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BSU / Chemistry / CHEM 420 / What are the advantages of inductively coupled plasma?

What are the advantages of inductively coupled plasma?

What are the advantages of inductively coupled plasma?

Description

School: Ball State University
Department: Chemistry
Course: Chemical Instrumentation I
Professor: Tykhon zubkov
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Chemistry, instrumentation, and Chemical Instrumentation
Cost: 25
Name: CHEM 420 Weekly Notes
Description: These notes cover remaining material that will be on Exam 2
Uploaded: 02/28/2016
10 Pages 235 Views 0 Unlocks
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"}.lst-kix_jov1twlh2pjy-0 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-4 0}.lst-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_jov1twlh2pjy-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-1,lower-latin) ". "}ul.lst-kix_e2egelbhjrpz-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_e2egelbhjrpz-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_e2egelbhjrpz-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_e2egelbhjrpz-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_e2egelbhjrpz-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_jov1twlh2pjy-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_e2egelbhjrpz-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_e2egelbhjrpz-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_e2egelbhjrpz-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_e2egelbhjrpz-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_htykfs7qydnd-8 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-4 0}.lst-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_r99j1whciao9-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_htykfs7qydnd-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_htykfs7qydnd-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_hy9ua69uim3q-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_buz8wehn9q5e-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_r99j1whciao9-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_hy9ua69uim3q-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_buz8wehn9q5e-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_htykfs7qydnd-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_buz8wehn9q5e-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_buz8wehn9q5e-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_mi78rzbqeiaf-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_r99j1whciao9-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-3}.lst-kix_hy9ua69uim3q-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_mi78rzbqeiaf-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_mi78rzbqeiaf-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_buz8wehn9q5e-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_mi78rzbqeiaf-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-1 0}ul.lst-kix_buz8wehn9q5e-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-0}ul.lst-kix_buz8wehn9q5e-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-3 0}ul.lst-kix_buz8wehn9q5e-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_buz8wehn9q5e-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_htykfs7qydnd-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_hy9ua69uim3q-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_r99j1whciao9-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_rc0xn3jth5bq-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-2 0}ul.lst-kix_rc0xn3jth5bq-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rc0xn3jth5bq-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rc0xn3jth5bq-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rc0xn3jth5bq-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rc0xn3jth5bq-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rc0xn3jth5bq-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rc0xn3jth5bq-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_rc0xn3jth5bq-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-4 0}ul.lst-kix_w61l565u0ulh-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_w61l565u0ulh-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-4}ul.lst-kix_w61l565u0ulh-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_w61l565u0ulh-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_mu4sgxqopzgi-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_w61l565u0ulh-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_mu4sgxqopzgi-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_w61l565u0ulh-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_mu4sgxqopzgi-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_w61l565u0ulh-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_mu4sgxqopzgi-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_w61l565u0ulh-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_w61l565u0ulh-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_adthequlltl8-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_adthequlltl8-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_adthequlltl8-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_adthequlltl8-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_adthequlltl8-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_adthequlltl8-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_db5cubtu51x5-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_db5cubtu51x5-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_db5cubtu51x5-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_db5cubtu51x5-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_adthequlltl8-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_db5cubtu51x5-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_adthequlltl8-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_db5cubtu51x5-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_adthequlltl8-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-2}ul.lst-kix_db5cubtu51x5-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_db5cubtu51x5-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_db5cubtu51x5-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_rc0xn3jth5bq-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_rc0xn3jth5bq-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-2 0}.lst-kix_rc0xn3jth5bq-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_buz8wehn9q5e-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_rc0xn3jth5bq-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_rc0xn3jth5bq-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_buz8wehn9q5e-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_gsiuzola9vv-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_gsiuzola9vv-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-3}.lst-kix_buz8wehn9q5e-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_e2egelbhjrpz-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_e2egelbhjrpz-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-6}.lst-kix_w61l565u0ulh-8 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-0 0}.lst-kix_e2egelbhjrpz-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_mi78rzbqeiaf-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_mu4sgxqopzgi-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_mu4sgxqopzgi-7}.lst-kix_w61l565u0ulh-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_5xfdy43lpp4h-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_5xfdy43lpp4h-8 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-0 0}.lst-kix_w61l565u0ulh-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_w61l565u0ulh-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_mi78rzbqeiaf-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_w61l565u0ulh-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_mi78rzbqeiaf-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_mi78rzbqeiaf-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_mi78rzbqeiaf-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_mi78rzbqeiaf-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_mi78rzbqeiaf-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-7}.lst-kix_gsiuzola9vv-1 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_mi78rzbqeiaf-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_gsiuzola9vv-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_e2egelbhjrpz-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-8}.lst-kix_mi78rzbqeiaf-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_e2egelbhjrpz-0 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-1 0}ol.lst-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-2}ol.lst-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_buz8wehn9q5e-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-2}ol.lst-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-0,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_jov1twlh2pjy-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_jov1twlh2pjy-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_r99j1whciao9-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_jov1twlh2pjy-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-0}ol.lst-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_htykfs7qydnd-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_r99j1whciao9-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ptihs2lzzoa7-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_4b1rv9bnfxx3-1 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-7,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_mu4sgxqopzgi-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_mu4sgxqopzgi-2,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ptihs2lzzoa7-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ptihs2lzzoa7-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-0}.lst-kix_hy9ua69uim3q-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_db5cubtu51x5-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_8d8rrqvdqoq8-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_htykfs7qydnd-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_r99j1whciao9-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_hy9ua69uim3q-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_db5cubtu51x5-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_8d8rrqvdqoq8-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_5xfdy43lpp4h-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-4}.lst-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-5,lower-roman) ". "}ul.lst-kix_8d8rrqvdqoq8-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_8d8rrqvdqoq8-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_8d8rrqvdqoq8-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_mu4sgxqopzgi-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_mu4sgxqopzgi-6,lower-latin) ". "}ul.lst-kix_8d8rrqvdqoq8-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_8d8rrqvdqoq8-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_8d8rrqvdqoq8-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_5xfdy43lpp4h-0 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_8d8rrqvdqoq8-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_8d8rrqvdqoq8-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_8d8rrqvdqoq8-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_mu4sgxqopzgi-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_mu4sgxqopzgi-2}.lst-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-8}.lst-kix_adthequlltl8-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-3}.lst-kix_82v1oixiqvx8-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_4b1rv9bnfxx3-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4b1rv9bnfxx3-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_adthequlltl8-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_4b1rv9bnfxx3-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4b1rv9bnfxx3-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4b1rv9bnfxx3-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4b1rv9bnfxx3-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4b1rv9bnfxx3-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4b1rv9bnfxx3-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_4b1rv9bnfxx3-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-5}ul.lst-kix_5xfdy43lpp4h-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_mu4sgxqopzgi-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_mu4sgxqopzgi-4}.lst-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-4}ul.lst-kix_htykfs7qydnd-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_htykfs7qydnd-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_82v1oixiqvx8-8 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_htykfs7qydnd-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_82v1oixiqvx8-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_5xfdy43lpp4h-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5xfdy43lpp4h-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_82v1oixiqvx8-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_82v1oixiqvx8-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_5xfdy43lpp4h-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_htykfs7qydnd-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5xfdy43lpp4h-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_htykfs7qydnd-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5xfdy43lpp4h-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_htykfs7qydnd-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5xfdy43lpp4h-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_htykfs7qydnd-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_82v1oixiqvx8-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_5xfdy43lpp4h-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_htykfs7qydnd-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_5xfdy43lpp4h-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_htykfs7qydnd-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_adthequlltl8-1 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-5 0}.lst-kix_adthequlltl8-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-1}ol.lst-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-3 0}.lst-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-7}.lst-kix_4b1rv9bnfxx3-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-1 0}.lst-kix_4b1rv9bnfxx3-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_4b1rv9bnfxx3-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_4b1rv9bnfxx3-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_jov1twlh2pjy-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_jov1twlh2pjy-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-5}ol.lst-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-0 0}ol.lst-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_jov1twlh2pjy-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_jov1twlh2pjy-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_4b1rv9bnfxx3-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-5}ul.lst-kix_jov1twlh2pjy-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_jov1twlh2pjy-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_jov1twlh2pjy-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_jov1twlh2pjy-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_jov1twlh2pjy-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-8 0}.lst-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-1}.lst-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-5}.lst-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-8,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-6 0}.lst-kix_db5cubtu51x5-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-6,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-6 0}.lst-kix_4b1rv9bnfxx3-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ptihs2lzzoa7-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ptihs2lzzoa7-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_mu4sgxqopzgi-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_mu4sgxqopzgi-0}.lst-kix_mu4sgxqopzgi-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_mu4sgxqopzgi-1,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_db5cubtu51x5-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-4}.lst-kix_4b1rv9bnfxx3-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ptihs2lzzoa7-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-1}.lst-kix_8d8rrqvdqoq8-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_db5cubtu51x5-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-0 0}.lst-kix_db5cubtu51x5-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ptihs2lzzoa7-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-3 0}.lst-kix_8d8rrqvdqoq8-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_8d8rrqvdqoq8-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_5xfdy43lpp4h-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_gsiuzola9vv-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-2,lower-roman) ". "}ul.lst-kix_gsiuzola9vv-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_8d8rrqvdqoq8-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_8d8rrqvdqoq8-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_5xfdy43lpp4h-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_5xfdy43lpp4h-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_mu4sgxqopzgi-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_mu4sgxqopzgi-5,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_mu4sgxqopzgi-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_mu4sgxqopzgi-3,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_mu4sgxqopzgi-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_mu4sgxqopzgi-7,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-4 0}.lst-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-6,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-2 0}.lst-kix_82v1oixiqvx8-0 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-1 0}.lst-kix_adthequlltl8-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-6}.lst-kix_adthequlltl8-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-3 0}.lst-kix_82v1oixiqvx8-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_adthequlltl8-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_gsiuzola9vv-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_gsiuzola9vv-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-8}ul.lst-kix_gsiuzola9vv-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_gsiuzola9vv-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_gsiuzola9vv-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_gsiuzola9vv-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-0}ul.lst-kix_gsiuzola9vv-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_rc0xn3jth5bq-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-4}.lst-kix_rc0xn3jth5bq-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-5 0}ul.lst-kix_r99j1whciao9-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_r99j1whciao9-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_r99j1whciao9-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_mu4sgxqopzgi-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_mu4sgxqopzgi-5}ul.lst-kix_r99j1whciao9-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_mu4sgxqopzgi-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_mu4sgxqopzgi-0 0}ul.lst-kix_r99j1whciao9-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_r99j1whciao9-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_buz8wehn9q5e-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_buz8wehn9q5e-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_rc0xn3jth5bq-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_rc0xn3jth5bq-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_buz8wehn9q5e-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_gsiuzola9vv-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_gsiuzola9vv-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_gsiuzola9vv-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_e2egelbhjrpz-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_r99j1whciao9-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_e2egelbhjrpz-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_mu4sgxqopzgi-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_mu4sgxqopzgi-3}ul.lst-kix_r99j1whciao9-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-6}ul.lst-kix_r99j1whciao9-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_mu4sgxqopzgi-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_mu4sgxqopzgi-6 0}ol.lst-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-8 0}ol.lst-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-6 0}.lst-kix_e2egelbhjrpz-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-7 0}.lst-kix_e2egelbhjrpz-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_w61l565u0ulh-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_mu4sgxqopzgi-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_mu4sgxqopzgi-1}.lst-kix_mi78rzbqeiaf-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_mi78rzbqeiaf-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_mi78rzbqeiaf-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-8 0}.lst-kix_w61l565u0ulh-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-7 0}.lst-kix_w61l565u0ulh-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_gsiuzola9vv-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-2}.lst-kix_gsiuzola9vv-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_w61l565u0ulh-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-5,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-1 0}.lst-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-8}.lst-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-8}.lst-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-1,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_mu4sgxqopzgi-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_mu4sgxqopzgi-1 0}.lst-kix_buz8wehn9q5e-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_buz8wehn9q5e-1 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_mu4sgxqopzgi-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_mu4sgxqopzgi-7 0}.lst-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_cgp7ensh3hr-0}ol.lst-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_q1oh82zidfbp-8 0}.lst-kix_mi78rzbqeiaf-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_mi78rzbqeiaf-8 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-5 0}ol.lst-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-2 0}.lst-kix_jov1twlh2pjy-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_jov1twlh2pjy-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-4,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-7 0}.lst-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_dzds2qm8mrej-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_jov1twlh2pjy-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_vpoexd7d4srd-7,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-3 0}.lst-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_ft2nvxutqedm-0,upper-latin) ". 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"}.lst-kix_4b1rv9bnfxx3-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_hy9ua69uim3q-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ptihs2lzzoa7-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_db5cubtu51x5-0 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_ptihs2lzzoa7-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_mu4sgxqopzgi-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_mu4sgxqopzgi-8}ul.lst-kix_ptihs2lzzoa7-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_mu4sgxqopzgi-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_mu4sgxqopzgi-0,lower-latin) ". 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Chemical

  1. Analyte motion reduced (ca) from the formation of anion compounds (SO42- and PO43-)

**Solution = increase flame temperature (or) use protective agent - preventing Ca from binding to SO42-  or PO43-

  1. Analyte (Mg) can form oxide when in presence of AI
  • Decreases Mg signal

        **Solution = increase flame temperature (or) use releasing agent - removes the We also discuss several other topics like What power does court have to hear dispute, render legally binding decision?

Intervent from analyte = removes AI from Mg

  1. Ionization Equations:
  • In high temperature flames - ionization = important

If you want to learn more check out What is the formula to compute the marginal utility?

**Solution = spike sample with ionization suppressorsWe also discuss several other topics like How are blood types determined?

Atomic Emission Spectrometry

Typical experiment: atomizers - convert sample compounds into atoms

  • Only fraction of sample promotes to excited state then to relaxation / emission
  • Atomic emission is more dependent on temperature than atomic absorption is
  1. Flame
  2. Electric spark
  3. Plasma

Inductively coupled plasma (ICP)

  • ICP temperature > combustion flame temperature
  • Higher temperature = higher stability - chemically inert environment

(inside the core T = 10,000K)

  • Eliminates interference flames come in contact with
  • Very pure air red through - spark ionizes gas (Ar - Ar+ + e-)
  • Free e- speed up by RF field = more collisions with Ar atoms
  • Advantages:
  • No oxygen present - good if some elements present form stable oxides
  • Under single set of conditions, very good spectra result from ICP very from element to element

“Multi element Analysis simultaneously”If you want to learn more check out What is false imprisonment?

(high temperatures enough to execute other non - metals: CL, Br, S)

  • Disadvantages:
  • Ar flow is costly
  • Need of more accurate monochromators because so many spectral lines are present at one time

VV - VIS molecular spectrometry: Absorption and Fluorescence

  • Atoms:
  • Electronic levels
  • Electronic transitions
  • Molecules:
  • Electronic levels = rotational / vibrational states closely packed together
  • Electronic, rotational and vibrational transitions - band spectra
  • Bands = broadened in solutions, more so in polar solutions
  • Energy Transitions:
  1. Absorption

  1. Fluorescence

  • Vibrational Relaxations:
  • Happens through collisions between molecules (includes collisions with solvent)
  • Efficient process: vibrationally excited state quickly relax to lowest vibration level - then emit fluorescence
  • Non radiative relaxation = instead of fluorescence - relax from lowest vibrational level to highest ground - state level

If you want to learn more check out the stage of the new-product process that internally and externally evaluates new-product ideas to eliminate those that warrant no further effort is referred to as

VV - VIS Absorption Spectrometry

  • Quantitative analysis (sometimes qualitative)
  • Molecules
  • Polyatomic ions
  • Coordination compounds
  • Molecule absorbs a UV - VIS photon - undergoes e- transition
  • Relation between transition and functional group of molecule being analyzed
  • Excitation of bonding e- = absorption of UV - VIS light
  •  corresponds to types of bonds in the molecules
  • Quantitative determination of compounds containing specific bonding groups present in molecules
  • Must identify functional groups

  • UV - VIS Absorption = 2 steps
  1. Electronic Excitation

  1. Relaxation Process

  • 3 types of e- transitions:
  1. O, IT, N electrons transitions

(Mo) (non - bonding)

  1. D and F electrons transitions
  • Can have exultations within the same atom
  1. Charge transfer transitions

  1. O - O* Transitions

(molecules with only single bonds) - O - bonds

  • Largest unit of E needed for this transition
  • During transition, organic molecules dissociate

  1. N = O* Transitions

(molecules with only lone pairs) - n - orbitals

  • Less energy than O - O*

  1. - * , n - * Transitions

(molecules with multiple bonds)

  • Out of all 3, this transition has the least E needed to make it happen
  • Most of what is sum in VV - VIS

Don't forget about the age old question of What is meant by Price Transparency?

**n - n*

  • Lo molar absorptivities
  • Weak absorption bands
  • (10 - 100 L / mol cm)

** - *

  • High molar absorptivities
  • Strong absorption bands
  • (1000 - 10,000 L / mol cm)
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