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Exam One Study Guide

by: kqmorgan

Exam One Study Guide MUCT 1250

GPA 3.86

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About this Document

This study guide covers all notes from the beginning of the semester to the date of the exam, and answers all points made on the study guide handed out in class. Enjoy!
Exploring Music of World Cultures
Megan Rancier
Study Guide
Dine, Hozho, Cuba, Afro Cuban Jazz, Salsa, Navajo, Music, World Culture, Music Culture
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by kqmorgan on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MUCT 1250 at Bowling Green State University taught by Megan Rancier in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 143 views. For similar materials see Exploring Music of World Cultures in Music at Bowling Green State University.


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Date Created: 02/28/16
MUCT 1250 Study Guide: Exam One Key Terms and Concepts Elements of Music  Pitch o The frequency of a sound wave o A musical tone o Basic unit of melody  Meter (Rhythm) o The length or duration of sounds as patterns in time o Basic unit= Beat  Texture o The ways in which voices and/or instruments combine o How many different melody lines occur at one time (Monophony, Biphony, or Polyphony)  Timbre o “Tone Color” o The unique quality of a sound that distinguishes it from others  Form o The large-scale structural organization of music; Sections of music in a sequence o Verse-Chorus Form (Pop Music)  Idiophone o Self-Sounding; Creates its own sound waves (All percussion except drums) o Chimes, Gongs, Claves  Membranophone o “Membrane” stretched over a surface o Drums, Tabla  Chordophone o String sounding instrument o Piano, Guitar, Sitar  Aerophone o Air sounding instrument o Clarinet, Flute, Dijeridu  Electrophone o Electrically sounding instruments o Synthesizer  *All ‘phone’ terms listed above are defined by the Sachs-Hornbostel system  Ethnocentrism o The assumption that one’s own culture is normal, while those that differ are “strange”, “exotic”, or abnormal  Cultural Relativism o Striving to understand each culture according to its own terms Native North America  Diné (Navajo) o “The people” o Navajo nation o Dinétah- Traditional/mythical homeland of the Diné o Hajiineh- “The emergence”; Creation story  Long Walk (1864-1868) o Diné forcibly relocated to Fort Sumner (Bosque Redondo) o Poor living/farming conditions; Over 2000 died of starvation and disease  Hataał o Diné traditional singing o Ceremonial (ritual) and social (dancing) songs o Direct, robust timbre; High pitch; Vocal pulsation  Vocables o Untranslatable syllables (but not meaningless) o Convey emotion beyond words (ex. Fa la la)  Hózhǫ o “Beauty” o Balance, harmony, order, goodness o Hózhooji- “Living in beauty”; Medicine people who restore balance  Nightway o Curing ritual (9 days) o Only offered in the Winter o Requires Yeibichai songs; “Call of the Yeibichai”; “Ii hee yee, Ii hee yee”  Yeibichai Songs o Yei- Holy people o Yeiibichai- “Gods-their-grandfathers” o Group of male singers and rattles o “Call of the Yeibichai” (vocables)  Pow-Wow Songs o Intertribal Native American social gatherings built around a shared repertoire of songs and dances o Held in four circles- Drum, Singers, Dancers, Etc.  Sioux Grass Dance o Prepared warriors for battle; Celebrated victories o Grass braids on men= Slain enemies o Dance= Stomping tall grass (symbolism)  Intertribal o Many nations participate  Drum o Drum= Instrument AND Drummers/Singers o Reminds humans of their connections to the natural world  “Conceptual Framework” o From middle of the circle, working outward: Drum> Male Singers> Female Singers> Dancers and Community> Spectators> Vendors  Regalia o Dancing banned by U.S. Government o Showy costumes created for Wild West shows; Still used today  Emcee o “Master of Ceremonies” o Primary communicator to pow-wow attendees  “In a Good Way” o Ethic for singing and behavior at the drum o Must have proper mindset and expression to play  Push-Up o Form used in pow-wow songs 1. Lead (Short Intro) performed by Song Leader; Vocables st 2. “A” Section (1 Half of Melody) performed by Group; Vocables or Text (High Pitch) 3. “B” Section (2 Half of Melody) performed by Group; Vocables or Text (Low Pitch)  Honor Beats o Accented drum beats o Occur in “B” section o Remind all pow-wow participants to keep good feelings inside Cuba  Yoruba o West African culture o Language; Religious beliefs, Musical traditions  Diaspora o Cultural/Ethnic communities living outside their ancestral territories o Preserved shared heritage (Yoruba diasporas provided refuge during slavery)  Creolization o Mixing between people and cultures o Indigenous, European, and African mixture  Santería o Creolized Culture o “Danced religion” based on Yoruba religious concepts disguised and influenced by Catholic religious concepts o Worship of “Saints”  Orícha o “Saints” of Santeria o Spirits of nature o Ex. Yemaya- Goddess of the Ocean  Batá Drums o Used for Santeria rituals o 3 Sizes  Okónkolo- Smallest, Highest Pitch  Itótele- Medium, Slightly Lower Pitch  Iyá- Largest, Lowest Pitch (Lead drum, Wears bells)  Toque o “Touch” o Rhythmic pattern associated with a specific oricha o Played on batá drums  Polyrhythm o Interlocking rhythmic patterns in contrasting meters  son Cubano o Cuban son o Afro-Cuban popular music o Secular (Non-religious); Informal o Used for socializing and dancing o Creolized music culture  Percussion Instruments o Maracas, Claves, Bongo Drums  Melody Instruments o Lead Singer, Chorus, Trumpets, Chordophones (Guitar, Tres, Bass)  Son Clave o Characteristic rhythmic pattern of son Cubano o Provides syncopation  Anticipated Bass o Melody instrument in son Cubano  Syncopation o Unexpected beat placement between the main beats of a meter o Creates a sense of movement  Call and Response o Utilized for son Cubano melody  Strophic Verse o Same melody for each verse; Instrumental breaks between verses  Montuno o Section of rapid call and response singing; Increased tempo, improvisation  Conjunto o Big band style of son Cubano o Piano, Trumpets, Congo drums, Timbales  Claves o Pair of wooden sticks, Idiophone  Timbales o Drum with cowbell  Buena Vista Social Club (Album/Film) o son Cubano and other Cuban dance styles o Afro-Cuba musicians from “golden era” of Cuban music o Sparked global interest in son Cubano o Album won a grammy, went platinum, and inspired two tours  Afro-Cuban Jazz o “Cubop”; “Marriage of mambo and bebop” o Big band format; Fast; Solo improvisations o Music for dancing  Conga Drums o Afro-Cuban instrument o Played by Chano Pozo  Dizzy Gillespie o American o Played the trumpet o Contributed “Bridge” and harmony to music  Chano Pozo o Afro-Cuban o Played the congas o Contributed bass, saxophone, trombone, and trumpet to music o Melody instruments played percussive, syncopated patterns  Salsa o “Emblem of cultural identity” o Established in NYC Caribbean diaspora  Orquesta o Salsa ensemble o Horns (Trumpets and Trombones) o Percussion (Claves, Congas, Timbales, and Cowbell) o Piano, Bass, and Vocalists  Bell Pattern o Claves and Timbales/Cowbell (in Salsa) o Element of syncopated quadruple meter  Celia Cruz o “Queen of Salsa” o Only woman to tour with “Fania All-Stars”  Fania Records o Salsa record label in NYC o Founded 1964 bandleader/flutist Johnny Pacheco Bolded terms “denote possible subjects for short essay questions, which will require students to explain/explore concepts as they pertain to specific music cultures.” Listening Examples Native North America  “Ii hii yee, Ii hii yee” o Diné o Vocables and text o Call of the Yeibichai o Repurposed Song; Borrowed from Nightway ceremony; Now used for social dancing  “Hoka Hey” o Diné o Push-Up Form; Drum establishes tempo/duple meter o Performed by Elk soldiers (Northern Style) o Grand Entry Song  “Facebook Drama” o Diné o Lead; “A” Section: Vocables; “B” Section: English lyrics o Round Dnace  Cuba  “Eleggua, Oggun, Ochosi” o Santería o 3 Batá drums; Polyrhythm; Call and Response; Yoruba language lyrics o Tempo and intensity increase throughout o Toques and songs used to address orichas  “Soneros Son” o son Cubano o Ensemble (Lead singer, Chorus, Instruments); Form: 2 Strophic verses, Instrumental breaks (trumpets), Montuno section o Spanish-language lyrics; Creolized music culture o “Son of the Soneros” (Son musician)  “Manteca” o Afro-Cuban Jazz o Melody instruments play percussive, syncopated patterns o “Bridge” section; Emphasis on harmony o Created in Cuban Diaspora in U.S. o Composed by Chano Pozo and Dizzy Gillespie o Promoted U.S. relations with Cuba  “Ritmo en el Corazon” o Salsa o 5 Strophic verses and Montuno; Bell Pattern (Montuno); Conga Drums o Celia Cruz (“Queen of Salsa”) and Ray Baretto o Production of Fania records *I take no credit for the information within these notes. Although I have recorded them, they are entirely the work of Dr. Megan Rancier.


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