CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY ANT 302
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Quincy Bashirian PhD on Sunday September 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANT 302 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Jennifer Goett in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see /class/181751/ant-302-university-of-texas-at-austin in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 09/06/15
ANT 302 Final Exam Study Guide 1 2 3 0 7 8 Power ability to exercise one s will over another 0 A relationship of domination and subordination First Face of Power direct coercion through the use or threat of force 0 quotAquot uses force or threat of force to get quotBquot to do what quotAquot wants 0 Authoritarian approach to social control 0 Involves physical coercion armed forces punishment incarceration even death 0 Fear of consequences can result in selfdisciplining and submission Second Face of Power setting the rules of the game 0 quotAquot creates the conditions under which quotBquot has no other choice but do what quotAquot wants 0 More complex than the first 0 Society is structured in ways that reproduce social hierarchies o llPlaying field is uneven 0 Educational Institutions I Students are subject to the institutional authority of the university ex Majors credits tuition grades rules and regulations I Authority is reproduced in classroom between professor and student I Layout and technology reinforce authority 0 Other realms where second face of power functions integrative I Economic class access to work the workplace I State access to citizenship rights I Gender feminization of poverty I Race racial inequality has deep structural roots Third Face of Power shaping perceptions and preferences so that those with less power accept societal conditions even though they are not equitable o quotAquot shapes the way quotBquot thinks so that quotBquot may not feel he is acting against his own interest 0 Most complex of all 0 Subject to constant debate and inquiry in the social sciences o Persuasion llwinning hearts and minds I o Dominating groups gain consent of subordinated groups Structural inequality institutional systemic political economic aspects of society are structured to reinforce inequality Structural racism less about individuals and intent more about broad social behaviors Ideology o llthey don t know it but they re doing it Karl Marx Capitalism More than a system of ideas Organizes human consciousness Embodied in collective modes of living Shapes rules of conduct and moral behavior OOOOO Normalized and naturalized 0 Popular belief or llcommon sense Hegemony 0 Antonio Gramsci 1891 1937 Italian social theorist in the Marxist tradition o A leader of the communist party and imprisoned by Mussolini 0 Third face hegemony 0 Organization of consent through ideological and political forces o Unification of different social interestsforcessectors o Involves building a system of broad alliances o Consumerist society 9 Resistance a response to conditions of inequality by subordination groups that challenges dominant group s privileged position of power and authority 0 Traditionally anthropologists have viewed resistance as a Marx amp Gramsci I Direct response to inequality that challenges the legitimacy of power holders I Action that seeks to transform societal conditions I Collective and organized challenge to dominant system and ideology 0 Ex Protests demonstration strikes insurgency revolt rebellion overthrow revolution 10 James Scott anthropologist working in peasant societies in Malaysia 0 Books Weapons of the Weak etc o coined the terms hidden transcript and everyday resistance 11 Hidden transcripts critique of power that goes on undercover or offstage o In public subordinates appear to accept inequality and dominant s authority 0 Oblique everyday adhoc even poetic and creative 0 Unconventional noncollective unorganized 12 Colonialism domination and administration of a territory and its people by a foreign power for an extended period 0 Modern colonialism began with quotAge of Discovery post 1942 13 Imperialism extension of a nation s authority over another nation or territory through direct colonization or more indirect political and economic means 0 Goes back to early states ex Egyptian Roman and Inca empire 14 First phase of colonial expansion Spanish and Portuguese in the Americas largely ended 1825 15 Second phase of colonial expansion dominated by British and French begins 16 h17 h century apex 1875 1914 rapid decline post WWII 16 Economic motivations for colonialism 0 Search for raw materials to fuel European industrialization and consumption ex Rubber gold cotton oil bananas coffee tea sugar cane o Securing overseas markets for European manufactured goods cloth house wares tools etc 0 Development of a single global capitalist economy 0 Globalization increasingly dense web of economic transactions and flows of people money goods around the globe 17 Political motivations for colonialism 0 Competition between colonial powers world powers for economic and political dominance 0 Strategic interests securing access to regions of geopolitical interest ex Suez and Panama Canals 0 Political and economic motivations were ensembled 18 Cultural change under colonialism 0 Spread of Christianity I Frequently nominal I Often syncretic AfroCuban Santeria or Mexican Catholicism 0 Language change I English as global language I Creole and Patois o quotWesternizationquot or cultural imperialism o Hybridization or mixing of culture 0 Development of new forms of culture 0 Hierarchy of global cultures I Remember llhigh culture I ID Ideological justifications for colonialism o Nationalism and national unification of Europe and US was tied to colonial expansion 0 Benevolent stewardship justified paternalism and ideologies of white racial superiority 20 llWhite Man s Burden I depicted colonized groups as uncivilized children in need of EuroAmerican direction and guidance 0 Title of 1899 poem by English poet and colonial journalist Kipling referencing US acquisition of Philippines 0 Missionization saving souls spiritual salvation St Louis World s Fair 0 Colonialism abroad tied to manifest destiny at home N o Celebrated the 100 h anniversary of the Louisiana Purchase from France in 1803 o lmparted nationalist pride in US achievements civilization and territorial expansion 0 Technological culture and human exhibits 0 Showing colonized peoples as quotsavagesquot and quotbarbarians I in their llnatural habitats 0 Used linear evolutionary notion of culture LH Morgan 22 IMFWorld Bank 0 Organized as result of 1944 Bretton Wood Conference I Reconstruction of European economies I Stabilization of world currency I Provide loans for development initiatives 0 With post WWII decolonialization IMFWB shifted lending to emerging llThird World I o Shortterm lending high interest rates devaluation of local currencies o Emergence of development policy for Third World 23 Development ideology 0 Development ideological justification for intervening in local affairs 0 Often paternalistic like colonialism o Often built on single model of social good and economic quotprogress I 0 Western knowledge and expertise is key to successful development 0 Assumes foreign aid and loans to poor countries will improve economic and social conditions 24 Michael Manley 0 Former prime minister elected on a nonIMF platform in 1976 0 Was forced to sign Jamaica s first loan agreement with IMF in 1977 due to fiscal crisis and lack of viable alternatives 0 Global pattern common throughout Third World HIPC 0 At present Jamaica owes over 7 billion in external debt 25 Structural Adjustment Policies o SAPs I Fiscal austerity I Decrease in social spending education health I Privatization of public assetsholdings I Limited government intervention through subsidies and regulations I Lifting trade barriers free trade 0 Debt crisis and social challengescollapse I Economies oriented towards unsustainable debt maintenance I Inability to compete with larger economies in global trade I Decline in rural economies local food security I Dependence on export products I Unemployment and few social services I Rising crime rates violence and intensified policing of citizens 26 World Trade Organization 0 Created in 1995 o Formerly GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade created in 1945 in Bretton Woods 0 Mission I Lowering trade barriers I Assisting poor countries transition to WTO rules 0 Voting controlled by largest economies o Cooperates with lMFWBIDB crossconditionality 27 Free Trade Zone labor intensive manufacturing centers that involve the import of raw materials or components and the export of factory products 0 Free trade from the US perspective I Benefits cheaper products I US consumers can buy more for less I Overseas market for US goods 0 Restructuring of US economy I Increasing trade deficit since the 1970s I Loss of manufacturing jobs I US manufacturersworkers cannot compete with Chinese labor I Corporate monopolies Walmart retail I Small scale retailers cannot compete with superstores I Shift to service sector economy lower wages less job security fewer benefits 0 China s competitive edge I Undervalued currency cheaper exports I Largest lowcost labor force on earth I Few labor lawsno workers rights I Government subsidies to producers at preferential interest rates 28 Flexible accumulation 0 Economic model for global capitalist operations 0 Flexible overseas production labor and consumption 0 Capital and production mobile to maximize competitive advantage 0 Breakup of the production process piece work assembly 0 Search for cheapest labor force outsourcing 0 New international division of labor labor pools are now global 29 Multinational corporations corporate entity that manages production and provision of services in at least 2 countries 0 Flexible accumulation shapes their business practice Produces goods cheaply overseas or partly overseas Importsmarkets goods to consumer countries where wages and purchasing power are higher Links workers and consumers all over the world Model demands lowered trade barriers ex Deregulation and free trade OOO 30 Culture of consumption 0 Generation of desire and need 0 The principle way of communicating individual and group identity I Style fashion aesthetics taste politics of personal presentation 31 Cultural studies o Crossdisciplinary field 0 Combines political economy history social theory media studies and cultural anthropology o Broadly concerned with study of ideology nationalism capitalism culture race class and gender 0 Brought youth culture style and aesthetics to the fore as legit subjects of intellectual inquiry o lnforms most contemporary scholars of popular culture ex Pop music media film dance etc 0 Culture as commodity or the relationship between culture and capitalism 0 Interest in cultural forms that communicate through commoditization 32 Dick Hebdige o Subculture The Meaning of Style 1979 0 Punk mod teddy boy reggae subcultures in UK 0 Birmingham School of quotCultural Studies 33 Youth subcultures 0 Youth oriented Subversive resistance to dominant societal norms Spectacular Hebdige s term Form of identification Intentional and carefully cultivated style Trend driven always changing OOOOOO Prone to mainstreaming and commoditization through mass marketing 0 Ultimatelyconsumerist 34 Voguing form of African American expressive culture dancecompetitionperformance with roots in Harlem gay underground 1930s onward o 1970s1980s developed alongside hip hop culture particularly break dancing in NYC Popularized and marketed in the 1980s and 1990s by fashion and mainstream pop industries Willi Ninja on Voguing 1980s Madonna Vogue 1990 America s Next Top Model 2006 o Voguing Clips from St Clair s Ball 2006 35 lnformal economy O O O O o SAPs promoted growth of informal economy 0 lnformal economy centered around tourism industry 0 Gendered division of labor 0 Men vendor motoconcho fisgon chulo Sanky Panky 0 Women hair braider manicurist masseuse sex worker o Criminalization of informal sector through licensing and policing 0 Employment opportunities decrease and conflict ensues o Characterized by quotstigmatized bodies 0 Poor Dominicans and Haitians have tenuous access to citizenship rights 0 Connects to social division of labor 36 Social division of labor structured by imperial masculinity 37 Gendered division of labor
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