SOP3004 Exam 2 Study Guide
SOP3004 Exam 2 Study Guide SOP3004
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Krinza Notetaker on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOP3004 at University of Florida taught by Colin Smith in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
CHAPTER 3 Knowing Ourselves by Social Comparison Pros of Upward Social comparison • Motivating Cons of upward social comparison • Dispiriting; bad for self-‐esteem Pros of downward social comparison • Makes us feel better Cons of downward social comparison Gender Stereotypes What do women talk about? • Women talk about interpersonal problems and relationships What do men talk about? • Men talk about anything, except their feelings (sports) Gender Stereotypes are exaggerated -‐-‐ but do contain a grain of truth Women -‐ relational interdependence • Focus on close relationships (spouse, child) Men-‐Collective interdependence • Focus on memberships in larger groups (frats, sports team) Ex. Man and women both in Greek life, women will be more focused on the close friends she has in sorority, vs man will look at frat as whole Relational interdependence Collective interdependence • More typical of women • Men • More likely to develop intimate • Less likely to develop intimate friendships friendship • Less likely to cooperate with others • More likely to cooperate with • Focus attention on group memberships others • Less likely to discuss personal topics and • Focus attention on social disclose emotion relationships • Adulthood-‐Focus on intimacy and cooperation with a small number of others • More likely to discuss personal topics and disclose emotion **How We define our self is affected by which type of interdependence we practice • Men-‐may define as goalie for soccer teams, member of xyz fraternity • Women-‐ may define as daughter, friend Cultural Influence on Self Conc • The squeaky wheel gets the grease ◦ American Proverb • The Nail that stands out gets pounded down ◦ Japanese proverb • Independent Self-‐ Concept ◦ A way of defining oneself in terms of ones own internal thoughts, feeling and actions and not in terms of the thoughts, feelings and actions of other people • Interdependent Self concept ◦ A way of defining oneself in terms of ones relationship to other people, ones thought determined by thoughts and feelings of others Interdependent Self Independent Self • Typical of Eastern • Typical of Western • More self-‐critical, • Disapproves of conformity disapproves of egotism If your friend jumps off the bridge • More likely to complete "I are you going to? am" statements with • More Likely to complete I am statements group identities with goals and traits • Say I less often, We is • Deep South exhibits greater collectivism than do those in Mountain west states important such as Colorado and Montana • Less need for positive self regard • • Projecting Ourselves to Others • Impression Management ◦ The attempt by people to get others to see them as they want to be seen Two Strategies of Impression Management • Ingratiation ◦ Flattering, praising, and generally trying to make ourselves likable to another people, often of higher status ◦ Doesn’t work if its too obvious • Self-‐handicapping ◦ Creating obstacles and excuses for ourselves ◦ If we do poorly on a task, we can avoid blaming ourselves Two Types of Self-‐Handicapping ◦ Behavioral self-‐handicapping • Acting in ways that reduce the likelihood that you will succeed on a task ▪ Pulling an all nighter before a test, drinking/drugs ◦ Reported Self-‐Handicapping • Rather than creating obstacles to success, people devise ready-‐made excuses in case they fail ▪ Ex. It was the nervousness that made me fail, complaining about not feeling well when you take a test ▪ Setting up the expectation in real (I think I got a C on the exam and if you did you can say "yeah that's what I thought I would get" BUT if you get be tter you're like "wow I thought I'd get a C" Behavioral self-‐handicapping is a much bigger problem for self -‐ efficacy CHAPTER 5 Introducing Conformity • Sometimes we find ourselves in a social situations where the right behavior is not clear: ◦ How should you address your psychology professor -‐-‐ as "Dr. Smith" "Professor Smith," "Mr. Smith" • But…we have a powerful and useful source of knowledge available to us-‐-‐the behavior of other people • Asking others what they think or watching what they d o helps us reach a definition of the situation Conformity • A change in behavior or belief as the result of real of imagined group pressure • In Western Cultures, conformity often has a negative connotation, but this is not as true in other cultures ◦ Be yourself! Don’t always follow others! -‐-‐-‐things said in Western cultures Lemmings (aka Bonus Information) • If one lemming goes off a cliff all the other lemmings follow Two Reasons for Conformity • Normative ◦ We conform because we are concerned about what others think of us (we're just going along with the crowd) • Informational ◦ We conform because we believe that others interpretation of an ambiguous situation is more correct than ours and will help us choose an appropriate course of action Chameleon Effect • Unconscious tendency to imitate another person speech patterns and physical expressions Milgrams Experiment • Teacher, experimenter and learner • Teacher used voltage to punish the learner for eac h answer wrong • Milgram found that Obedience rates decreased when the learner was in the same room as the experimenter and decreased more when the teacher physically touched the learner When Will People Conform? • More conformity when a person has no allies in a group…no one wants to be the person that’s alone • Social Impact Theory a. Group Strength i. Importance of group to person b. Group Immediacy i. Closeness in time and space (saying no is harder) c. Number of people in the group • Higher Levels=MORE conformity Why do we Conform • Uncertainty about what to do in a confusing or unusual situation • The behavior of the people serves as a cue about how to respond or what the right answer is. • Socially "safer" ◦ We want to avoid punishment for being different from others ◦ We want to avoid rejection from other group members • BUT we do like people to think that we aren't just conforming Is it Real or Not? • Private Acceptance ◦ Conforming to other peoples behavior out of a genuine belief that what they are doing or saying is accurate • Public Compliance ◦ Just conforming in public with out actually believing in what we are doing or saying Obedience • Behavior changes as a result of commands of authority Authority • Comes from a persons perceived position in a social structure • Plays important role in persuasion because people naturally obey authority CHAPTER 6 Changing Attitudes Persuasion: • The process by which a message induces change in beliefs, attitudes or behavior Fear Arousing Communications • Persuasive messages that attempt to change peoples attitudes or behavior by arousing their fears. • Moderate amounts of fear work best; str ong amount may overwhelm people: ◦ They become defensive ◦ They deny importance of threat ◦ They cannot think rationally about issue • Fear arousing communication is only effective if you provide info on how to reduce fear Which Pathway is in Use? The Source of the Message • We pay a lot of attention to WHO is trying to persuade us • Greater persuasion occurs when source is ◦ Expert ◦ Trustworthy ◦ Likeable ◦ Attractive (especially when relevant to message) • Person with attractive face will sell you face wash The Triad of Trust Worthiness • If source has one or all of the following, we are more likely to agree to their request without carefully considering the facts of their position • Authority-‐Think back to last chapter • Honesty-‐ the moral element • Likeable ▪ Attractiveness-‐ attractive people also rated as being smarter, nicer, stronger, more exciting, more successful, and of higher moral character Manipulating Trustworthiness • Below are four methods we use wen making decisions-‐-‐professionals can exploit these natural tendencies to sell their products 1. Testimonials and Endorsements 2. Presenting the Message as Education a. I'm just educating you on blah blah not trying to sell it to you 3. Word of Mouth 4. The Maven a. Influential individuals with a lot of personal connections who make recommendations Other Persuasion Techniques • Reciprocity ◦ One of the strongest social norms is that you repay favors ◦ When someone gives you something, your inclined to buy something from them, even if you didn’t ask for it or want it. • You get a rose from a Christian guy and then he's like uh so are you not going to donate? • Social Proof ◦ Other people enjoying a product is a powerful piece of information ◦ Laugh Tracks tell you when to laugh (there are actually people whose job it is to laugh at lived tapings of shows) ◦ Length of lines at food trucks-‐ go to the longest line because food might be better • Foot in the Door ◦ Saying yes to a small request making it more likely that we'll say yes to additional larger requests (as compared to asking for that larger request first) • Door in the Face ◦ Requests are more likely to be accepted if you first ask for something big • "And That’s not All" technique • Scarcity ◦ People are more likely to buy something when they think its rare ◦ Or if the opportunity to buy it at a reduced price is about to end ◦ In 2012 less than 1% of revenue at JC penny came from items sold at full price Avoid Persuasion by Being Aware • Think about whether you're being sold something • Avoid being manipulated • Be skeptical Central Route to Persuasion • Has to do with direct, relevant and logical messages • Ex. You choose to vote for someone after finding her logic and policies convincing Peripheral Route • Relies on superficial clues that don’t have a lot to do with logic • It may be intended to persuade you to do something you do not want to do and might later be sorry you did Fixed Action Patterns (FAPS) • sequences of behavior that occur in exactly the same fashion, in exactly the same order, every time they're elicited Psychological Reactance: When a person seems too pushy, we get suspicious, annoyed and even angry and we yearn to reatain our freedom of choice more than before. • Example: two similair toys were given to a child. One was placed on the other side of a two feet wall while the other was just given the child touched the one over the wall three times as much as the one that was directly given to him.
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