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Comm 320 EXAM 2 Study Guide

by: Susannah Foos

Comm 320 EXAM 2 Study Guide COMM 320

Marketplace > Pennsylvania State University > Communication > COMM 320 > Comm 320 EXAM 2 Study Guide
Susannah Foos
Penn State
GPA 3.89

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About this Document

Here is my study guide for Comm 320 Exam 2 I suggest looking it over along with the professor's slides and the book
Intro To Advertising
Dr. Anghelcev
Study Guide
comm 320, intro to ad, intro to advertising, PSU, Penn State, susannah, foos, Exam 2, Study Guide
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Susannah Foos on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 320 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Dr. Anghelcev in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 158 views. For similar materials see Intro To Advertising in Communication at Pennsylvania State University.

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Date Created: 02/28/16
Social Aspects of Advertising o Pro: educates, lowers product costs (econ of scale, choice variety, competition improves product & lower prices, innovations), addresses variety of needs, reflects societies priorities, more sensitive, source of fulfillment and liberation, democratic art, fosters affordable mass media o Con: Ads intrusive and superficial, raises standard of living, wasteful, creates needs, promotes materialism, promotes stereotypes, offensive, deceptive, effects programing Maslow’s hierarchy ofneeds: 1. Physiological: hunger, thirst, bodily functions 2. Safety: shelter, protection 3. Emotional: affiliation and affections (aka Love & Belonging) 4. Esteem: recognition, status, prestige, what you think of yourself and what others think of you 5. Self-Actualization: pushing yourself to do things you thought you couldn’t do; Maximum fulfillment of individual capabilities. **ADS CAN FALL INTO MORE THAN ONE LEVEL OF MASLOW’S HIERARCHY** • Ads create WANTS not needs Stereotypes: typical ideas of a category of people/groups • good in helping get schemas to recognize products • stereotypes themselves aren’t bad • used with 30sec ads to make the message understandable • negative stereotypes develop overtime with multiple exposure • Always #LikeAGirl • Pantene compares women and men(vain vs neat) Ethical Aspects of Advertising Ethics: moral standards and principles against which behavior is judged Self-Censorship: when doing research/writing for media and you purposely avoid topics/issues that negatively affect your company or sponsor Native Advertising: Ads that look like an editorial articles, but talks positively about product. • Netflix paid NYTimes for prison article to help promotes Orange Is the New Black. • Hard to regulate. • Started with The Atlantic praising leader of the Church of Scientology = actually an Ad • Truth in Ads o Puffery: legal exaggerated commercial language “Best in the World” o Emotional appeals hard to legislate  Puppy Monkey Baby SuperBowl ad o All claims judged from the perspective of a “reasonable consumer” o Deception: making false or misleading statements in an advertisement  Huggies Pure & Natural = harmful, misrepresent, customers complain  Price Deception: infomercials free shipping, phone providers, with risk, free offers  Bait and Switch Advertising: using a promise to get customers to store and then switching the product  One of A Kind: but when you go to the store it’s gone  While Supplies Last/Limited: stock doesn’t say how many are available  Finance Claim: for well qualified customers defined in small print, doesn’t define qualified on Ad  Actual item not pictured: ebay  False environmental claims (greenwashing) • Ads to Children o Vulnerable consumer: easy pray for sophisticated persuasion, easily influenced o Ads restricted to 10.5 min per hr on weekends and 12 mins per hr on weekdays o Cultivation theory: exposure to TV shapes our view of the world  Mean World Syndrome: more views of violent TV lead to violent world perspective  Familiarity: frequency effect: people tend to overestimate the frequency of events based on how familiar they are with them from TV o Social Learning Theory: learn to be socialized by observational learning –socialized by media, parents, peers, etc.  Bobo Doll Experiment o Effects more pronounced and dangerous for kids because they lack the cognitive avlities to process persuation • Ads for Controversial Products o Products like tobacco, alcohol, gambling, firearms o Ads can’t create Primary demand (demand for entire category) o Ads can only stimulate demands for a brand within the product category – selective demand Regulatory Aspects of Advertising Areas of Ad Regulation Deception and Unfairness • Federal Trade Commission 3 essential elements to declare ad deceptive 1. Misrepresentation, omission or practice to mislead consumer 2. Ad must be judged from the perspective of a reasonable acting consumer 3. “material” is likely to affect consumer’s conduct or decision with regard to product; central characteristic influence purchase • Unfair advertising: practices that cause substantial “injury” to consumers Ads found deceptive by courts if 1. Claim made 2. Claim was fact, not opinion 3. Claim was untrue 4. (assumed) made with intent to influence buyers 5. Buyer acted in reliance on the claim 6. Reliance was justified 7. Buyer was “injured” 8. Deception caused the injury 9. Courts require proof the seller knew of falsity (occasional) Competitive Issues • Vertical Cooperative Advertising: ad technique where manufacturer and dealer share ad expenses, represent hidden price concessions giving dealers competitive cost advantage, dealer must prove money was spent on advertising • Comparison Advertisement: ads make comparison between firm’s brand and competitor brands: must have disclaimer, AAAA (4A) set of principles for comparative Ads, honest comparisons • Monopoly power: mergers and acquisitions diminish competition Regulatory Agents • Self-Regulation: promotional industry attempt to police itself • National Advertising Review Board (NARB) o Establishes policies and procedures for Ad industry • National Advertising Division (NAD) • Better Business Bureaus (BBB) o 3 divisions of local BBB = merchandise, financial and solicitation o Counsel new businesses and provide info to ads & agencies about legislation, problem areas and standards Consumerism: actions of individual consumers/groups designed to exert power into market place NAD NARB NARB chairperson appoints panel Complaint Panel finds ad not to be misleading Evaluate Or Advertiser asked to change or Dismisses complaint trivial discontinue message Or Advertiser contacted substantiation requested Advertiser agrees. Panel dismisses Or Dismiss Ad substance Advertiser refuses and referred Or to Gov’t (FTC) Substantiation not acceptable ask to change Message Advertiser agrees to change, NAD dismisses Or Advertiser disagrees, appeal to NARB by NAD or Advertiser Government = FTC Regulatory programs and remedies o Advertising substantiation program: make supporting claims available with evidence, before running ads must document evidence for claims o Consent order: accused ads told and agree to stop running ad without admitting to guilt o Cease and Desist Order:ad stopped within 30 days for hearing to determine if deceptive o Affirmative disclosure: important material absent from prior ads must be included in subsequent ads o Corrective Advertising: firms may be required to run corrective ads in attempt to dispel faulty beliefs, rectify errors by deceptive ad o Celebrity endorsements, testimonials, bloggers: celebs must be actual users, bloggers must disclose being paid Premiums: items offered for “free” or greatly reduced price with purchase of another item Appropriation: use of pictures/images without owner’s permission Defamation: damages reputation of individual because of untrue information Slander: oral defamation and in context of promotion would occur during broadcast Libel: defamation in print CONSUMER BEHAVIOR Consumer Behavior: all decisions and activities which define human consumption Consumer packaged Goods (CPG): low involvement goods • trash bags, laundry detergent • consumer behavior out of habit and memory • mindshare brands Process to making decisions 1. Need recognition: psychological perspective • need state = one’s desired state of affairs accompanied by anxiety that motivates action 2. Information search and alternative evaluation • Internal search: draw on personal experience and prior knowledge: taps into memory and repeated Ad exposure o Evoked set: set of brands (2-5) that come to mind when a category is mentioned o Consideration set: set of brands that consumer considers to purchase o Top of Mind: brand that is first mentioned • External Search: visiting retail stores, looking online examining alternatives • Evaluative criteria: product attributes or performance characteristics, criteria changes for each product category 3. Purchase • After the sale, advertiserswant trial; want conversion: repeated purchase • Brand ambassadors: users who become apostles for the brand spreading gospel 4. Post purchase use and evaluation • Goal = create customer satisfaction: derives from a favorable post-purchase experience • Cognitive dissonance/ buyer’s remorse: anxiety/regret that lingers after difficult decision Involvement: the degree of perceived relevance and personal importance the choice of a product within a particular context Consumer-brand relationship: a function of higher involvement, consumers have some sort of emotional attachment with brand High Involvement Low Involvement Low Experience Extended problem solving Limited problem solving High Experience Brand loyalty Habit or variety seeking Extended Problem Solving: Low experience and High Involvement, products typically expensive and carry amount of risk in terms of making an uneducated decision Limited Problem Solving: low experience and involvement, more common mode of decision making, problem isn’t that interesting so go with first brand encountered Habit or Variety Seeking: work together in repeated purchases • Habit: buying a single brand repeatedly as solution to simple consumption problem: not brand loyalty, boring and fight it with variety seeking • Variety Seeking: the tendency of consumers to switch their selection amongvarious brands in categories in random patterns Brand Loyalty: repeated purchase to fulfill specific need and have a degree of emotional connection; high involvement and experience • Predecisional Distortion: consumers with emotional connection to brand will distort info in a positive way to favor that brand; while distorting competitors information negatively Semantic (word) memory: memory which names, words, concepts are stored and retrieved from our minds- CPG • Accessibility- more likely to buy brand you remember, more easily remembered more frequent consumers believe it to be • Accessibility bonus- overestimate market share and belief that brand is more popular than in reality Episodic Memory: memories of episodes are more fluid Emotion: consumer changes nature of information to favor emotional brand connection Information Overload and Simplication: more info the better is not always true; too much info confronts choices and the ability to effectively apply the information within choosing Clutter and Attention: Advertising clutter: lots of ads seen within one day that you confuse them Culture: what people do, surround the creation, transmission, reception and interpretation of ads and brands Rituals: repeated formalized behaviors involving symbols, core elements of culture Stratification: systematic inequalities in things like wealth, income, education, power, status Taste: generalized set or orientation to consumer aesthetic preferences Cultural Capital: value that culture places on certain consumption practices and objects


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