Respiratory System Study Guide
Respiratory System Study Guide BIOL 2510 - 001
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brooke Polinsky on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 2510 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Shobnom Ferdous in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology II in Anatomy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
Exam 2 Study Guide: 1. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: • Know Three Thoracic Cavity pressures ◦ Intrapulmonary pressure, intraplueral pressure, and transpulmonary pressure • Know how Boyles Law deals with pulmonary ventilation and the relationship with volume and pressure ◦ If volume decreases, pressure increases ◦ If volume increases, pressure decreases • Know how inspiration deals with the mechanics of breathing: ◦ More speciﬁcally: ‣ How does inspiration eﬀect the rest of the respiratory system? • Inspiratory muscles contract and the diaphragm moves down and rib cage goes up and out • Thoracic cavity volume increases and intraplueral pressure drops • lungs are stretched and intrapulmonary volume rises • intrapulmonary pressure drops ‣ What is the air ﬂow into the lungs with inspiration? • Down its pressure gradient until intrapulmonary pressure= atmospheric pressure • Know how expiration deals with the mechanic of breathing: ◦ More speciﬁcally: ‣ How does expiration eﬀect the rest of the respiratory system? • Inspiratory muscles relax and the diaphragm goes up and the rib cage down and in • Thoracic cavity volume decreases and intraplueral pressure rises • Elastic lungs recoil passively and intrapulmonary volume drops • Intrapulmonary pressure rises ‣ What is the air ﬂow into the lungs with expiration? • Down its pressure gradient until intrapulmonary pressure= atmospheric pressure ‣ What is forced expiration? • contraction of the abs and internal intercostals push air out • Know the deﬁnition of pneumothorax ◦ presence of air in pleural cavity • Know the four respiratory volumes and their deﬁnitions: ◦ Tidal Volume, Inspiratory reserve volume, Expiratory reserve volume, and residual volume • Know the four respiratory capacities and their deﬁnitions: ◦ Inspiratory capacity, functional residual capacity, vital capacity, and total lung capacity • Know how minute ventilation deals with respiratory volume: ◦ Its the total volume of air that ﬂows in and out of the respiratory system per minute. • Be able to ﬁll out the Respiratory volume and capacity Diagram: • Know the deﬁnition of anatomical space and what alveolar ventilation rate means ◦ anatomical dead space= volume of air in conducting zone ◦ alveolar ventilation rate= respiration rate*(TV-dead space) ‣ total amount of fresh air that ﬂows in and out of respiratory system in 1 min • What two zones make up the respiratory system and what occurs at each? ◦ Respiratory zone= actual of gas exchange; bronchioles, alveoli, alveolar ducts ◦ Conducting zone= all respiratory passageways leading to and including all terminal bronchioles • What are three diﬀerent types of dead space? ◦ anatomical dead space= doesn't contribute to gas exchange; air that remains in passageways; 150 ml ◦ alveolar dead space= space occupied by a nonﬁctional alveoli; due to collapse or obstruction ◦ total dead space= sum of anatomical and alveolar dead space • What does gas exchange occur between? ◦ lungs and blood as well as blood and tissues • What is the diﬀerence between external and internal respiration? ◦ external=between blood and lungs ◦ internal= blood and tissues • What are eternal and internal respiration subject to? ◦ basic properties of gases and composition of alveolar gas • What two diﬀerent laws deal with the basic properties of gases? ◦ Dalton's law= total pressure exerted by mixture of gases is equal to sum of pressures exerted by gas ◦ Henry's Law= used for gas mixtures in contact with liquids • What is partial pressure? ◦ pressure exerted by each gas mixture and its directly proportional to its percentage in mixture • What does total atmospheric pressure equal and how do we use it to calculate partial pressure? ◦ total atmospheric pressure= 760 mmHg ◦ Nitrogen makes up 78.6% of the air, therefore its partial pressure equals: 0.786 x 760= 597mmHg ◦ will have to do calculation on the test • Gas exchange at the pulmonary and systemic capillaries is through passive diﬀusion of )2 and CO2 due to what? ◦ Partial Pressure Gradient • When does a partial pressure gradient occur? ◦ occurs when the PP of a gas diﬀers across a membrane ◦ A GAS WILL ALWAYS DIFFUSE FROM A HIGHER PP TO A LOWER PP • When do partial pressures increase and when do they decrease? ◦ Increase at lower altitudes (under water) ◦ Decrease at higher altitudes • Amount of each gas that will dissolve depends on (Henry's Law)? ◦ Solubility= CO2 is 20x more soluble in water than O2, and little N2, will dissolve ◦ Temperature= as temp of liquid rises, solubility decreases • What is an example of Henry;s Law? ◦ Hyperbaric chambers • Other facts about Henrys Law? ◦ each gas will dissolve in the liquid in proportion to it partial pressure ◦ at equilibrium, partial pressure in the two phases will be equal • External Respiration (pulmonary respiration) involves an exchange between which two gases? ◦ O2 and CO2 across respiratory membranes • External Respiration Exchange is inﬂuenced by what three things? ◦ Partial pressure gradients and gas solubilities ◦ Thickness and surface area of respiratory membrane ◦ Ventilation-perfusion coupling • What is ventilation-perfusion coupling? ◦ matching of alveolar ventilation with pulmonary blood perfusion • Steep partial pressure gradient for O2 exist between what two things? ◦ blood and lungs • What are the partial pressures for Venous blog and alveolar? ◦ VENOUS BLOOD= 40MMHG ◦ ALVEOLAR= 104 MMHG ◦ WILL BE ON TEST • What does alveolar's partial pressure due for blood? ◦ drives oxygen ﬂow into blood ◦ equilibrium is reached across membrane ◦ ensures adequate oxygenation even if blood ﬂow increases 3x • What are the parietal pressures of venous blood and alveolar for CO2? ◦ partial pressure gradient is less steep ◦ venous blood= 45mmHg ◦ alveolar= 40 mmHg • Why is CO2 20x more soluble in plasma and alveolar ﬂuid than O2? ◦ Because the partial pressure gradient of CO2 is not as steep as O2 and Co2 still diﬀuses in equal amounts with oxygen • What is Dalton's Law? ◦ air pressure is the sum of the partial prose of all gases present ◦ partial pressure= % of gas in a mixture x total air pressure • Oxygen will diﬀuse in blood and CO2 will diﬀuse in alveolus as long as what happens? ◦ As long as oxygen is more concentrated (higher PP) outside and CO2 is more concentrated (higher PP) inside • Know the deﬁnitions of Ventilation and perfusion ◦ Ventilation- amount of gas reaching alveoli ◦ Perfusion- the blood ﬂow in pulmonary capillaries • Know what ventilation and perfusion are controlled by. ◦ Ventilation is controlled by PCO2 by changing the diameter of the bronchioles ◦ Perfusion is controlled by PO2 by changing the diameter of the arteries • Why doesn't the partial pressure of gases in the alveoli match that of inspired air? ◦ Because of dead space. At any given time the air int he alveoli is a mixture of old and new air • What two ways is oxygen transported in blood? ◦ 1.5 % is dissolved in plasma and 98.5 % are bound to hemoglobin • How many hemoglobin can bind to O2? ◦ 4 • Why is it easier for the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th to bind to oxygen? ◦ the aﬃnity (ending strength) of hemoglobin changes with oxygen saturation; more oxygen present= more aﬃnity ◦ when the 1st O2 binds, it changes the shape of Hb which increases aﬃnity of Hb for more O2. • What is the diﬀerence between partially saturated and fully saturated? ◦ partially saturated= 1, 2, or 3 oxygen molecules ◦ fully saturated= all 4 oxygen molecules • REMEMBER: 100 MMHG= PO2 OF LUNGS, 40 MMHG= PO2 OF RESTING TISSUES, 20 MMHG= PO2 OF EXERCISING TISSUES • Know all the trends associated with the diagram below (Oxygen-Hemoglobin dissociation curve) • • Use the PO2 of lungs, resting tissues, and excising tissues to decipher where each is on the diagram • What three factors aﬀect this curve? ◦ temperature, blood pH, and PCO2 • What does a shift right caused by? ◦ low pH, high CO2, and high temperature • How can the factors change Hb aﬃnity for O2? ◦ Shift left= Hb aﬃnity for O2 is higher because of less unloaded tissues ◦ Shift right= aﬃnity for O2 is lower because of more unloaded tissues • How does temperature aﬀect oxygen- hemoglobin dissociation curve? ◦ Lower temps shift curve tot he left and higher aﬃnity of Hb for O2 ◦ Higher temps shift curve tot he right and lower aﬃnity of Hb for O2 ◦ Purple line is normal body temp • What is the Bohr eﬀect on the diagram? ◦ lowers blood pH, higher PCO2, and reduces Hb aﬃnity for O2 so higher O2 unloading to tissues that need it • What causes the graph to shift left or right with the Bohr eﬀect? ◦ higher blood pH, lower CO2 than normal arterial levels, causes a shift to the left; also increases aﬃnity of Hb for O2 ◦ lower blood pH, higher CO2 levels, causes shift to the right and a decrease in aﬃnity for Hb for O2 • What three way are CO2 transported? ◦ 10% dissolved in plasma ◦ 20% bound to Hb ◦ 70% as bicarbonate ions from CO2 reaction • Know the inﬂuence of PO2 on breathing rate and depth • Know the how the top panel tissues of this diagram work and the process they go through with CO2 • Know that the bottom panel tissues of this diagram are opposite to that of the top panel tissues. • What are the two diﬀerent types of CO2 transport impairments? ◦ Hypoventilation= breathing not meeting metabolic needs ‣ causes high PCO2, higher H+, reparatory acidosis (blood pH too acidic) ‣ decreases rate/depth of breathing ◦ Hyperventilation= breathing exceeding metabolic needs ‣ causes lower PCO2, lower H+, respiratory alkalosis (blood pH too basic) ‣ increase rate.depth of breathing • Know the eﬀects of high altitudes on reparation • What re the two respiratory center in the medulla? ◦ Dorsal respiratory group and ventral respiratory group • What is the respiratory center in the pons? ◦ Pontine Respiratory group • What are the two diﬀerent types of chemorecptors? ◦ central (throughout brainstem) and peripheral (aortic arch and carotoid sinus) chemoreceptors • What do chemoreceptors respond to? ◦ high PCO2 and H+ impulses ◦ very low levels of O2 • Know all of the pulmonary diseases and disorders. ◦ Pneumonia, asthma, COPD
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