PSYCH 2010, EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE
PSYCH 2010, EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE Psych 2010-004
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by azz0018 Notetaker on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 2010-004 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Frank Weathers in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see introduction to psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
CHAPTER 1 Key terms: Structuralism: a school of psychology based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and to investigate how these elements are related Functionalism: a school of psychology based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure William James: argued that the structuralists' approach missed the real nature of conscious experience Stream of consciousness: William James name for the flow of thoughts Sigmund Freud: treated people troubled by psychological problems such as irrational fears, obsessions, and anxieties with an innovative procedure he called psychoanalysis Unconscious / unconscious determinants of behavior: according to Freud, the unconscious contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior John B. Skinner: insisted that they could not be studied scientifically; if the stimulus of food is followed by the response of eating, we can fully describe what is happening without making any guesses about whether the animals is experiencing hunger; environmental factors mold behavior Fundamental principle of behavior: Organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes and they tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomes Free will: an illusion Carl Rogers: argued that human behavior is governed primarily by each individual's sense of self, or "selfconcept"which animals presumably lack Abraham Maslow: asserted that people have a basic need to continue to evolve as human beings and to fulfill their potentials Humanism, optimistic view of human nature: theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth Clinical psychology: the branch of psychology concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders Cognition, cognitive perspective: refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge Biological perspective: maintain that much of human and animal behavior can be explained in terms of the bodily structures and biochemical processes that allow organisms to behave Evolutionary psychology: examines behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive value for members of species over the course of many generations Positive psychology movement: uses theory and research to better understand the positive, adaptive, creative, and fulfilling aspects of human existence Modern definition of psychology: science that studies behavior and the physiological and cognitive processes that underlie behavior, and it is the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems 7 unifying themes of psychology: a. Psychology is empirical b. Psychology is theoretically diverse c. Psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context d. Behavior is determined by multiple causes e. Behavior is shaped by cultural heritage f. Heredity and environment jointly influence behavior g. People's experience of the world is highly subjective CHAPTER 2 Key terms: Scientific approach: assumes that events are governed by some lawful order Goals of the scientific enterprise a. Measurement and description: science's commitment to observation requires that researchers figure out a way to measure the phenomenon under study b. Understanding and prediction: Scientist believe that they understand events when they can explain the reasons for their occurrence c. Application and control: scientist hope that the information they gather will be of some practical value in helping to solve everyday problems Hypothesis: a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables Theory: system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations Operational definition: actions or operations that will be used to measure or control a variable Participants: persons or animals whose behavior is systematically observed in a study Data collection techniques in psychology: procedures for making empirical observations and measurements a. Direct observation: observers are trained to watch and record behavior as objectively and precisely as possible. They may use some instrumentation, such as a stopwatch or video recorder b. Questionnaire: subjects are administered a series of written questions designed to obtain information about attitudes, opinions and specific aspects of their behavior c. Interview: a facetoface dialogue is conducted to obtain information about specific aspects of a subject's behavior d. Psychological test: subjects are administered a standardized measure to obtain a sample of their behavior. Tests are usually used to assess mental abilities or personality traits e. Psychological recording: an instrument is used to monitor and record a specific physiological process in a subject. f. Archival records: the researcher analyzes existing institutional records, such as census, economic, medical, legal, educational and business records Journal: periodical that publishes technical and scholarly material, usually in a narrowly defined area of inquiry Peer review process: scientist use this process to determine whether studies merit publication in a technical journal Research methods: consist of differing approaches to the observation, measurement, manipulation and control of variables in empirical studies Experiment: research method in which the investigator manipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes whether any changes occur in a second variable as a result Independent variable: condition or event that an experimenter varies in order to see its impact on another variable Dependent variable: variable that is thought to be affected by manipulation of the independent variable Experimental group: consist of the subjects who receive some special treatment in regard to the independent variable Control group: consist of similar subjects who do not receive the special treatment given to the experimental group Extraneous variables: any variable other than the independent variable that seem likely to influence the dependent variable in a specific study Confounding: occurs when two variables are linked in a way that makes it difficult to sort out their specific effects Random assignment: occurs when all subjects have an equal chance of being assigned to any group or condition in the study Correlation: exists when two variables are related to each other a. Positive: correlation indicates that two variables covary in the same direction b. Negative: indicates that two variables covary in the opposite directions Correlation coefficient: numerical index of the degree of relationship between two variables Reactivity: occurs when a subject's behavior is altered by the presence of an observer Case studies: an indepth investigation of an individual subject Surveys: researchers use questionnaires or interviews to gather information about specific aspects of participants' background, attitudes, beliefs, or behavior Replication: repetition of a study to see whether the earlier results are duplicated Metaanalysis: combines the statistical results of many studies of the same question, yielding an estimate of the size and consistency of a variable's effects Sampling bias: exists when a sample is not representative of the population from which it was drawn Placebo effects: occurs when participants' expectations lead them to experience some changes even though they receive empty, fake, or ineffectual treatment Distortions in selfreport data: Experimenter bias: occurs when a researcher's expectations or preferences about the outcome of a study influence the results obtained Doubleblind procedure: research strategy in which neither subjects nor experimenters know which subjects are in the experimental or control group Deception in psychology research: Ethical principle in psychology research (research with in humans): a. Must be voluntary b. Must not be harmful or dangerous c. Studies involving deception must include debriefing d. Right to privacy must be protected CHAPTER 3 Key terms: Neuron: individual cells in the nervous system that receive, integrate, and transmit information Soma: (cell body) contains the cell nucleus and much of the chemical machinery common to most cells Dendrites: parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information Axon: long, thin fiber that transmit signals away from the soma to other neurons or to muscles or glands Myelin sheath: insulating material that encases some axons Terminal buttons: small knobs that secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters Neurotransmitter: messengers that may activate neighboring neurons Synapse: junction where information is transmitted from one neuron to another Glia: cells found throughout the nervous systems that provide various types of support for neurons Resting potential: stable, negative charge when the cell is inactive Action potential: very brief shift in a neuron's electrical charge that travels along an axon Allornonelaw: neutral impulse Synaptic cleft: a microscopic gap between the terminal button of one neutron and the cell membrane of another neuron Presynaptic and postsynaptic neuron: chemicals that transmit information from one neuron to another Postsynaptic potential: voltage change at a receptor site on a postsynaptic cell membrane Peripheral nervous system: made up of all those nerves that lie outside the brain and spinal cord. a. Somatic nervous system: made up of nerves that connect to voluntary skeletal muscles and to sensory receptors i. Afferent nerve fibers: axons that carry information inward to the central nervous system from the periphery of the body ii. Efferent nerve fibers: axons that carry information outwards from the central nervous system to the periphery of the body b Autonomic nervous system: made up of nerves that connect to the heart, blood vessels, smooth muscles and glands i. Sympathetic divisions: branch of the autonomic nervous system that mobilizes the body's resources for emergencies ii. parasympathetic divisions: branch of the autonomic nervous system that generally conserves bodily resources Central nervous system: consist of the brain and the spinal cord a Spinal cord b Brain Hindbrain; includes the cerebellum and two structures found in the lower part of the brainstem: the medulla and the pons a Cerebellum: ("little brains") is a relatively large and deeply folded structure adjacent to the back surface of the brainstem b Medulla c Pons Midbrain: segment of the brainstem that lies between the hindbrain and the forebrain a Reticular formation: Forebrain: largest and most complex region of the brain, encompassing a variety of structures, including the Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Limbic system, and cerebrum a Thalamus: structure in the forebrain through which all sensory information (except smell) must pass to get to the cerebral cortex b Hypothalamus: regulation of basic biological needs c Limbic system: loosely connected network of structures located roughly along the border between the cerebral cortex and deeper subcortical areas i. Hippocampus: responsible for the consolidation of memories for factual information ii. Amygdala: role in learning of fear responses and other basic emotional responses b Cerebrum and cerebral cortex: convoluted outer layer of the cerebrum i. Cerebral hemispheres: right and left halves of the cerebrum ii. Corpus callosum: major structure that connects the two cerebral hemispheres iii. Occipital lobe: visual signals are sent iv. Parietal lobe: registers the sense of touch v. Temporal lobe: devoted to auditory processing vi. Frontal lobe: largest lobe in the brain; principal areas that control the movement of muscles 1. Prefrontal cortex: Mirror neurons: neurons that are activated by performing an action or by seeing another monkey or person perform the same action Brain plasticity and neurogenesis: formation of new neurons Splitbrain surgery and hemispheric specialization: bundle of fibers that connect the cerebral hemispheres is cut to reduce the severity of epileptic seizure Endocrine system: consist of glands that secrete chemicals into the bloodstream that help control bodily functioning Hormones: chemical substances released by the endocrine glands Chromosomes: molecules that carry genetic information DNA: Genes: DNA segments that serve as the key functional units in hereditary transmission Family studies: researchers assess hereditary influence by examining blood relatives to see how much they resemble one another on a specific trait Twin Studies: researchers assess hereditary influence by comparing the resemblance of identical twins and fraternal twins with respect to a trait Adoption studies: assess hereditary influence by examining the resemblance between adopted children and both their biological and their adoptive parents Epigenetics: the study of heritable changes in gene expression that do not involve modifications to the DNA sequence Evolutionary fitness: reproductive success of an individual organism relative to the average reproductive success in the population Natural selection: posits that heritable characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations and thus they come to be "selected" over time Adaption: inherited characteristic that increased in a population because it helped solve a problem of survival or reproduction during the time it emerged Behavioral adaptions: change in behavior in order to adapt to a living condition
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