SCOM Study Guide 2
SCOM Study Guide 2 SCOM 121 0003
Popular in Fundamental Human Communications: Presentations
SCOM 121 0003
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Communication
SCOM 121 0003
verified elite notetaker
This 26 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kira Gavalakis on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SCOM 121 0003 at James Madison University taught by Lori Britt in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 279 views. For similar materials see Fundamental Human Communications: Presentations in Communication at James Madison University.
Reviews for SCOM Study Guide 2
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/28/16
SCOM STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1 Chapter 1: Competent Communication 1 . What are the most common myths about communications? - Communication is a cureall: Competent communication can help us deal with problems and arguments, but it won’t solve anything or change anyone. - Communicating is just common sense: hindsight bias: the “Iknewthat already” tendency; the “commonsense” notion of communication is contradicted by our alltoocommon experience. If we already know how to communicate, why do we have bad breakups, or can’t properly speak in front of an audience, etc.? - Communicating quantity equals quality: Smothering and resurfacing old arguments will usually make matters worse, and being accessible by phone just causes more distraction. 2 . Explain the differences between the three models of communication: linear, interactive, and transactional. - Linear Model: The Straight Arrow View: sender, message, channel, receiver, noise. The model provides insight into the communication process, especially by highlighting the concepts of channel and noise. Channel choice is important (how would you propose?) being facetoface is channel rich, involving many channels (face, tone, volume, etc.), and texting is channel lean with only a single channel can be disinhibiting (offensive, less restrained, etc.). Noises act as distractions, such as cold rooms, loud sounds, sweaty palms or BIAS can affect the sender and receiver. Semantic noise is the word choice (African American vs. black, texting language, homophobia, racism, etc.). Linear model has no feedback, or responses from the receiver, but we NEED feedback to improve! - Interactive Model: The PingPong View: this includes feedback, and giving and receiving feedback is good! Fields of experience is background (ethnic, geographical and experience), and the more experience we have in common the easier we get along. - Transactional Model: The SenderReceiver Impact View: this model assumes that people are connected through communication and are engaging in transaction. Each of us is a senderreceiver, not just a sender or receiver. The perspective also says that communication affects all parties involved; it is not just a backandforth; it is about how we develop our relationship. 3 . Define the basic communication elements contained in the communication models (encode, decode, context) Each of us is a sender/receiver, not merely a sender or a receiver. Communication affects all parties involved. Encode assembling your message in order for your receiver to properly understand it. Decode understanding and processing the sender’s message Context the environment in which the message is being presented. Additional Information: - Sender: initiator and encoder (president) - Message: stimulus that produces meaning (what this country should do about terrorism) - Channel: medium through which a message travels, such as oral or written (television, which is aural, oral and visual). - Receiver: decoder of a message (people tuning in) - Noise: interference with effective transmissions and reception of a message (family fighting in background, television static) - Fields of experience: background (ethnic, geographical, experience) - Feedback: the receiver’s verbal and nonverbal responses to a message 4 . Explain the two aspects of every message: content and relationship. - This falls under the Transactional Model. Content dimension refers to what is said and done, and relationship dimension refers to how that message defines or redefines the association between individuals. (Teacherstudent example on page 15.) 5 . How do constructive versus destructive communication climates influence relationships? 6. Define communication competence and describe the skills needed to be an effective and appropriate communicator. - Communication competence is engaging in communication with others that is perceived to be both effective and appropriate in a given context. - Effective: you can either be deficient or proficient, given each person is comfortable in different situations (i.e. more comfortable with one person, not comfortable in a large crowd.) - Competence: focus on WE, as in the relationship, and not ME (Me orientation, pg. 18). - Appropriateness is viewed as legitimate for, or fitting to, the context. Context is the environment in which communication occurs: who communications what to whom, why it was sent, where it is sent, when and how it is transmitted. 7 . Explain the role of rules in communication contexts. - Rule: followable prescription that indicates what behavior is obligated, preferred, or prohibited in certain contexts. - Rules create expectations regarding behavior (no shoes, no shirt, no service) - There are rules in social conventions (don’t take food from another person’s basket) and message formalities (don’t message your teacher “hey what’s up). Chapter 2: Perception of Self and Others 9. Explain the three elements of the perceptual process (selecting, organizing, and interpreting). Selecting Perception is inherently subjective and selective. The threshold is the minimum amount of energy that triggers a sensation. The pitch is how low or how high the sound is, the amplitude is the perceived loudness, and sensory acuity is how sensitive our senses are to certain stimuli. Although we are exposed to many senses, our channel capacity is limited. Selective attention requires 1) focusing on specific stimuli and 2) screening out other data (bear in the middle of basketball game example). What we attend to at any given moment is influenced by the nature of the stimulus. - 4 factors that invite attention: Novelty (something new on TV), Movement (person standing up in the middle of class), Repetition (someone saying “like”), Contrast (when a conversation suddenly stops) What we attend to is also influenced by internal factors peculiar to each individual. Hunger, fatigue, interest, experience Organizing schemas mental frameworks that create meaningful patterns from stimuli. Interpreting attributions 1) personal characteristics or traits (DISPOSITIONAL CAUSES) and 2) Environment (SITUATIONAL CAUSES). Social Desirability people usually make a dispositional attribution when watching people go against social cues, etc. Consistency and distinctiveness Person perception is not simply a linear, oneway process beginning with selecting, then organizing, and then interpreting. 10. What is a perceptual schema (prototype, stereotype, and script)? Prototype “best” example of something; i.e. the “worst boss,” “best day,” “perfect date.” Stereotype generalization about a group or category of people, i.e. ethnic origin, age, gender, class, religion, etc. Stereotyping isn’t always bad, i.e. “most Hispanics are good hearted and hardworking people,” yet stereotypes are not necessarily correct, either. Can distort someone’s vision Scripts Predictable sequence of events that indicates what we are expected to do in a given situation, i.e. when given a menu, you don’t ask what it is, you know that’s what you always use at a restaurant. 11. Define selfconcept and describe how it is formed (reflected appraisal, significant others, and society). Selfconcept is the sum total of everything that encompasses the selfreferential term “me.” Your identity, and what you perceive yourself as. Selfconcept is also a central point of reference for your communication with others. We communicate with how we see ourselves, i.e. if we think we are attractive, we are more likely to flirt with someone, etc. Selfconcept is a social construction, a product of interpersonal communication. You may act shy because your parents and teachers told this to you when you were young. Muscle dysmorphia a preoccupation with one’s body size and a perception that, though one is very muscular, one actually looks puny. Selfesteem is the evaluative element of selfperception. Reflected appraisal messages you receive from others that assess your selfconcept; if your parents and friends constantly tell you that you’re smart, you’ll have an easier time believing it. 12 . What are some of the influences on perception (gender, culture, past experiences, mood, and context)? Social comparison evaluating yourself by comparing yourself to other people. When you are around people who we think are superior to us, our selfesteem diminishes. Contingencies of selfworth the idea that you’re selfesteem is also influenced by what is perceived as most important to you feeling good about yourself. I.e. some people’s self esteem comes from their confidence in their looks, and others are in their confidence in their personality, etc. Optimal selfesteem comes from significant accomplishments without expecting a coronation. 13 . What is selfdisclosure? Selfdisclosure the process of purposely revealing to others personal information about yourself that is significant and that others would not know unless you told them. Self disclosure is purposeful, not accidental, communication. I.e. telling your friend that you are bad at sports is selfdisclosure. Demonstrating that you’re bad at sports is not. Selfdisclosure is critical to the development of close personal relationships. 14 . How do depth and breadth of selfdisclosure influence the building of relationships? Breadth the range of subjects discussed (between you and another person.) Depth how personal you become when discussing a particular subject. When you don’t use breadth or depth in conversations, you make that person you are speaking with more of a stranger. When using more breadth and depth, you are becoming closer with them and building the relationship. 15 . What are the rules for constructively and appropriately selfdisclosing and responding to selfdisclosure? you’ll disclose if I disclose—don’t pretend to be open with somebody if you’re just trying to get information out of them. don’t selfdisclose just to get something off your chest. You could be putting the issue on them, as well 5 Characteristics of Appropriate SelfDisclosure 1) Trust: Can You Keep a Secret 2) Reciprocity: TwoWay Sharing—If only one person is disclosing, be wary of him/her until you find out why they aren’t disclosing as well. (This is not applicable to doctors or psychologists: you don’t have to hear their problems, too). 3) Cultural Appropriateness: Openness Not Universally Valued—Some cultures don’t speak about college, homework, politics, etc. Japanese students will talk about universities, age, and club activities. Just know that not all selfdisclosure is the same in all cultures. 4) Situational Appropriateness: Considering Context—Don’t speak about private issues in a public context, and viceversa! (textbook example: public speaking student disclosed her sex life in front of her class instead of a more appropriate lifealtering experience that she was assigned to speak about!) 5) Incremental Disclosure: Bit by Bit—don’t give your first date your entire life story—they might find you creepy. Test the waters by giving a small piece of yourself, and see if he/she does the same. 16 . Why is reciprocal sharing important? Reciprocal sharing is important because you want to know that you can trust your partner. If you are the one giving out all of your information and your partner isn’t sharing anything, it might be a warning sign that they are hiding something. 17 . Explain what a selfserving bias is and how it influences our interactions (personal traits, situations). Selfserving bias tendency to attribute our successful behavior to ourselves (personal traits), but to assign external circumstances (situations) to our unsuccessful behavior. For example, teachers whose students did well this semester are impressed with their own teaching styles, but when their students do not do well, they will blame the student’s incompetency, laziness, etc. 18 . Explain how our perceptions of others can influence our communication with them (first impressions, primacy effect, negativity bias, attribution error, stereotyping, and selffulfilling prophecy). Most people are pretty accurate when making first impressions of people in relation to being sociable or verbally skillful. Primacy effect the tendency to be more influenced by initial information about a person than by information gathered later. Roommates who first have positive first impressions of each other will be more likely to get along together by forgiving each other’s mistakes; i.e. she just had a rough day, etc. Negativity bias we have a strong tendency to be influenced more heavily by negative than positive information. (Think of Susan Boyle: people laughed at her because of her looks before she wowed the audience.) This is built into our amygdala because negative information could be threatening to us! Fundamental attribution error overemphasizing personal traits and underemphasizing situations as causes of other people’s behavior. I.e. someone driving too slowly is always a “moron,” and someone driving too quickly is always a “maniac,” but when it comes to ourselves, there’s always a reason why we are driving this way and we never consider ourselves moronic or maniacal. When describing someone’s behavior, it is usually healthier than placing a characteristic on them. Stereotype a generalization about a group or category of people. Selffulfilling prophecy acting on erroneous expectations that produces the expected behavior and confirms the original impression. If you expect somebody to be unfriendly and standoffish, you will see them as that way. 19 . Describe the three dimensions related to communicating “empathy.” 1) Perspective talking—trying to see in another person’s perspective. You don’t have to agree with it, you just have to understand it. 2) Emotional understanding—participates in other people’s feelings; feel happy when they are happy, etc. 3) Concern for others—care about what happens to others Chapter 10: The Anatomy of Small Groups (Not on Study Guide) Structure form or shape characterized by an interrelationship among parts. Definitions: Setting the Scope Group composed of three or more individuals, interacting for the achievement of some common purpose(s), who influence and are influenced by one another. Dyad two people working together; a couple, engaging in interpersonal communication. To qualify as a group, three or more people must succeed or fail as a unit in a quest to achieve a common purpose. (Weoriented) Groups are small as long as each individual in the group can recognize and interact with every other group member. Group size largely determines group structure. When groups get bigger, 1) The number of nonparticipants increases (when much beyond 7 members) 2) Large groups become factionalized, or members who have the same stance on something will form a smaller, competing subgroup 3) The group will take more time to make decisions 4) Scheduling a meeting is tougher 5) Group productivity is harder Rule of seven any member added to a group of seven will subtract 10% of effectiveness. The smallest size capable of fulfilling the purposes of the group should be considered optimum. Groups Versus Organizations: Structural Differences Hierarchical members of the organization will be rank ordered. CEOs, president, vice president, etc. Upward communication (vertical communication) messages that flow from subordinates to super ordinates in an organization. Downward communication messages that flow from super ordinates to subordinates in an organization. Horizontal communication messages between individuals with equal power, such as office workers in the same department. Task and Social Dimensions: Productivity and Cohesiveness 1) Task dimension work performed by the group and its impact on the group. 2) Social dimension relationships between group members and the impact these relationships have on the group. Productivity goal of the task dimension; productivity is doubled if five workers have the same proficiency as ten workers. Cohesiveness goal of the social dimension; making sure each group members is valued, ensuring members are excited and challenged to work, etc. Productivity and cohesiveness are interconnected. Finding the proper relationship between productivity and cohesiveness is a persistent dialectical struggle in all groups. Norms: Rules Governing Group Behavior Norms rules that indicate what group members have to do (obligation), should do (preference), or may not do (prohibition) if they want to accomplish specific goals. Types of Norms: Explicit and Implicit Explicit norms specifically and overtly identifies acceptable and unacceptable behavior. i.e. “No Smoking” signs Implicit norms observable patterns of behavior exhibited by group members that identify acceptable and unacceptable conduct. I.e. everyone sits in same spots during meetings, nobody eats/drinks during meetings, etc. - May become explicit when there is a violation Conforming to Norms: Being Liked and Being Right Conformity inclination of group members to think and behave in ways that are consistent with group norms. Binge drinking page 295 Members conform to group norms for two principle reasons: to be right and to be liked. Conformity to group norms is greater in collective cultures. Roles: Expected Patterns of Behavior Roles “patterns of expected behavior associated with parts that you play in groups” - Formal roles assign a position, i.e. “president,” “chair,” “secretary.” - Informal roles identify functions, not positions, i.e. when a member often instigates group conversations, they have an “unspoken” role of initiator contributor. Informal roles are generally divided into three types: task, maintenance, and disruptive roles. o Task roles advances the attainment of group goals. o Maintenance roles addresses the social dimension of small groups. o Disruptive roles meoriented; serve individual needs at the expense of group needs and goals. Leadership Leadership leaderfollower influence process with the goal of producing positive change that reflects mutual purposes of group members and is largely accomplished through competent communication. Traits relatively enduring characteristics of a person that highlight differences between people and that are displayed in most situations. Directive style (autocratic) puts heavy emphasis on the task dimension with slight attention to the social dimension of groups. Member participation is not encouraged Participative style (democratic) places emphasis on both the task and social dimensions of groups. Laissezfaire sitonyourderriere approach to leadership, which is to say no leadership at all is exercised. Development (readiness) composed of the ability of group members, their motivation, and their experience with relevant tasks. Chapter 11: Creating Effective Groups (Not on Study Guide) Difficult Group Members: Addressing Disruption The disruptive roles identified in Chapter 10 provide a common list of such behaviors. Bad apples disruptive members who poison the group (“one bad apple spoils the barrel”) How to deal with difficult members: 1. Make certain a cooperative climate has been created by the group. 2. Don’t encourage disruptive behavior. 3. Confront the difficult person directly. 4. If all else fails, remove the disrupter from the group. 5. Always be unconditionally constructive. Social loafing the tendency of individuals to reduce their work effort when they join groups. Social loading is more common in an individualist culture. The Three Cs of Motivation Any step that creates a competitive, defensive environment is unlikely to motivate social loafers. 1. Collaboration the cooperative style of conflict management (synonymous with teamwork). 2. Content the group task 3. Choice complement to content. Competent Group Decision Making and Problem Solving Synergy occurs when the work of group members yields a greater total effect than the sum of the individual members’ efforts could have produced. Deep diversity substantial variation among members in taskrelevant skills, knowledge, abilities, beliefs, values, perspectives, and problemsolving strategies. Negative synergy product of joint action of group members that produces a result worse than that expected based on perceived individual abilities and skills of members. Meetings Suggestions: 1. Don’t call a meeting unless no other good alternative exists. 2. Identify the specific purpose of the meeting. 3. Prepare a clear agenda. - Agenda a list of topics to be discussed in a group meeting presented in the order in which they will be addressed. 4. Above all, keep the discussion on track. 5. Start the meeting on time and be guided by the “what’s done is done” rule. 6. Do not discuss an issue longer than the time allotted unless the group decides to extend the time. 7. Take a few minutes at the end of the meeting to determine if all objectives were accomplished. 8. Distribute minutes of the meeting to all participants as soon as possible. Structure Decision Making: Using the Standard Agenda The Standard Agenda provides one such highly effective structured method of decision making and problem solving. - based on the reflective thinking model a sequence of logical steps that incorporates the scientific method of defining, analyzing, and solving problems. - Six Steps in the Standard Agenda: 1. Identify the goal(s). 2. Analyze the problem. 3. Establish criteria. Possible criteria may be: a. Stay within time limits for class presentations. b. Show clear organization. c. Use at least one attention strategy and cite at least three sources during each presentation d. Use at least one picture/visual aid per speech. 4. Generate solutions. 5. Evaluate solutions and make the final decision. It is particularly important during this step that group members consider both the positive and the negative aspects of each choice. Murphy’s law anything that can go wrong likely will go wrong. (Expect the unexpected) 6. Implement the decision. Employ DecisionMaking Rules Competently: Making Choices Consensus “state of mutual agreement among members of a group where all legitimate concerns of individuals have been addressed to the satisfaction of the group.” There are several advantages to using the unanimity rule to structure decision making. - Requires full discussion of issues - Team members will be more likely to support the decision and will defend it when challenged. - Usually produces group satisfaction The unanimity rule has two chief drawbacks. - Difficult to achieve - Becomes unlikely as groups grow larger Many choices made by group members, however, do not require consensus. Effective groups use majority rule when consensus is impossible or when quick decisions about commonplace issues must be made. Groupthink process of group members stressing cohesiveness and agreement instead of skepticism and optimum decisionmaking. Ultimately, what is required to combat groupthink is a group climate that encourages robust discussions of opposing viewpoints. Ways to Promote Creative ProblemSolving 1. A cooperative expectation is most conductive to creativity. 2. Creativity is promoted by challenges. 3. Creativity flourishes when there is a moratorium on judging ideas. 4. Relaxing deadlines as much as possible can free team members’ thinking. 5. A fun, friendly atmosphere usually promotes creativity best. Team creativity is enhanced by structured methods of problem solving. Brainstorming creative problemsolving method characterized by encouragement of even zany ideas, freedom from initial evaluation of potential solutions, and energetic participation from all group members. Team members produce the best results when several rules are followed: 1. All members should come prepared with initial ideas. 2. Don’t criticize any idea during the brainstorming process. 3. Encourage freewheeling idea generation. 4. Don’t clarify or discuss ideas during the ideageneration phase. 5. Do not engage in taskirrelevant discussion. 6. Stay focused on the topic. 7. Piggyback on the ideas of others. 8. Record all ideas for future reference. 9. Encourage participation from all team members. 10. Wait to evaluate ideas generated until the brainstorming session is completed. Nominal group technique a second structure method of creative problem solving involving these steps: 1. Team members work along to create ideas. 2. Ideas are shared in a roundrobin fashion, being written on chalkboards, walls, tablets or easels. Clarification is okay, but evaluation is not. 3. Each team member will chose the top 5 favorite ideas and rank them. 4. The rankings are averaged and the ideas with the highest averages are picked. Reframing creative process of breaking ridig thinking by placing a problem is a different frame of reference. Every team is a group, but not every group is a team. 3 distinctions: 1. Teams have a higher level of cooperative and cohesiveness than standard groups. 2. Teams normally have individuals with diverse skills. 3. Teams usually have a stronger identity. Team “a small number of people with complementary skills who are equally committed to a common purpose, goals, and working approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.” Most groups can profit from acting more teamlike. Goals for a team work best when they are clearly stated and limited in number. Collaborative interdependence is essential to teamwork. Chapter 12: Preparing Speeches 42. What are the components of doing an audience analysis, and how is a speech adapted based on those components (demographics, values, beliefs, & attitudes)? The 5 Cs of Audiences 1. Captive Audience: Disengaged Listeners the audience is required to listen to the speaker without a choice, and gaining and maintaining the audience’s attention are the main goals. Examples: our class presentations, mandatory meetings, etc. 2. Committed Audience: Agreeable Listeners wants to listen to and agree with the speaker, and inspiring action, persuading, and empowering listeners to act decisively are the mail goals. Examples: Sunday sermons, political rallies, social demonstrations, etc. 3. Contrary Audience: Hostile Listeners wants to find a weakness in your argument, and knowing your topic well, having argument for it, and staying unconditionally constructive are the main goals. Examples: school board meetings, meetings on public utility rates, political gatherings, etc. 4. Concerned Audience: Eager Listeners cares about the issues addressed and is motivated to gather information about a topic (may become committed listeners). Examples: book and poetry readings, lectures series, town members gathering to address a problem in the town. 5. Casual Audience: Unexpected Listeners becomes listeners because they hear something, stop out of curiosity or casual interest, and stay until something else becomes interesting, and connecting with listeners immediately and creating curiosity and interest are the main goals. Examples: street performers Attitude “a learned predisposition to respond favorably or unfavorable toward some attitude object.” Belief what a person thinks is true or probable. Value the most deeply felt, generally shared view of what is deemed good, right, or worthwhile thinking or behavior. Demographics characteristics such as age, gender, culture and ethnicity, and group affiliations. - AGE: Generation Gap generalizations based on age. - GENDER: be sensitive to both genders - ETHNICITY AND CULTURE: Avoid ethnocentrism (the belief that your ethnicity group is better than others) - GROUP AFFILIATIONS: stereotypes of groups may not always be true 43. How are the preparation and presentation of a speech influenced by audience analysis? By knowing the type of audience, a speaker will know how to properly address them and keep the audience’s attention. For example, holding the attention of a Captive Audience is more difficult than a Committed or Concerned Audience. Staying sensitive to the demographics will ensure that the speaker is not offending anyone/is addressing as much of the population as possible in order to ensure the speaker is not reflecting him or herself poorly on a population or social group. 44. Define the general purpose, specific purpose, and central idea in public speaking. General purpose identifies the overall goal of your speech; it tells the audience why you’re giving the speech (to inform, describe, explain, demonstrate, persuade, celebrate, memorialize, entertain, eulogize). Central idea identifies the main concept, point, issue, or conclusion that you want the audience to understand, believe or feel. Specific purpose statement concise, precise infinitive phrase composed of simple, clear language that encompasses both the general purpose and the central idea and indicates what the speaker hopes to accomplish with the speech. 1. Is your purpose statement concise and precise? 2. Is your purpose statement phrased as a declarative statement? 3. Is your purpose statement free of figurative language? 4. Is your purpose statement more than simply a topic? 5. Is your purpose statement practical? 45.What should be considered when choosing a topic (speaker, subject, occasion, and audience)? When analyzing the appropriateness of your article, make sure you understand the speaker, audience and occasion. - Speaker: chose a topic that interests you - Subject: are you speaking about a subject that is appropriate for you to speak about? Choose a topic that suits your interest and fits who you are. - Audience: you wouldn’t give people in Kansas a speech about surfing; you wouldn’t speak to your professor about “Constructing a Bong.” - Occasion: don’t speak about politics at a graduation ceremony. Example of senator dying and people making his funeral a pep rally for his replacement. “Few sinners are saved after the first 20 minutes of a sermon.” – Mark Twain ^ Meaning, stay within timeconstraints! 46. How does one avoid plagiarism? Don’t do it!!? Don’t wait until the last minute to write a speech, paper, etc. Give proper notation to someone if you are quoting their work Put your work in your own words 47 . What are the main types of supporting materials used in speeches? Hypothetical example describes an imaginary situation, one that is concocted to make a point, illustrate an idea, or identify a general principle. Real examples actual occurrences. Extended example detailed story or illustration. 48 . What are the criteria for evaluating supporting material? It must have… 1. Credibility used to support claims and determined by its reliability and validity. 2. Relevance must relate directly to those claims, or else the claims are unwarranted. 3. Sufficiency must have enough evidence. 49 . What are the components of a competent presentation body? 1. Connection your points: I. Main point A. Primary subpoint 1. Secondary subpoint a. Tertiary subpoint 2. Logical Coherence Topic Central Idea Purpose Statement I. Main Point II. Main Point A. Primary Subpoint B. Primary Subpoint 1. Secondary Subpoint 2. Secondary Subpoint 3. Completeness Your first attempt at a plan should only have about one or two words Example: PURPOSE STATEMENT: To explain hazing (initiation rituals). I. Hazing A. Campus hazing B. Military hazing C. Corporate hazing II. Solutions A. Laws B. Policies C. Penalties D. Education But then, you should have a more planned out outline: Example: PURPOSE STATEMENT: To explain specific ways to prevent the problem of hazing. I. Hazing is a growing problem in the United States. A. More than 50 deaths and numerous injuries have occurred from hazing in just the last decade. B. The number of hazing incidents requiring intervention by authorities has doubled in the last decade. ETC… 50 . Identify the organizational pattern used in speeches (topical, spatial, causal, chronological, problemsolution, and Monroe’s Motivated Sequence). 1. Topical Pattern: Info according to TYPES, CLASSIFICATIONS, OR PARTS OF A WHOLE. Example: PURPOSE STATEMENT: To explain the three types of prisons in the United States. I. The first type is minimum security. II. The second type is medium security. III. The third type is maximum security. 2. Chronological Pattern: Suggests a SEQUENCE OF EVENTS. Example: PURPOSE STATEMENT: To explain the renovation plan for our local downtown city center. I. Old Cooper House and Del Rio Theatre will be demolished. II. Main Street widened. III. Cinemax theatre will replace Del Rio Theatre. 3. Spatial Pattern: Describing a PHYSICAL SPACIAL ENVIRONMENT. Example: PURPOSE STATEMENT: To explain how to load up a backpack for camping. I. Certain items must go on the bottom. II. Some are best in the middle. III. Some will fit outside the backpack. 4. Causal Pattern: WHY things happen and the CONSEQUENCES. Example: PURPOSE STATEMENT: Explain causes and effects of the yearly flu virus. I. Many causes of yearly flu. II. Flu results in illness. 5. ProblemSolution Patterns: Explores NATURE of problem and explains SOLUTIONS. Example: PURPOSE STATEMENT: Argue for flat income tax to replace current graduated income tax. I. Present income tax system has several serious problems. II. A flat income tax will solve these problems. 6. ProblemCauseSolution Pattern: Exploring PROBLEMS and addresses them in SOLUTION. Example: PURPOSE: TO argue for a governmentsponsored program to prevent hearing loss among teenagers and young adults. I. Teenagers and young adults are suffering serious hearing loss. II. There are many causes. III. A governmentsponsered program to prevent hearing loss is critical. 6. Monroe’s Motivation Sequence: first designed for sales presentations; organizational pattern with 5 steps: 1) Attention 2) Need 3) Satisfaction 4) Visualization 5) Action Chapter 13: Presenting Speeches 51. What are some guidelines for managing speech anxiety? Speech anxiety fear of public speaking. - Prepare and practice (procrastination increases anxiety. There is no substitute for preparation and practice.) - Gain perspective (Anxiety will diminish during your speech; concentrate on the probable, not the improbable) - Reframe (view it as a performance, use communication orientation by making your message clear and interesting to audience, practice speech conversationally) - Use coping statements (I’m past the tough part, I’ll do better once I get started, the best part is still ahead) - Visualize success (make an image in your head of you making a great speech) - Use relaxation techniques (reduce fightorflight, yawn, stretch, wiggling your facial muscles, etc) - Use systematic desensitization (technique used to control anxiety triggered by a wide variety of stimuli. Read your speech and when you feel anxiety drop paper and start relaxation exercise.) 52 . What are the critical elements of a competent speech introduction? 1. Gain attention Begin with a clever quote Used questions Use visual aid Tell a relevant story Refer to person introducing you and acknowledge audience 2. Make a clear purpose statement 3. Establish topic significance, or make your audience care Audience is wondering, “how does this affect me?” 4. Preview the main points Establish your credibility—tell them that you have an MBA, have been a collegiate swimmer, or have worked with the visually impaired. In certain situations, it’s not necessary, especially if it is written on the program Audiences will listen if you sound smart 53 . How does a speaker create credibility and identification in an introduction? Mentioning his or her background or experience Sounding as though you know what you’re talking about This takes the ENTIRE SPEECH, not just introduction 54 . What are the critical elements of a competent speech conclusion? 1. Summarize the main points 2. Refer to the introduction 3. Make a memorable finish DON’T END ABRUPTLY, MENTION GOING OVER TIME, OR RAMBLE. 55 . How does the oral style of communication differ from a written style? We use shorter sentences when we speak than when we write Oral speeches are interactive and written ones are not Oral speeches are less formal than written ones 56 . What impact do various delivery considerations have on an audience (eye contact, vocal variety, verbal fluency, poise, dynamism)? Eye contact—look at entire audience Vocal variety—emotional contagion will make audience feel happy if you are happy, differ pitch, inflection and volume. Verbal fluency—don’t use fillers (um, like, you know) Dynamism—slower pace when speaking of sensitive subjects, faster pace when you want to sound intelligent, confident, but not too fast. Poise—move around a little bit, but don’t do it excessively because it will distract 57 . Explain the differences between the major delivery styles (manuscript, memorized, extemporaneous, and impromptu). THE BIG 4: 1. Manuscript Speaking—appropriate when it is necessary that your words are precise, but speaker gets buried in speech, can’t look up, doesn’t seem sincere, you can’t make changes if audience doesn’t respond well 2. Memorized Speaking—appropriate for wedding toasts, sounds natural, but you shouldn’t try to memorize more than 5 minutes 3. Impromptu Speaking—delivered without preparation. Anticipate if you think you will have to make a speech, draw on life experiences, formulate a simple outline 4. Extemporaneous Speaking—delivered from outlines or notes. Sounds spontaneous even though you have notes because you’re not glued to them, greater eye contact with audience, speaker can respond to audience feedback, delivery should match the context for your speech, i.e. a eulogy wouldn’t require much body movement Chapter 14: Informative Speaking 58 . What distinguishes informative speaking from persuasive speaking? The general purpose of an informative speech is to teach your audience something new, interesting, and useful. The general purpose of a persuasive speech is to convince your listeners to change their viewpoint and behavior. (it can be a blurry line that separates informative from persuasive speeches.) Competent Informal Speaking: Inform: tell us what we don’t know Adapt: audience analysis Organize carefully: clarity is critical Internal summary restates a key point in a speech. “As you can now see, protecting homes from wildfires begins with clearing a defensible space around each home.” Supporting materials revisited: follow the rules Avoid information overload: don’t drown in data Tell your story well: narrative tips 59 . What are signposts and transitions, and how are they used in constructing a presentation? (This is under the “Organize carefully: clarity is critical” sub point) - Signpost organizational markers that indicate the structure of the speech and notify listeners that a particular point is about to be addressed. - Transition connects what was said with what will be said. - Signpost and transitions have the same purpose of GUIDING the listeners during a speech. - Important to help audience UNDERSTAND 60. Describe the characteristics of an appropriate or effective oral citation. The first citation should be complete, but the ones after that can be abbreviated Narrative Tips: 1. Choose a story that fits your audience 2. Make sure the story fits your purpose and illustrates a key point 3. Keep the stories concise 4. Practice telling your story 5. Do not read your story to your listeners 6. Be animated, even visual, when telling a story. 61. What are the types of visual aids that can be used during a speech? Visual aids can… Clarify difficult points, gain and maintain audience attention, enhance speaker credibility, improve your delivery, and be memorable. 1. Objects - Too big/too small? Can’t be live, illegal, etc. 2. Models (i.e. plastic model of human mouth) 3. Graphs - Dramatic visual impact - Can’t be too much information 4. Maps - Must be large and simple - Should be accurate 5. Tables - Easytounderstand comparisons - Can’t be messy/hastily made 6. Photographs - Needs to be enlarged 7. Drawings - Can’t be sloppy or hard to distinguish 62 . What are guidelines for the competent usage of visual aids? - Keep aids simple - Make them visible - Make them neat, attractive and accurate - Don’t block the audience’s view - Keep them close to you - Put it out of sight when not in use - Practice with aids - Don’t circulate your aids - Don’t talk in the dark (keep the lights on for videos/power points) - Anticipate problems Chapter 4: Language 28 . Explain the four elements common to all languages (structure, productivity, displacement, and selfreflexiveness). Structure without this, you have no language. Includes the phoneme, morpheme, syntax and semantics and is set by grammar. Productivity “hundreds of millions of trillions of thinkable thoughts;” the idea that there are many meanings used in the same word Displacement Your ability to use language to talk about objects, ideas, events, and relations that don’t just exist in the physical here and now. i.e. talking about unicorns, past events or future plans. Selfreflexiveness the ability to use language to talk about language i.e. what you’re studying right now! 29 . Explain the abstracting process (sense experience, description, inference, and judgment). The Abstracting Process Abstracting process whereby we formulate increasingly vague conceptions of our world by leaving out details associated with events, objects and ideas. There are four levels of abstraction: sense experience, inference, description, and judgment. 1. Sense experience language allows you to share this with others 2. Descriptions verbal reports that sketch what we perceive from our senses. Your description of the world is an approximation of the world as your perceive it, not an exact duplicate. (i.e. The woman is wearing a navy blue suit.) 3. Inferences conclusions about the unknown based on the known. (i.e. The woman wearing the navy blue suit wants to look professional.) 4. Judgments subjective evaluations of objects, events, or ideas. (i.e. The woman wearing the navy blue suit is a good employee.) 30 . Explain the two versions of the SapirWhorf hypothesis and their relationship to culture. SapirWhorf Hypothesis Two versions, 1) we are the prisoners of our native language, unable to think certain thoughts or perceive in certain ways because of the grammatical structure and lexicon of our language (linguistic determination), and 2) the grammar and lexicon of our native language powerfully influence but do not imprison our thinking and perception (linguistic relativity). their relationship to culture 31 . Explain how connotative meaning differs from denotative meaning. Connotation personal meaning Denotation shared meaning 32 . What is the difference between a fact and an inference? A fact is a true statement, and an inference in an assumption made by an individual. Look at story on page 119 under “Inferential Errors: Ineffective Guessing.” 33 . How might the use of slang, jargon, and euphemisms influence the understanding of a communication message? Jargon specialized language from a profession, trade or group. Jargon is not inherently a poor use of language. Euphemism form of linguistic Novocain whereby word choices numb us to or camouflage unpleasant or offensive realities. Not all euphemisms are inappropriate. When dealing with euphemisms: 1. Use them cautiously and wisely. 2. Expunge dangerous euphemisms. Slang highly informal words not in standard usage that are employed by a group with a common interest. - Some may not understand the current slang, some euphemisms may not be appropriate for a given situation or circumstance and some audience members may not be uptodate with slang terms. Some extra vocab: Language a structured system of symbols for communicating meaning. Grammar set of rules that specify how the units of language can be meaningfully combined. Phoneme individual units of sound that compose a specific spoken language. Phonology part of grammar that describes the patterns of sound in a language. Morpheme smallest unit of meaning in language. Morphology part of grammar that describes how morphemes are constructed meaningfully from phonemes. Free morpheme morpheme standing alone Bound morpheme no meaning until attached to a standalone word (i.e. un, ing) Syntax rules that govern combining words into phrases and phrases into sentences. Semantics set of rules that govern the meaning of words and sentences. Each person constructs meaning from symbols that appear in the form of sounds, words, phrases, and sentences by interpreting those symbols in a context. Symbol arbitrary representations of objects, events, ideas, or relationships. Referents the objects, events, ideas or relationships referred to by the words. A word (symbol) is to a referent as a map is to a territory. Word origin is arbitrary but word usage is conventional. Lexicon total vocabulary Displacement your ability to use language to talk about objects, ideas, events, and relations that don’t just exist in the physical here and now. (i.e. talking about things that don’t exist, impossible circumstances, future predictions) The Power of Language Masculinegeneric Genderbiased language makes women virtually invisible, and it tacitly brands them as less powerful and less important than men. Label name or a descriptive word or phrase. Framing the influence working has on our perception of choices. Competent Language Use: Problems and Solutions Signal reaction automatic, emotional response to a symbol. 1. Learn to follow signal reactions with semantic reactions. Semantic reaction delayed, thoughtful response that seeks to decipher the user’s intended meaning of a word, thus shortcircuiting a behavioral response to the hair trigger emotional reaction. 2. Refrain from using words that will likely trigger signal reactions. Obscenity, fighting words Avoiding false dichotomies: 1. Think pluralistically. (Think of other options) 2. Recognize degrees of difference when using language. (Use terms such as slightly, moderately, occasionally, rarely, sometimes, often, usually.) Preventing mislabeling: 1. Operationally define significant labels. Operational definition grounds a label by specifying which measurable behaviors or experiences are subsumed under the label and which are ruled out. Deadlevel abstracting practice of remaining stuck at one level of abstraction. Hightolow abstraction: George likes sports. George likes team sports. George likes contact team sports. George likes ice hockey and football. Making your language more effective: 1. Aviod bypassing. Bypassing assuming that everyone assigns the same meaning to a word, without checking to see if it is true. 2. Operationally define abstract terms. 3. Use language flexibly. Avoid inferential errors: 1. Base inferences on a substantial quantity of information. 2. Base inferences on highquality information. CHAPTER 5: Nonverbal Communication 34 . Explain how nonverbal channels of communication differ from verbal channels. Nonverbal communication sharing meaning with others nonlinguistically. Verbal communication is singlechanneled, but nonverbal communication is multichanneled. i.e. verban communication: “I hate you” i.e. nonverbal communication: shaking fist, extending middle finger, screaming, glaring, kicking a wall. 35 . Explain how nonverbal communication functions in relationship with verbal communication (repetition, substitution, regulation, contradiction, accentuation). Verbal communication and nonverbal communication are interconnected. Repetition: Saying yes and nodding your head, or saying I love you and hugging. Consistency of verbal and nonverbal communication increases the clarity and credibility of the message. Accentuation: Please don’t touch anything in the store; pounding your first on a table. Enhances power and seriousness. Substitution: Yawn= I’m tired, Wave=goodbye. Sexual initiation is usually accepted nonverbally but rejected verbally. Regulation: when conversation is regulated by nonverbal cues. i.e. taking turns means that eye contact turns towards another person and there is a pause, or when trying to stop an interruption one may raise his voice or speed up his speech. Contradiction: mixed messages inconsistencies between verbal and nonverbal messages. i.e. “sure, I love you” while looking down. Words don’t match gestures 36 . Explain the major types of nonverbal communication (kinesics, paralanguage, territoriality, proxemics, and haptics). Haptics the study of touch Functionalprofessional touch Socialpolite touch Friendshipwarmth touch Love and intimacy touch Sexual touch Types of touch help define relationships between people Paralanguage vocal cues Vocal characterizers (laughing, yelling, crying) Vocal qualifiers (volume, tone, pitch, rhythm) Vocal segregates (“uh,” “ohh,” “shh”) Proxemics the influence that distance and territoriality have on our communication. Types of spatial relationships: 1. Intimate 2. Personal 3. Social 4. Public distances Territorality predisposition to defend a fixed geographic area or territory as one’s exclusive domain. I.e. Markers: fences, “Keep Out” signs Kinesics display of verbal expressions, i.e. eye movement, facial expressions; sometimes involuntary
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'