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SOP3004 Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Krinza Notetaker

SOP3004 Exam 2 Study Guide SOP3004

Marketplace > University of Florida > Psychlogy > SOP3004 > SOP3004 Exam 2 Study Guide
Krinza Notetaker
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lecture notes and book notes!!
Social Psychology
Colin Smith
Study Guide
Smith, social psychology, SOP3004
50 ?




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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Krinza Notetaker on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOP3004 at University of Florida taught by Colin Smith in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Florida.


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Date Created: 02/28/16
CHAPTER  3   Knowing  Ourselves  by  Social  Comparison      Pros  of  Upward  Social  comparison • Motivating    Cons  of  upward  social  comparison   • Dispiriting;  bad  for  self-­‐esteem    Pros  of  downward  social  comparison   • Makes  us  feel  better    Cons  of  downward  social  comparison          Gender  Stereotypes     What  do  women  talk  about?   • Women  talk  about  interpersonal  problems  and  relationships    What  do  men  talk  about?   • Men  talk  about  anything,  except  their  feelings  (sports)    Gender  Stereotypes  are  exaggerated -­‐-­‐  but  do  contain  a  grain  of   truth     Women  -­‐  relational  interdependence • Focus  on  close  relationships  (spouse,  child) Men-­‐Collective  interdependence     • Focus  on  memberships  in  larger  groups  (frats,  sports  team)    Ex.  Man  and  women  both  in  Greek  life,  women  will  be  more   focused  on  the  close  friends  she  has  in  sorority,  vs  man  will  look   at  frat  as  whole       Relational  interdependence   Collective  interdependence   • More  typical  of  women • Men • More  likely  to  develop  intimate   • Less  likely  to  develop  intimate  friendships friendship • Less  likely  to  cooperate  with  others • More  likely  to  cooperate  with   • Focus  attention  on  group  memberships others • Less  likely  to  discuss  personal  topics  and   • Focus  attention  on  social   disclose  emotion relationships • Adulthood-­‐Focus  on  intimacy  and   cooperation  with  a  small   number  of  others • More  likely  to  discuss  personal   topics  and  disclose  emotion       **How  We  define  our  self  is  affected  by  which  type  of   interdependence  we  practice     • Men-­‐may  define  as  goalie  for  soccer  teams,  member  of    xyz   fraternity • Women-­‐  may  define  as  daughter,  friend    Cultural  Influence  on  Self  Conc   • The  squeaky  wheel  gets  the  grease ◦ American  Proverb • The  Nail  that  stands  out  gets  pounded  down   ◦ Japanese  proverb •    Independent  Self-­‐  Concept   ◦ A  way  of  defining  oneself    in  terms  of  ones  own  internal   thoughts,  feeling  and  actions  and  not  in  terms  of  the   thoughts,  feelings  and  actions  of  other  people • Interdependent    Self  concept   ◦ A  way  of  defining  oneself  in  terms  of  ones  relationship  to   other  people,  ones  thought  determined  by  thoughts   and  feelings  of  others       Interdependent  Self     Independent  Self     • Typical  of  Eastern • Typical  of  Western • More  self-­‐critical,   • Disapproves  of  conformity   disapproves  of  egotism If  your  friend  jumps  off  the  bridge     • More  likely  to  complete  "I   are  you  going  to? am"  statements  with   • More  Likely  to  complete  I  am  statements   group  identities with  goals  and  traits • Say  I  less  often,  We  is   • Deep  South  exhibits  greater  collectivism  than  do  those  in  Mountain  west  states   important such  as  Colorado  and  Montana • Less  need  for  positive  self         regard                   •   •          Projecting  Ourselves  to  Others   • Impression  Management   ◦ The  attempt  by  people  to  get  others  to  see  them  as  they   want  to  be  seen         Two  Strategies  of  Impression  Management   • Ingratiation   ◦ Flattering,  praising,  and  generally  trying  to  make  ourselves   likable  to  another  people,  often  of  higher  status ◦ Doesn’t  work  if  its  too  obvious • Self-­‐handicapping   ◦ Creating  obstacles  and  excuses  for  ourselves ◦ If  we  do  poorly  on  a  task,  we  can  avoid  blaming  ourselves       Two  Types  of  Self-­‐Handicapping     ◦ Behavioral  self-­‐handicapping   • Acting  in  ways  that  reduce  the  likelihood  that  you  will   succeed  on  a  task   ▪ Pulling  an  all  nighter  before  a  test,  drinking/drugs ◦ Reported  Self-­‐Handicapping   • Rather  than  creating  obstacles  to  success,  people  devise   ready-­‐made  excuses  in  case  they  fail   ▪ Ex.  It  was  the  nervousness  that  made  me  fail,   complaining  about  not  feeling  well  when  you   take  a  test ▪ Setting  up  the  expectation  in  real  (I  think  I  got  a  C  on   the  exam  and  if  you  did  you  can  say  "yeah  that's   what  I  thought  I  would  get"  BUT  if  you  get  be tter   you're  like  "wow  I  thought  I'd  get  a  C" Behavioral  self-­‐handicapping  is  a  much  bigger  problem  for  self -­‐ efficacy       CHAPTER  5     Introducing  Conformity   • Sometimes  we  find  ourselves  in  a  social  situations  where  the   right  behavior  is  not  clear:   ◦ How  should  you  address  your  psychology  professor -­‐-­‐ as    "Dr.  Smith"  "Professor  Smith,"  "Mr.  Smith" • But…we  have  a  powerful  and  useful  source  of  knowledge   available  to  us-­‐-­‐the  behavior  of  other  people • Asking  others  what  they  think  or  watching  what  they  d o  helps  us   reach  a  definition  of  the  situation       Conformity   • A  change  in  behavior  or  belief  as  the  result  of  real  of  imagined   group  pressure • In  Western  Cultures,  conformity  often  has  a  negative   connotation,  but  this  is  not  as  true  in  other  cultures   ◦ Be  yourself!  Don’t  always  follow  others! -­‐-­‐-­‐things  said  in   Western  cultures      Lemmings  (aka  Bonus  Information)   • If  one  lemming  goes  off  a  cliff  all  the  other  lemmings  follow    Two  Reasons  for  Conformity   • Normative   ◦ We  conform  because  we  are  concerned  about  what   others  think  of  us  (we're  just  going  along  with  the   crowd)   • Informational   ◦ We  conform  because  we  believe  that  others   interpretation  of  an  ambiguous  situation  is  more   correct  than  ours  and  will  help  us  choose  an   appropriate  course  of  action     Chameleon  Effect     • Unconscious  tendency  to  imitate  another  person  speech   patterns  and  physical  expressions    Milgrams  Experiment   • Teacher,  experimenter  and  learner   • Teacher  used  voltage  to  punish  the  learner  for  eac h  answer   wrong   • Milgram  found  that  Obedience  rates  decreased  when  the   learner  was  in  the  same  room  as  the  experimenter   and    decreased  more  when  the  teacher  physically  touched   the  learner       When  Will  People  Conform?   • More  conformity  when  a  person  has  no  allies  in  a  group…no  one   wants  to  be  the  person  that’s  alone   • Social  Impact  Theory   a. Group  Strength   i. Importance  of  group  to  person   b. Group  Immediacy   i. Closeness  in  time  and  space  (saying  no  is  harder)   c. Number  of  people  in  the  group   • Higher  Levels=MORE  conformity         Why  do  we  Conform   • Uncertainty  about  what  to  do  in  a  confusing  or  unusual  situation   • The  behavior  of  the  people  serves  as  a  cue  about  how  to  respond  or   what  the  right  answer  is.   • Socially  "safer"   ◦ We  want  to  avoid  punishment  for  being  different  from   others   ◦ We  want  to  avoid  rejection  from  other  group  members   • BUT  we  do  like  people  to  think  that  we  aren't  just  conforming           Is  it  Real  or  Not?   • Private  Acceptance   ◦ Conforming  to  other  peoples  behavior  out  of  a  genuine  belief   that  what  they  are  doing    or  saying  is  accurate   • Public  Compliance   ◦ Just  conforming  in  public  with  out  actually  believing  in  what   we  are  doing  or  saying   Obedience   • Behavior  changes  as  a  result  of  commands  of  authority     Authority   • Comes  from  a  persons  perceived  position  in  a  social  structure   • Plays  important  role  in  persuasion  because  people  naturally  obey   authority     CHAPTER  6     Changing    Attitudes   Persuasion:   • The  process  by  which  a  message  induces  change  in  beliefs,  attitudes   or  behavior        Fear  Arousing  Communications   • Persuasive  messages  that  attempt  to  change  peoples  attitudes    or   behavior  by  arousing  their  fears.   • Moderate  amounts  of  fear  work  best;  str ong  amount  may   overwhelm  people:   ◦ They  become  defensive   ◦ They  deny  importance  of  threat   ◦ They  cannot  think  rationally  about  issue   • Fear  arousing  communication  is  only  effective  if  you  provide  info  on   how  to  reduce  fear        Which  Pathway  is  in  Use?       The  Source  of  the  Message   • We  pay  a  lot  of  attention  to  WHO  is  trying  to  persuade  us   • Greater  persuasion  occurs  when  source  is   ◦ Expert   ◦ Trustworthy   ◦ Likeable   ◦ Attractive  (especially  when  relevant  to  message)   • Person  with  attractive  face  will  sell  you  face  wash        The  Triad  of  Trust  Worthiness   • If  source  has  one  or  all  of  the  following,  we  are  more  likely  to  agree   to  their  request  without  carefully  considering  the  facts  of  their   position   • Authority-­‐Think  back  to  last  chapter   • Honesty-­‐  the  moral  element   • Likeable   ▪ Attractiveness-­‐  attractive  people  also  rated  as  being   smarter,  nicer,  stronger,  more  exciting,  more   successful,  and  of  higher  moral  character   Manipulating  Trustworthiness     • Below  are  four  methods  we  use  wen  making  decisions-­‐-­‐professionals   can  exploit  these  natural  tendencies  to  sell  their  products   1. Testimonials  and  Endorsements   2. Presenting  the  Message  as  Education   a. I'm  just  educating  you  on  blah  blah  not  trying  to  sell  it  to   you   3. Word  of  Mouth   4. The  Maven   a. Influential  individuals  with  a  lot  of  personal  connections   who  make  recommendations   Other  Persuasion  Techniques     • Reciprocity   ◦ One  of  the  strongest  social  norms  is  that  you  repay  favors   ◦ When  someone  gives  you  something,  your  inclined  to  buy   something  from  them,  even  if  you  didn’t  ask  for  it  or  want   it.   • You  get  a  rose  from  a  Christian  guy  and  then  he's  like  uh   so  are  you  not  going  to  donate?   • Social  Proof   ◦ Other  people  enjoying  a  product  is  a  powerful  piece  of   information   ◦ Laugh  Tracks  tell  you  when  to  laugh  (there  are  actually  people   whose  job  it  is  to  laugh  at  lived  tapings  of  shows)   ◦ Length  of  lines  at  food  trucks-­‐  go  to  the  longest  line  because   food  might  be  better   • Foot  in  the  Door   ◦ Saying  yes  to  a  small  request  making  it  more  likely  that   we'll  say  yes  to    additional  larger  requests  (as  compared  to   asking  for  that  larger  request  first)   • Door  in  the  Face   ◦ Requests  are  more  likely  to  be  accepted  if  you  first  ask  for   something  big   • "And  That’s  not  All"  technique   • Scarcity   ◦ People  are  more  likely  to  buy  something  when  they  think   its  rare   ◦ Or  if  the  opportunity  to  buy  it  at  a  reduced  price  is  about   to  end   ◦ In  2012  less  than  1%  of  revenue  at  JC  penny  came  from   items  sold  at  full  price        Avoid  Persuasion  by  Being  Aware   • Think  about  whether  you're  being  sold  something   • Avoid  being  manipulated   • Be  skeptical        Central  Route  to  Persuasion   • Has  to  do  with  direct,  relevant  and  logical  messages   • Ex.  You  choose  to  vote  for  someone    after  finding  her  logic  and   policies  convincing   Peripheral  Route     • Relies  on  superficial  clues  that  don’t  have  a  lot  to  do  with  logic   • It  may  be  intended  to  persuade  you    to  do  something  you  do  not   want  to  do  and  might  later  be  sorry  you  did         Fixed  Action  Patterns  (FAPS)     • sequences  of  behavior  that  occur  in  exactly  the  same  fashion,  in   exactly  the  same  order,  every  time  they're  elicited         Psychological  Reactance:  When  a  person  seems  too  pushy,  we  get   suspicious,  annoyed  and  even  angry  and  we  yearn  to  reatain  our   freedom  of  choice  more  than  before.     • Example:  two  similair  toys  were  given  to  a  child.  One  was  placed  on   the  other  side  of  a  two  feet  wall  while  the  other  was  just  given   the  child  touched  the  one  over  the  wall  three  times  as  much  as   the  one  that  was  directly  given  to  him.    


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