -multicellular diploid phase known as sporophyte -meiosis -haploid spores with mitosis -multicellular haploid phase known as gametophytes -evolved 475 million years ago -terrestrial advantages: -no competition -light more abundant -CO2 easily diffused -mineral elements abundant -terrestrial problems: -aquisition and maintenance of water -minimized with cuticle waxy coat preventing evaporation but impeded movement of gas -stomata and pores evolved allowing gas exchange extant- living plants Briophytes -gametophyte phase is dominant dominant-larger, more obvious and longer, lived generation -sporophyte generation attached to and dependent on gametophyte -do not contain well developed vascular tissue -therefore small in size -erect stems with leaf-like structures -root like rhizoids help anchor the plant and help with absorption gametangia-gamete producing structures -at the top of the plants antheridia-sperm producing gametangia -sperm swims to egg with help of rainwater archegonium- egg producing gametangium -mature sporophyte contains: foot- area of attachment to parent gametophyte seta- stalk capsule- meiosis occurs here and spores are produced spores- primary means of dispersal of briophytes and germinate into filamentous protonema (like filamentous green algae) Phylum Hepatophyta- liverworts Phylum Anthocerophyta- hornworts Phylum Bryophyta- mosses Seedless Vascular Plants -vascular system allows materials to move in greater quantity and faster and farther -plants larger -all plants other than bryophyte have well-developed vascular system -diploid sporophyte dominant in all plants except bryophytes -“the ferns and their allies” Phylym Lycophyta (Club Mosses) -true leaves, true roots, primitive vasculature -Lycopodium Phylum Pterophyta (Ferns) -consists of pteridophytes psilophytes/whisk ferns- similar to 420 million year old vascular planes xylem- conduction of water and minerals phloem- conduction of organic molecules -no true leaves or roots -photosynthesis via chlorophyll in stem mycorrhizal associations- mutualistic relationship bw plant and a fungus -keeps pterophytes anchored and helps with absorption -Psilotum -equal branching is primitive trait sporangia- pumpkin shaped structures at tips horsetails/scouring rushes -single living genus: Equisetum -true leaves and roots strobilus (scale-like structured leaves) with sporangia -ferns range in size rhizomes- stems often become horizontal and extend underground fronds- leaves sori- on the underside of fronds, consist of any sporangia -if spore lands in suitable area, germinates into heart shaped prothallus (haploid gametophyte generation) rhizoids- underside of prothallus and aid in anchorage and absorption of materials gametangia- on underside archegonia- near indentation of the heart antheridia- near rhizoids Seed Plants -developed 360 milliion years ago ovule- sporangium that produces female spore surrounded by protective layers called integuments, develops into seed when mature as embryonic sporophyte with coat and food -251,000 seed plant species -does not require free water for sexual reproduction to take place pollen tube- develops from male gametophyte and sperm delivered to proximity of egg via this -nurtures embryonic sporophyte and allowed exploitation of habitats -most seedless plants are homosporous (similar spore) -seed plants are heterosporous and have two types -microspore produced by microsporangium -grows into microgametophyte (male gametophyte) -megaspore produced by megaspore mother cell in megasporangium which is covered by two protective layers called integuments and will germinate into megagametophyte (female gametophyte) ovule- megasporangium and integuments together 2 groups: gymnosperms (seed borne naked) and angiosperms (seed borne with fruit) Gymnosperms -gametophytes of seed plants reduced and dependent on sporophyte generation (gametophyte of fern is independent) -microsporangia and megasporangia are borne on different cones -male cones small and last one year -female cones large and last longer -cannot differentiate after one year -In male cones, each “leaf” aka microsporophyll bears two microsporangia containing hundreds of pollen grains -in female cones, there are multiple scales aka seed-scale complexes with two ovules each and during pollination, pollen from male cones moves to female gametophyte producing pollen tube -free water not necessary for reproduction and embryonic plant provided with food and coat Phylum Cycadophyta -“cycads” -superficially resemble short palm trees Phylum Gingkophyta -ginkgo biloba, maidenhair tree -tolerant of pollution, in a lot of cities Phylum Gnetophyta -3 genera -Ephedra, Welwitszchia, Gnetum -closest to angiosperms Phylum Coniferophyta -most diverse and abundant -needle like leaves Angiosperms (Flowering plants) Phylum Anthophyta -250,000 species -2 new structures: flower and fruit -2 classes: monocots and eudicots -Monocots- flower parts in multiples of 3, veins parallel, vascular bundles scattered, seed has one embryonic leaf (cotyledon) -Eudicots- flower parts in multiples of 4 or 5, net-like veins vascular bundles in ring, 2 cotyledons in embryos Flowers -gymnosperms need a lot pollen bc depend on wind -made pollination more effective and coerce animals as vectors and pollinators -basic structure has 4 whorls -whorls attached to receptacle- top of the stem 1) sepals- lower most part together called calyx 2) petals- bright, together called corolla 3) stamens- pollen producing made up of anther and filament 4) pistils- contains stigma, style, ovary (ovules in ovary) -most primitive flower like Magnolia -primitive flower was actinomorphic- radially symmetric -ovaries were superior- all other parts below aka hypogyny -via evolution more modification include zygomorphic- bilaterally symmetric flowers and inferior ovaries (epigyny) Fruits -ovule in ovary -following pollination and fertilization, embryo forms in ovule and ovary wall becomes pericarp (fruit wall) consisting of three parts exocarp, mesocarp, and endocarp -fruit provides additional protection LAB EXECISE 4 -3 main plant organs 1) leaves 2) stem 3) root simple tissues- one type of cell complex tissues- two or more types of cells -3 main tissue systems 1) dermal 2) vascular 3) ground (fundamental) dermal tissue system: -tissue covering body, epidermis and sometimes secondary woody growth aka periderm -epidermis – epidermal cells, guard cells around stomata -periderm- complex tissue made of cork vascular tissue system: -conducting tissues of plant -xylem and phloem xylem: -complex, conduct water and mineral nutrients -parenchyma, sclerenchyma, and tracheary elements (conducting cells, made of trachids or vessel members) phloem: -complex, conduct photosynthate and organic molecules -parenchyma, sclerenchyma, and sieve elements (conducting cells, sieve tube member) ground (fundamental) tissue system: -remaining tissues -composed of simple parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma parenchyma: -parenchyma cells -most abundant -photosynthesis and storage -retain ability to divide/differentiate, good for healing -alive at maturity -even thick cell wall collenchyma: -collenchyma cells -support in delicate tissues that are still growing -alive at maturity -uneven thick cell walls sclerenchyma: -sclerenchyma cells -support -dead at maturity -lignified thick cell wall Roots: -function to absorb water and nutrients, transport materials to above ground plant, and anchoring plants in soil, serve as storage organs 4 Allium Onion Root Tip Root cap-protective layer Region of cell division- above root cap -in processs of dividing -with thin layers of non dividing cells makes up apical meristem (growing tip) region of cell elongation- increase in length of root, pushing through soil region of maturation- characterized by root hairs to increase surface area for nutrient uptake -fully differentiated Monocot and Dicot Roots Monocot: -outermost epidermis absorbs nutrients and protects inner layers (root hairs are outgrowths of epidermis) -next layer is called cortex -parenchyma cells, stores starch -next compact layer is endodermis -bound by fatty layer called casparian strip -surrounds cell only around walls perpendicular to root surface -barrier to water between cortex and inner tissue -any substance leaving vascular tissue must ender protoplasts of endodermal cells rather than simple diffusing bw them as in the cortex -serves as outer boundary of vascular cylinder in root -next layer is pericycle -gives rise to later roots -beneath pericycle is xylem (conducts water) and phloem (conducts food up and down) -innermost layer is pith made of parenchyma cells for storage Dicots: -no pith, more extensive cortex -vascular tissue is more central and arranged with cross pattern and three or more radiating arms -cell walls of endodermal cells opposite arms are thinner than bw arms, effectively funneling water diffusing into root to xylem Stems: Herbaceous Monocot and Dicot Stems Monocot: -vacular bundles scattered -outermost layer epidermis -next layer is fibrous with thick angular cell walls that are sclerenchyma for support -in bundles: 2 xylem (eyes) , phloem (forehead), and airspace where early xylem was (mouth) -remaining tissue is parenchyma Dicot: -vascular bundles in rind near periphery -xylem and phloem separated by actively dividing cell layer called vascular cambium -cambium makes new xylem and phloem later -bundles capped by sclerenchyma -well defined cortex and pith made of parenchyma -epidermis with irregular cell walls made of collenchyma Woody Stem -Tilia wood with secondary/woody growth -parenchyma bw vascular bundles differentiates to form additional cambium (interfascicular cambium) -forms entire ring of cambium connecting each cambium of each bundle -vacular cambium produces large amounts of secondary xylem and phloem -cork cambium contributes to secondary growth, arises from cortex and produces more cork -dead at maturity Leaves: Typical monocot and dicot leaves -between upper and lower epidermis is mesophyll which is photosynthetic tissue of leaf made of parenchyma Monocots: -parallel venation -vascular bundles evenly spaces and uniform size (except midvein) -vascular bundles, stomata opening, and bulliform cells (on edge, leaf folding and unfolding in grasses) Dicots: -net venation -vascular tissue not regularly arranged -mesophyll differentiated in 2 layers: -palisade parenchyma- columnar -spongy parenchyma- loosely arranged -stomata at lower surface epidermis -like monocots, both upper and lower epidermis have waxy cuticle coat to reduce water loss LAB EXERCISE 2 -fungi are diverse Important as: -decomposers (break down complex organic material to release simpler compounds) -mutualistic interactions (mutualism is interaction in which both organism benefit) -food production/spoilage -causing disease (in plants, infections to skin/mucosa in animals) -drugs and antibiotics derived from them -heterotrophic by absorption -glycogen as major storage product -chitin cell walls -multicellular with mycelium body composed of filaments aka hyphae -reproduce sexually and asexually by resistant structures called spores -sexually reproducing phyla exhibit zygotic meiosis -most of life in haploid state -only diploid cell is zygote, undergoes meiosis immediately Chytridiomycota -chytrids -most primitive fungi -some reproductive cells are motile via flagellae -does not exhibit zygotic meiosis Glomeromycota -participate in mycorrhizal association (mycorrhizae) = bw fungus and plant root -fungus helps plant aquire water and phosphorus -plant provides energy via photosynthate -have particular association called endomyrorrhiza or arbuscular mycorrhiza -90% all plant species in associations with glomermycetes Zygomycota -terrestrial fungi -hyphae do no possess septae (cross walls) -each filament has multiple nuclei aka coenocytic -formation of thick walled spore aka zygospore by sexual reproduction -whitish hyphae make up mycelium and some grow up to form black globe structures aka sporangia used in asexual reproduction -lots of asexual spores in sporangia used for mold dispersal -hyphae penetrates agar and has root like rhizoids for anchoring and absorption -for sexual reproduction in black bread mold, two strains (+ and -) unify (zygospores in center are result of this) -Rhizopus Ascomycota (sac fungi) -terrestrial and aquatic fungi -hyphae with perforated septae -sexual reproduction involves saclike, spore producing ascus -mildews, truffles, morels, cup fungi, yeasts -YEASTS: -budding is asexual reproduction from constriction/pinching off cytoplasm -OTHERS: -cup fungus -typifies sexual reproductive structure Basidiomycota (club fungi) -terrestrial fungi -complete cross walls and sexual reproduction involves formation of basidiospores on basidium -structures obvious as in mushrooms, puff balls, bracket fungi, rusts, smuts -mushrooms have gills aka plates on undersurface of spore producing body -club shaped basidia extend from gills with each basidium producing four spores -bracket funfus and look at pores rather than gills -Agaricus and Polyporus Deuteromycetes -medically and commercially important -no known means of sexual reproduction -asexual by pinching off conidia spores from tips of modified hyphae called conidiophores -Penicillium Lichens -important mutualistic association -bw alga (blue-green cyanobacterium or green alga) and fungus (ascomycete or basidiomycete) -dense fungal layers upper and lower cortex -loose fungal layer medulla -algal layer -root like rhizines (hyphae) -3 morphological types: 1) crustose- crust like 2) fruticose- shrub like 3) foliose- leafy -all three types of lichens LAB EXERCISE 5 -invertebrates- organisms without a vertebral column/backbone Phylum Porifera -least complex animals: sponges -no truly defined tissues -first truly multicellular organisms -sessile (non-motile), suspension feeders eating particles in water -several cell types in loose aggregation that do not form tissues -choanocytes (flagellated cells) line series of chambers in body -beat flagella moving water through sponge body collecting particles and they contact modified collar -most effective filter feeders -outer layer of epidermal cells with interspersed porocytes (allow water to pass through epiderm into central spongocoel lined with choanocytes that pull water in and out center exit called osculum) -amoebocytes in wall of sponge transport nutrients obtained from the choanocytes to other cells in the sponge -walls of sponge have spicules made of CaCO3 (shape and simple rod to branch) , SiO2 (glass-like skeleton), or spongin (spongy feel) -spicule type used to classify sponges -three body designs asconoid (central osculum lined with choanocytes and simple linear channel system of porocytes), syconoid ( more complex inner channel with choanocyte in canals and not osculum), leuconoid (complex series of inner channels and lacks osculum, choanocytes localized to flagellated chambers for better filtering and larger body) -observe Grantia- syconoid, spongocoel with radial canals going outward lined with choanocytes, between radial canals are incurrent canals that connect to surrounding water (water pulled into incurrent canals and passes through specialized porocytes into radial canals where chonaocytes filter nutrients and push water into spongocoel. Water leaves via osculum) -Porifera demo for spicule types Phylum Cnidaria -true tissue layers derived from two embryonic germ layers (diploblastic), -anemone, jellyfish, radial symmetry, rudimentary nervous system and centralized chamber corals gastrovascular cavity GVC (digestive cavity and circulatory system) -specialized cells called cnidocytes containing nematocytes (specialized organelles able to sting injecting a venom) - prey captured by tentacles containing cnidocytes transfers food to central mouth to gvc, digested, and undigested food eliminated via mouth/anus -life cycle : polyp and medusa -sessile stage, attached to substrate by pedal disc, body extends to tentacles surround mouth -swimming stage, tentacles down around mouth and medusa moves by contraction of body -reproductive cycles- polyps asexually by budding (specialized polyps gonozoids form medusa to produce eggs/sperm by meiosis) -post fertilization a swimming plannula larvae is formed, settles to bottom to form benthic sessile polyp Hydrozoa -polyp and medusa stages -colonial and solitary -hydromedusa stage has velum (flap at base of tentacle ring) and lack of oral arms around mouth -hydra, physalia, obelia Schyphozoa -true jellyfish -schyphomedusa is dominant stage with lack of velum and prominent oral arms, polyp reduced -Aurelia Cubozoa -sea wasps and box jellyfish -box shaped in appearance -medusa stage dominates -tropical marine, good swimmers -rudimentary eyes called rhopalia allow active perusal of prey Anthozoa -Sea anemones and corals -no medusa stage -polyp stage with subdivided gvc -corals (individual polyp sits in cup calyx visible in skeleton) -produced asexually, identical , CaCO3 skeleton depends on symbiotic dinoflagellates called zooxanthellae -live hydra- live with vaseline syringe (tentacles and gvc and cnidocytes and asexually by budding, epidermis and gastrodermis tissue layers) -Obelia- colonial, gastrozoid – feeding and stinging tentacles and gonozoid polyps - sex and hydromedusae produced here -anemone, coral (colonial anthozoan), jellyfish, physalia (man of war, colonial hydrozoan with gas filled pneumatophore and polyps) Phylum -3 embryonic germ layers (triploblastic ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm) Platyhelminthes , bilateral symmetry -wormlike organism in marine fresh water terrestrial and parasitic environments -acoelomates 80% parasitic Turbellaria -free living flatowrms -aquatic -muscular pharynx aids in feeding -Planaria Trematoda -flukes -two suckers one at anterior and other ¼ down body -parasitic -fasciola hepatica (liver fluke) and shistosoma mansoni (human blood fluke) Cestoda -tapeworms -intestinal parasites with small head scolex and made of subunits proglottids -lack digestive tract -live Planaria (return to dish) , ocelli eyspots for light perception, intestine closed digestive system, phyrnx for muscular feeding -Fasciola with ventral sucker and anterior oral sucker around mouth, closed digestive system, one opening into intestine, hermaphroditic so ovaries and testis -Cestoda (tapeworm)- hooks and suckers , proglottid slide with repeating units with testis and ovaries -no digestive tract, as proglottids mature and become filled with eggs they break off body and leave digestive tract Phylum Rotifera -increase in organ complexity -food source for fish -alimentary canal, one way digestive system, specialization of cells along digestive tract -live Rotifer with trochal disk (circular array of cilia located at anterior end of animal tract used to get food) mouth at bases of disk with pharynx an grinding apparatus with mastix , posterior ends in bifurcated split toes and pedal glands that secrete adhesive to stick to substrate Phylum Nematoda -round worms -complete digestive tract -only longitudinal muscle and no segmentation -more numerous invertebrate -inhabit freshwater and terrestrial habitats and many are parasitic -Trichonella spirlais intestinal parasite for trichinosis, adult female release larvae Phylum Annelida -marine freshwater and terrestrial segmented worms -specialization -true coelom, closed circulatory system, advanced nervous system, centralized ganglia, sensory organs on head cephalization -each body segment divided by septa Oligochaeta -earthworm with chaeta bristiles Polychaeta -marine with parapodia in each segment, feather duster worm Hirudinea -leeches, parasitic attach to host and sucking blood hemolymph, makes hirudin to keep host from knowning, reduced cephalization Earthworm Dissections: External anatomy: Clitellum-band like structure in reproduction -mouth, anus, setae(small bristles) (mouth below lobe prostomium) Internal Anatomy: -body wall attached by septae that have to be broken pharynx- behind mouth cerebral ganglia- ring of neurons around digestive tract anterior to pharynx lateral heart- 5 modified vessels from dosal aorta to ventral esophagus-posterior to pharynx crop-posterior to esophagus gizzard- muscular chamber of digestive tract behind crop intestine- tube like structure rest of length dorsal and ventral blood vessel -seminal vesicles and and seminal receptacles -septa -calciferous glands -polychaetes with parapodia and setae and Hirudinea leeches LAB EXERCISE 6: MOLLUSCA TO EHINODERMATA Mollusca (snails. -bilaterally symmetrical, unsegmented, coelomates, protostomes, open Clams, octopus, circulatory system, larval stages (trochophore and veliger) squid) 1) muscular foot 2) visceral mass- internal organs 3) mantle- tissue layer responsible for CaCO3 shell -mouth (buccal) region containing hard feeding radula Polyplacophora -8 plates on dorsal surface (many plate -Chitons bearer) -muscular foot, mantle, 8 plates called valves in tissue, unsegmented, radula to scrape algae Gastropoda -3/4 of all mollusks (stomach foot) -body twisting aka torsion traced back to embryo cleavage resulting in coiled body plan (larger without being taller) -on hard substrates, radules, foot visible, more developed head with mouth and sensory tentacles, mantle directly under shell -nudibranches aka sea slugs lost ability to produce shell -modified mantle with fingerlike cerata to sting live snail and demo shell Bivalvia (two -two prominent shells (valves) encase body and they are shells) hinged -inner surface lined with mantle tissue (responsible for production of valves) -1-2 adductor muscles on each valve these are scallops -central mass with two sets of gills, filter feed water into vales via siphons using gills Cephalopoda -most advanced invertebrates (head foot) -octopus, squid, cuttlefish, Nautilus -hunter who have lost shells -mantle thick and muscular surrounding visceral mass, fins, “jet propulsion” with expulsion via siphon -foot modified with arms and tentacles -high cephalization with good eyes and nervous system Squid -pelagic cephalopods, largest invertebrate species, Dissection torpedo shaped, stiff supportive pen, 8 arms and 2 tentacles -dorsal surface, ventral surface, posterior with siphon, anterior, fins, mantle, chromatophore (spots allow color alteration for various behaviors), siphon, eyes, arms, tentacles, mouth (chitonous beak), siphon retractor muscles, siphon valves, gill, branchial vein (O2 blood from gill), branchial hearts (non-O2 blood to gills), posterior vena cava, kidney, cecum (sac aids in food digestion), systemic heart, stellate ganglia and giant axon, anterior vena cava, ink sac , buccal cavity with peristomial membrane, mandibles, radula Male: hectocotylus arm transfer spermatophore to female), gonad Female: nidamental gland (produce eggshell), ovary Arthropoda -dominant form of life on planet (Age of Beetle) -chitinous exoskeleton limits size, so they must molt (shed) -joint appendages with high segmentation: head, thorax, abdomen -fused cephalothorax region -open circulatory system Cheliceriformes -spiders, scorpions, ticks, mites, crabs -6 appendages ( 1 pr chelicerates, 1 pr pedipalps, 4 pr walking legs) Myriapoda -millipedes and centipedes Hexapoda -head, thorax, abdomen, 3 leg prs, 3 wings Crustacea -crabs, lobsters, shrimp -mouthparts, 2 or more legs -dominate oceans Daphnia- water fleas, crustaceans -carapace obscures segmentation -2 large appendage for swimming and feeding Copepods-zooplankton -fused cephalothorax, segmented abdomen, two pair prominent antennae, females carrying eggs in ovisacs Crayfish: -freshwater, benthic crustaceans, omnivorous -cephalothorax covered by carapace -head in 5 segments and 5 pairs of appendages -thorax in 8 segments with 3 pars of maxillipeds, 5 pairs of walking legs -decapod, 5 pairs of walking legs -abdomen with 6 segments, 6 pairs of pleopods -tail with paired uropods and spike like telson -antennae, antennules, mandible, maxillae, maxilliped, walking legs, pleopods, uropod, telson, rostrum, eyestalks (compound eyes), branchial chamber with gills, gills, heart with ostia where blood enters, hepatopancreas (liver), pyloric and cardiac stomach with gastric teeth, cerebral ganglion, green gland, intestine Echinodermata -deuterostomes, returned to radial symmetry, sessile (spiny skin) -water vascular system, branching hydraulic tubules ending in tube feet -resistance in locomotion, gas exchange, feeding -pentaradial symmetry from central reg mvion in 5 rays -star fish, sea urchins, sand dollars, sea cucumbers Starfish: -aboral surface (side opposite to mouth), madreoporites (sieve plate, regulates sea water in system), dermal spines, dermal branchiae, pedicellariae (pincers at base of spines), oral surface, tube feet, ambulactral groove, pyloric and cardiac stomach, pyloric ducts, pyloric ceca (digestive gland), gonad, Water Vascular System with starfish in conjugation with muscles to generate force, external sieve and mareporite connected to stone canal and ring canal -off of ring canals are radial canals and each canal has arms that are ampullae Madreoporite- stone canal, ring canal, abulacral ridge, ampullae, tube feet
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