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by: Alisar Notetaker


Marketplace > Ithaca College > Language > 14900 > FUNDAMENTALS OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION CMST 14900
Alisar Notetaker
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MID TERM NOTES (SPRING 2016) Chapter 1: - Three communication models (linear, interactive and transactional) - Interpersonal Communication -Interpersonal Communication Competence -Online co...
Fundamentals of Interpersonal communication
Ozge heck
Study Guide
communication, Interpersonal, competence, online, social, Media, self, Awareness, Concept, Esteem, discrepancy, Theory, face, AST, penetration, johari, disclosing, perception, FAE, Fundamental, attribution, Error, SSB, bias, halo, horn, Culture, g
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alisar Notetaker on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 14900 at Ithaca College taught by Ozge heck in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Interpersonal communication in Language at Ithaca College.




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Date Created: 02/28/16
FUNDAMENTALS OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION WEEK I COMMUNICATION: - How we create and exchange messages with others. - As defined by the National Communication Association. “Is the process through which people use messages to generate meanings within and across contexts, cultures, channels, and media”. Importance of communication? - It determines our relationship outcomes. - By understanding what communication is and how we communicate we can improve our own decision making and the communication that flows from these decisions. CHALLENGES FACE IN COMMUNICATING: 1. Stuttering 2. Stage fright/performance anxiety 3. Repetition of certain words 4. Accents 5. Dynamic of the group – overpowering/shy, (personality), connections with others. 6. Commitment level – lack of commitment 7. Language barrier. 8. Using media 9. Interruptions 10. Language 11. Dynamic/familiarity 12. Personal characteristics 13. Body language- eye contact 14. Confidence 15. Tone 16. Speech/hearing impairment WEEK II TYPES OF COMMUNICATION MODELS LINEAR MODEL OF COMMUNICATION (1) - The linear model views communication as a one-way or linear process in which the speaker speaks and the listener listens. - Laswell’s (1948) model was based on the five questions below, which effectively describe how communication works. 1 INTERACTIVE COMMUNICATION MODEL (2) - Was developed by Schramm (1954). - Process involving senders and receivers but transmission is influenced by two additional factors: feedback and fields of experience. - Feedback from the receiver and their acknowledgement of the message. - Fields of experience: the beliefs, attitudes, values, language barriers, and experiences that each participant brings to a communication event. o People with similar fields of experience more likely to understand each other. - Authority doesn’t necessarily matter. TRANSACTIONAL COMMUNICATION MODEL (3) - Suggests that communication is fundamentally multidirectional. - Each participant equally influences the communication behavior of the participants. (Miller & Steinberg, 1975). - The transactional model shows that the elements in communication are interdependent (both parties contribute to the meaning). - Each person in the communication act is both a speaker and a listener, and can be simultaneously sending and receiving messages. - Communication is a transaction when each person plays an active role as communicators - It is an ongoing process. You are changing, the people with whom you are communicating are changing, and your environment is also continually changing as well. - Each person in the communication process reacts depending on factors such as their background, prior experiences, attitudes, cultural beliefs and self-esteem. 1 Table 1.1 Communication Models MODEL EXAMPLES STRENGTH WEAKNESS Linear o Text and instant o Simple and o Doesn’t adequately messaging, straightforward describe most face to face email, wall or phone conversations. posts, scripted o The main flaw in the public speeches. linear model is that it o TV/Radio depicts communication as message, a one-way process where Lecturer & speakers only speak and Students, Visual never listen. It also audio & implies that listeners receiver. listen and never speak or send messages. Interactive o Classroom o Captures a broad o Neglects the active role instruction, variety of that receivers often play group communication in constructing meanings. presentations, forms team coworker meetings Transactional o Any encounter o Intuitively captures o Doesn’t apply to many (most what most people forms of online commonly face- think of as communication, such as to face) in interpersonal email, Facebook posts which you and communication and text messaging. others jointly create communication meaning. Similarities: o No less than 2 people. o Communicate a message. o Always a channel. o These 3 models represent an evolution of thought regarding the nature of communication, from a relatively simplistic depiction of communication as a linear process to one that views communication as a complicated process that is mutually crafted. Interpersonal Communication: o Dynamic form of communication between two (or more) people in which the messages exchanged significantly influence their thoughts, emotions, behaviors, and relationships. o Is dynamic, most often transactional, primarily dyadic (involves pairs of people, or dyads) & creates impact. o When we focus on our similarities with someone we have an I-Thou relationship. o When we focus on our differences we have an I-It relationship (you regard people as “objects which we observe, that are there for our use and exploitation” (Buber, 1965, p.24) Principles of Interpersonal Communication 1. Conveys content and relationship information – Meta-communication is communication about communication. – E.g. “I actually was joking when I sent you that text-message” 2. Can be intentional or unintentional 3. Is irreversible 4. Is dynamic 5. Is intertwined with ethics and moral principles • Relationship information primarily happens with nonverbal cues: vocal tone, pitch, volume; facial expressions and eye contact, hand gestures, position in relation to the listener, and posture. • Relationship information strongly influences how people interpret content information. Interpersonal Communication is irreversible • Each interpersonal interaction we have shapes our future communication. Before expressing a potentially hurtful thought, consider what outcomes you are setting in motion. • Activity: Were there times when you said, “I wish I could take that back”? Can apologies help? What makes an apology more or less effective? MOTIVES FOR INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: 1. Physical 2. Safety 3. Social 4. Self-esteem 5. Self-actualization INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION FULFILLS THREE TYPES OF GOALS: 1. Self-presentation goals=> • Presenting yourself in a certain way you want others to see you 2. Instrumental goals • Practical aims you want to achieve through your interpersonal encounter 3. Relationship goals • Building, maintaining, or terminating bonds Research in Interpersonal Communication • Research (What characteristic of an online message makes it a ‘flame’?) • Theory • Qualitative approaches • Quantitative approaches • Hypotheses What Is Interpersonal Communication Competence? Interpersonal communication competence: consistently communicating in ways that are appropriate, effective, and ethical. Who is your role model for a competent communicator? Understanding Competence: • Communication skills are repeatable goal-directed behaviors and behavioral patterns that you routinely practice in your interpersonal encounters and relationships. • Appropriateness is the degree to which your communication matches situational, relational, and cultural expectations. •We judge how appropriate our communication is through self-monitoring. •High self-monitors follow expectations while low self-monitors “act like themselves.” Effectiveness: The ability to use communication to accomplish self-presentational, instrumental, and relational goals. Ethics is the set of moral principles that guide our behavior toward others. Improving Your Competence Online: Online Communication: refers to any interaction by means of social networking sites (such as Facebook), e-mail, text- or instant-messaging, Skype, chatrooms, and even massive multiplayer video games. 1. Choose the appropriate medium. 2. Don’t assume online communication is more efficient. 3. Presume posts are public. 4. Remember posts are permanent. 5. Practice creating drafts. Issues in Interpersonal Communication 1. Culture 2. Gender and sexual orientation 3. Online communication 4. The dark side of interpersonal relationships WEEK III THE COMPONENTS OF SELF & THE SOURCES OF SELF Self is made up of: • Self Awareness • Self Concept • Self Esteem SELF AWARENESS SELF CONCEPT ESTEEM - Is the ability to step outside - Is the overall perception of The overall value, positive or yourself; view yourself as a who you are. Your self- negative, that we assign to unique person distinct from concept is based on your ourselves. your surrounding beliefs, attitudes, and Self-awareness + self-concept= environment; and reflect on values you have about your Self-esteem your thoughts, feelings, and self. – You have a high or low behaviors. - Beliefs: Convictions that self-esteem based on - George Herbert Mead’s certain things are true how you evaluate (1934) - Attitudes: Evaluating yourself appraisals – Measuring up to your - Values: Enduring principles own standards that guide your – Improves when you interpersonal interactions reduce the discrepancies between your self and your ideal & ought selves EXAMPLES • Monitoring your own - Self-Concept: “I am a behaviors during an compassionate person” interpersonal encounter=> - Beliefs: I am always there your friend texts you saying for my friends. she failed an important exam - Attitudes: I feel happy -Self awareness of your when I help others. compassion - Values: Helping others • You compare yourself with should come before others (social comparison) in personal interests. the process of self- awareness— “this is what a good friend would do” Critical Self-Reflection Enhances Self-Awareness The understanding that your self drives your communication behavior. Asking yourself questions like: “How am I communicating?” or “How are my thoughts and feelings affecting my communication?” to improve your interpersonal communication. Self-concepts lead to self-fulfilling prophesies Future interactions that lead us to behave in ways that ensure the interaction unfolds as we predicted. – Could either bring positive or negative outcomes for the person. E.g. “I am highly skilled in communicating.”=>leads to a successful interview Self-discrepancy Theory Your self-esteem is determined by how you compare to two mental standards (Higgins, 1987): ideal self & ought self Ideal self: Characteristics that you want to possess based on your desires. Ought self: The person others wish and expect you to be. – The closer your ideal self is to your ought self the happier you feel (and vice versa) pg.42 Low Self-Esteem: A Vicious Cycle The Sources of Self Outside forces influence your view of self. – Gender – Family – Culture • Nationality • Ethnicity/race • Religion • Sexual orientation • Physical abilities Improving Your Self-Esteem: Reflective Activity Step 1: Assess your self-concept and make a list of the beliefs, attitudes, and values that make up your self-concept. Make sure your list has both positive and negative attributes. In reviewing the list you made do you see yourself positively or negatively? (self-esteem) Step 2: Next, analyze your ideal self. Who do you wish you were? Be sure to consider the physical, mental, emotional, material, and spiritual aspects of your desired self. Is this ideal attainable, or is it unrealistic? If it is attainable, what would you have to change to become this person? If you made these changes would you be satisfied with yourself, or would your expectations for yourself simply escalate further? Step 3: Third, analyze your ought self. Who do others want you to be? Can you ever become the person others expect? What would you have to do to become this person? If you did all of these things, would others be satisfied with you, or would their expectations escalate? Step 4: Fourth, revisit and refine your standards. This step requires intense, concentrated effort over a long period of time. If you find that your ideal and ought selves are realistic and attainable move to the fifth step described below. If they are unrealistic and unattainable, redefine these standards so that each can be attainable through sustained work. Step 5: Fifth, create an action plan for resolving any self-discrepancies. Map out the specific actions necessary to eventually attain your ideal and ought selves. Frame your new standards as a list of goals, and post them on your planner, cell phone, bedroom or kitchen to remind you of these goals. POSITIVES NEGATIVES 1. Friendly 1. Unfit 2. Knowledgeable 2. Stubborn 3. 3. Lazy 1. 2. Healthier person, with a healthier lifestyle. 3. Others (Parents)- want me to be healthy & happy with myself (internally/emotionally) and lead a happy life. Not to do things that makes me uncomfortable/unhappy/unhealthy. 4. Try to live a healthier lifestyle- in terms of diet, exercising more often, fixing sleeping pattern. 5. I’ve already begun this plan by signing up for personal fitness class (Twice a week), yoga (once a week), and removing all the junk in my dorm. Erving Goffman • Erving Goffman (1959) renowned sociologist known for his symbolic interaction perspective in his book The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. • He uses the imagery of the theatre to portray the importance of human and social action. Face • Whenever you communicate with others you present a public self-your face-that you want others to see and know (FACE- PUBLIC SELF). • Goffman • You have many faces based on the different contexts & relationships you enter. E.g. Parent, college student, co-worker, homeless shelter volunteer, etc. Mask: A mask is a public self designed to strategically veil your private self (Goffman, 1959). – People use masks for various reasons: E.g. Underestimating your abilities during a sporting tournament. SOCIAL PENETRATION THEORY - The social penetration theory proposes that, as relationships develop, interpersonal communication moves from relatively shallow, non-intimate levels to deeper, more intimate ones. The Relational Self • The Onion Metaphor: Revealing yourself to others involves peeling back or penetrating layers. • Irwin Altman and Dalmas Taylor (1973) first perceived self (your personality) as an “onion-skin structure” that consisted of a set of layers. Breadth & Depth of the Onion SELF-DISCLOSURE • Information about the self that a person communicates to others-thoughts, feelings, experiences (Wheeless & Grontz, 1976) • Plays a critical role in interpersonal communication & building relationships. WEEK 4 FORCES INFLUENCING PERCEPTION • Physiological states (e.g. hunger, illness, etc.) • Physical traits-first thing we perceive • Culture and co-culture (e.g. being American but also belonging to sub-groups: etc. based on personal interests, shared beliefs, etc. • Social roles (e.g. mother, project manager, friend, etc.) • Sex and Gender-1% of communication caused by gender • Personalities PERSONALITY: Individual’s characteristic way of thinking, feeling, and acting based on traits—enduring motives and impulses—that he or she possesses (McCrae & Costa, 2001). • Big 5 personality traits: – Openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism • We prioritize our own traits when perceiving others • Our evaluation of people positive or negative based on how we feel about our own traits. • Our perceptions of others are created using implicit personality theories-personal beliefs about different types of personalities and the ways in which traits cluster together (Bruner & Tguiri, 1954). Forming Impressions of Others Interpersonal impressions—mental pictures of who people are and how we feel about them (p.92). – We construct a gestalt, a general sense of a person that’s either positive or negative. – Ted Bundy incident (pg.93) – Where there any wrong (first) impressions that people may have, or have had, on you? Perceptual Phenomenon • Positive bias (halo effect) • Negative bias (horn effect) • Algebric Equation • Stereotyping • Egocentricism Positivity Bias: Halo Effect • Overall impression impacts your evaluations of that person's specific traits • Impression of celebrities. Since we perceive them as attractive, successful, and often likeable, we also tend to see them as intelligent, kind, and funny. ( Negative Effect: Horn Effect • If our first impression about a person is negative, we tend to ignore his positive characteristics and concentrate only on the negative ones. Algebric Equation • We continuously evaluate on incoming information. Adding and subtracting different values from each side. • Negative perceptions more influential than positive perceptions INTERPRETING INFORMATION • Interpretation-assigning meaning to the information that we selected and organized. – We often draw on some knowledge, known as schemata when interpreting interpersonal communication. – Schemata are mental structures that contain information defining the characteristics of various concepts, and how those characteristics are related to each other. – ^ sometimes schemata’s can be negative, since we have preconceived ideas of what things men or represent i.e. proposals, we have expectations of what should and shouldn’t be there. Attributions to Information Received Attribution, explanations for others’ comments or behaviors. How we answer the ‘why’ question in interpersonal encounters. e.g. Janet’s email to her professor (pg.80) – Internal attribution-based on character or personality – External attribution-factors unrelated to personal qualities Fundamental Attribution Error • The tendency to attribute others’ behaviors solely to internal causes rather than the social or environmental forces affecting them (Heider, 1958). Actor-observer effect: • The tendency of people to make external attributions regarding their own behaviors (Fiske & Taylor, 1991). – During family conflicts hurtful communication of family members are blamed rather than your own impolite remarks. Self-serving bias • Taking credit for a success by making an internal attribution (Fiske & Taylor, 1991) – A friend lends you her car, you believe this happened because of your persuasive skills. Uncertainty Reduction Theory • Assumes that during the initial phase of interaction with another person, your primary communication goal is to reduce your uncertainty about that person • You are attempting to discover information about the other person and reveal information about yourself (could use passive, active, & interactive strategies) Improving your perceptions of others • Empathy • World-mindedness • Perception-checking Empathy vs. Sympathy • Empathy: perspective-taking, seeing things from someone else’s vantage point without experiencing that person’s emotions • Sympathy: is an expression of support & experiencing that person’s emotions § Communicate your empathy to improve your interpersonal relationships. Skill Building • Avoid using “I know” messages: e.g. “I know just how you feel”, especially during death of a loved one. • Instead say: “I hope you are doing okay.” • Or share your own emotions regarding this situation: “I feel terrible that you are going through this. World-mindedness • Acceptance of and respect towards other cultures’ beliefs, values, and customs (Hammer, Bennett, & Wiseman, 2003) 1. Accept interpersonal communication as aspects of your (and other’s) culture 2. Avoid evaluating other’s culture as better or worse than your own 3. Treat people from different cultures with respect Ethnocentricism • Opposite of world-mindedness. The belief that one’s own cultural beliefs, attitudes, values, and practices are superior to those of others. – Believing that your own culture is the center of everything and the standard against which all other cultures should be judged. Perception-Checking • A five step process in which you apply all that you’ve learned in this chapter to your perception of others. 1. Check your punctuation 2. Check your knowledge 3. Check your attribution 4. Check perceptual influences 5. Check your impressions WEEK 5 EMOTIONS Five key features of emotion: 1. Interpretation of an event’s meaning 2. Becoming physiologically aroused 3. Labeling the experience as emotional 4. Managing emotions 5. Communicating through emotional displays & disclosures Emotion: • Emotions are not just internally felt but are expressed through body language, gestures, facial expressions, and other physical behaviors. Emotion sharing: • Sharing your emotions with others can create strong bonds & weave a socially intimate network. • Can lead to an emotional contagion-when the experience of the emotion rapidly spreads (can be both positive and negative). Feeling and Mood: • Feelings: short-term emotional reactions to events that generate only a limited arousal & no trigger to manage experience – E.g. A stranger smiling at you causes you to feel flattered. • Moods: low-intensity states-such as boredom, contentment, grouchiness- that are not caused by particular events and last longer than feelings or emotions – People in good moods are more likely to form positive impressions of others (Chart from Huffington post) Blended emotions: • When an event triggers two or more primary emotions simultaneously. • “Jealousy is a blended emotion: you feel anger, fear, and sadness” • There can be variations in emotions across cultures (e.g. Chinese culture has two primary emotions: shame and sad love) Forces Shaping Emotion: • Culture, gender, and personality affect emotion. • Culture: How we express our emotions change across cultures. • Display rules-the socially desirable and appropriate forms of emotion management that are agreed by a given culture Gender differences in expressing emotions • Women experience more sadness, fear, shame, and guilt than men. • Men experience more anger and other hostile emotions (Fischer et. als. 2004) – These differences are based on how men and women orient to interpersonal relationships (Brody & Hall, 2000) • Men and women experience these emotions with equal intensity. Personality has big impact on our emotions 3 personality traits: extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism strongly influence how we communicate our emotions – High-extraversion people experience positive emotions. – High-agreeable people are happier in general – High-neurotic people experience more frequent negative emotions EMOTIONAL IDENTIFICATION EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION OF EMOTIONS • Before you can communication emotions effectively, it’s important to identify what you feel. Sometimes this can be difficult, since people can be alienated from their emotions, or maybe not be able to identify what you are feeling. • Sometimes our emotions are a mix of feelings, and requires us to sort out our mix of emotions. If you make an effort to recognize the existence of the emotions allows you to tune into yourself, and communicate accurately to others what you are experiencing. • It helps to identify the primary emotion- by identifying the one that is dominant.


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