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Exam Two Study Guide

by: Chelsea Notetaker

Exam Two Study Guide BIO 151

Chelsea Notetaker
GPA 3.29

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About this Document

More or less appropriated with rephrasing from Professor Learman's study guide.
Human Biology
Professor Learman
Study Guide
Human Biology
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Chelsea Notetaker on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 151 at Central Michigan University taught by Professor Learman in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Human Biology in Biology at Central Michigan University.


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Date Created: 02/28/16
Unit Two Study Guide Chapters 2, 3, 19, 21 -Cell function, parts of the cell, functions of said parts, the macromolecules involved and what they do and are made up of -The Central Dogma of biology -Definition of a fene -How much of the human genome codes for protein? Why is this relevant? -Know what the difference is between a gene, chromosome and genome -Gene expression -How does information encoded in DNAbecome protein? How do cells determine which proteins are made within them? -Differentiate between mutation, point mutation, substitution, insertion, deletion -Differences between somatic and gamete cell mutations -Causes of mutations -How can different cell mutations impact the organism? Give examples -Explain why not all mutations are bad, including how they may be useful -Define genetic engineering -Define recombinant DNAand explain how it’s made -Know the two outcomes of recombinant DNAtechnology -Know about gene therapy as a form of recombinant DNAtechnology as a function to treat human disease -Know its uses and controversies^ Chapters Three and Fifteen -Explain how matter and energy are required for human life -Know the roles of ATP and carbon in cells -CELLULAR RESPIRATION -Define fermentation and know its importance for humans -Know the roles different nutrients play in the bodies, and how much are needed, how they’re processed by the body, and how the body copes with having deficiencies of them. -Explain how carbs and fats differ -Interpret a food label -Compare and contrast simple carbs and complex carbs; unsaturated, saturated and trans- fats; plants proteins vs animal proteins -Discuss the ups and downs of the BMI Chapters Eighteen and Nineteen -Human life cycle, mitosis vs meiosis -MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS -know the number of chromosomes in each step of the processes -Know the difference between the cell cycles of multicellular eukaryotic organisms and single-celled prokaryotes -Know why DNAreplication must be accurate -Label, draw and define the structure of a chromosome --How do proteins and gene regulation play into human development -Stem cell, differentiation, active gene, inactive gene -Cells with different forms of DNAfunction as different types of cells -Be familiar with the anatomy of the female reproductive system as discussed in class -Identify processes/steps that occur during fetal development, including fertilization, cleavage (morula and blastocyst), implantation, pre-embryonic period, embryonic period, fetal period -List embryonic’placenta components and describe their role in development -Know the role of the trimesters in the context of gestation -Apoptosis -Define spontaneous abortion and explain why it can occur -How can implantation or placental position impact fetal development? -Birth defects -Teratogens -Genetic vs environmental causes of birth defects -when are developing embryos most sensitive to teratogens and why Chapters 19 and 20 -Know the differences between gene, allele, protein, chromosome, homologous chromosome and sister chromatid -How many times does cell division happen during mitosis and meiosis? -Define and be able to interpret a karyotype -Explain the four origins of genetic variation -Differentiate between monozygotic twins, dizygotic twins, and non-twin siblings -Terms: character, trait, gene, allele, homozygous and heterozygous, dominant, recessive, genotype, phenotype -Be able to use and interpret a Punnett square, along with terms such as complete dominance, codominance, and incomplete dominance, pleiotropy, multiple alleles, epistasis, sex- linked, sex-influenced, polygenic inheritance, multifactorial inheritance -Interpret blood type data related to paternity -Describe symptoms/genetic basis/causes of genetic conditions. -Define carrier -Recognize nondisjunction and explain how it can cause abnormal numbers of chromosomes in cells


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