Chapter 10 Study Guide
Chapter 10 Study Guide BIOL 1014
Arkansas Tech University
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Surani Notetaker on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1014 at Arkansas Tech University taught by Dr. Jacqueline Bowan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biological Sciences in Biology at Arkansas Tech University.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
Chapter 10 Review Questions Answer Key 1. The Human Microbiome Project is (c) an entity started by the NIH to figure out all of the species that live in and on us. 2. Commensalism is (a) an ecological interaction in which one species benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed. 3. We can determine the number of species living on the human body even when we can’t grow them in the laboratory by looking for their DNA. 4. When bacteria are presented for the first time with an antibiotic, some of the bacteria may already have resistance to that antibiotic. The bacteria than can thrive and reproduce in the presence of the antibiotic will pass on their genes disproportionally to the next generation resulting in a change in allele frequency. 5. The number of resistant strains usually decreases when no antibiotic is present, because the mutations that allow the bacteria to grow in the presence of antibiotics often cause the bacteria to grow more slowly or need additional nutrients. These mutations present a disadvantage when the antibiotic is not present, which causes the frequencies of the alleles that cause the mutation to decrease. 6. In order to maintain or increase their population pathogens require living hosts. If the disease is too virulent the host may die before the pathogens can infect another host. This is disadvantageous to the pathogen. Pathogens that cause milder disease symptoms which allow for greater chances of infecting others are selected for and tend to increase in the population. The common cold is a well-evolved pathogen. 7. The trade-off hypothesis states that all pathogens must balance the need to compete and reproduce successfully within the host (which tends to increase virulence) with the need for transmission to a new host (which tends to decrease virulence). Conditions that select for diseases with severe or life- threatening symptoms are those that promote contagion. Severe symptoms call for a pathogen that spreads to people easily and efficiently. Diseases that spread through mosquitos, fleas, and contaminated water all fall in this category. Milder diseases are selected for when the pathogen is spread by airborne viruses or contact with the fluids from infected people. 8. No need to answer 9. The four stages a newly emerging disease usually goes through are (e) exposure, infection, transmission, and epidemic. 10.As a new disease passes through the four stages it must develop the ability to get inside humans, reproduce inside humans at very high levels, make its way to appropriate locations and tissues so that it can infect other humans, and develop the ability to spread rapidly within a population. 11.The three sources of new disease are mutated forms of existing disease, from other species, and the environment. 12.The most new diseases come from pre-existing pathogens found in other organisms. 13.Vaccines protect you from disease by stimulating your immune systems to recognize and attack invading pathogens. Vaccines are usually produced from pathogen proteins, fragments of pathogen cells or whole dead cells. They allow your immune system to develop a “memory” of the pathogen which allows for rapid response to subsequent exposure to the pathogen. 14.The “target” of the diphtheria vaccine is the toxin produced by the bacteria not the bacteria itself. This selects for the diphtheria organisms that don’t produce the toxin since they need less energy to reproduce. This allows natural selection to create a population of diphtheria bacteria in your body that are harmless. 15.Two beneficial health-related consequences of reducing the rate at which diseases spread are reduced reliance on antibiotics to control disease and changing the trade-off balance to select for milder forms of the disease.
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