PSYCH 2010, EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE
PSYCH 2010, EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE Psych 2010-004
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by azz0018 Notetaker on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 2010-004 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Frank Weathers in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see introduction to psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
CHAPTER 4: Key learning goals on pages 138139 review all but the personal application (4.14) and critical thinking application (4.15). Although these last two will not be tested on the exam, they provide valuable information you might want to pursue on your own. Key terms and individuals – these are roughly in the order in which they appear in the chapter. Sensation: stimulation of sense organs Perception: selection, organization and interpretation of sensory input Light waves (amplitude and wavelength): amplitude height; wavelength distance between peaks The eye (cornea, pupil, iris, lens, retina, fovea, optic nerve, optic disk) Cornea: light enters through this transparent "window" at the front Pupil: opening in the center of the iris that helps regulate the amount of light passing into the rear chamber of the eye Lens: transparent eye structure that focuses the light rays falling on the retina Retina: neutral tissue lining the inside back surface of the eye; it absorbs light processes images and sends visual information to the brain Fovea: tiny spot in the center of the retina that contains only cones; visual acuity is greatest at this spot Retinal cells (bipolar, ganglion) Visual receptors (rods and cones) Rods: specialized visual receptors that play a key role in night vision and peripheral vision Cones: specialized visual receptors that play a key role in daylight vision and color vision Dark adaptation: the process in which the eyes become more sensitive to light in low illumination light adaptation: process in which the eyes become less sensitive to light in high illumination Receptive field of visual cell: retinal area that, when stimulated, affects the firing of the cell Left and right visual field Optic chiasm: point at which the axons from the inside half of each eye cross over and then project to the opposite half of the brain Lateral geniculate nucleus: 90% of the axons from the retinas synapse, visual signals are produces and then distributed to areas in the occipital lobe Primary visual cortex: visual signals from LGN Superior colliculus: the second visual pathway leaving the optic chiasm branches off to an area in the midbrain Feature detectors: neurons that respond selectively to very specific features of more complex stimuli Ventral (what) and dorsal (where) pathways Subtractive color mixing: works by removing some wavelengths of light, leaving less light than was originally there additive color mixing: works by superimposing lights, putting more light in the mixture than exists in any one light by itself Trichromatic theory of color vision: holds that the human eye has 3 types of receptors with differing sensitivities to different light wavelengths Color blindness: encompasses a variety of deficiencies in the ability to distinguish among colors Opponent process theory of color vision: holds that color perception depends on receptors that make antagonistic reponses to three pairs of colors Three types of cones: Blue, green and red Reversible figure: drawing that is compatible with two different interpretations that can shift back and forth Perceptual set: a readiness to perceive a stimulus in a particular way Feature analysis: process of detecting specific elements in visual input and assembling them into a more complex form Bottomup processing: progression from individual elements to the whole topdown processing: progression from the whole to the elements Gestalt principles figureground: dividing visual displays into figure and ground is a fundamental way in which people organize visual perceptions proximity: things that are near one another seem to belong together closure: fill in elements for completeness similarity: elements that are similar tend to be grouped together simplicity: viewers tend to organize elements in the simplest way possible continuity: viewers tend to see elements in ways that produce smooth continuation Perceptual hypothesis: an interference about what form could be responsible for a pattern of sensory stimulation Binocular cues: clues about distance based on the differing views of the two eyes retinal disparity: refer to the fact that objects within 25 feet project images to slightly different locations on the right and left retinas, so the right and left eyes see slightly different views of the object Monocular cues: clues about distance based on the image in either eye alone linear perspective: parallel lines that run away from the viewer seem to get closer together texture gradient: as distance increases, a texture gradually becomes denser and less distinct Interposition: the shapes of near objects overlap or mask those of more distant ones relative size: if separate objects are expected to be of the same size, the larger ones are seen as closer height in plane: near objects are low in visual field; more distant ones are higher up light and shadow: patters of light and dark suggest shadows that can create an impression of threedimensional forms Perceptual constancy: is a tendency to experience a stable perception in the face of continually changing sensory input Sound waves: Amplitude: greater the amplitude, the louder the sound percieved frequency: wavelength of sounds; higher frequencies are perceived as having higher pitch purity: External ear: consist mainly of the pinna, a sound collecting cone Middle ear: the vibrations of the eardrum are transmitted inward by a mechanical chain made up of the 3 tiniest bones in your body (hammer, anvil, stirrup) collectively known as the ossicles Inner ear: oval window: sound enters the cochlea through this, which is vibrated by the ossicles cochlea: fluidfilled, coiled tunnel that contains the receptors for hearing basilar membrane: runs the length of the spiraled cochlea, holds the auditory receptors, called hair cells Auditory nerve: Place theory : holds that perception of pitch corresponds to the vibration of different portion s, or place, along the basilar membrane frequency theory: holds that perception of pitch corresponds to the rate, or frequency, at ehich the entire basilar membrane vibrates Four primary tastes: sweet, sour, bitter and salty Olfactory cilia: the receptors for smell; hair like structures located in the upper portion olfactory bulb: Olfactory receptors have axons that synapse with cells in the olfactory bulb Physical stimuli for touch: consist of mechanical, thermal and chemical energy that comes into contact with the skin Fast pathways for pain: registers localized pain and relays it to the cortex in a fraction of a second (cut your finger) slow pathways for pain: routed through the limbic system, that lags a second or two behind the fast system Gatecontrol theory of pain: holds that incoming pain must pass though a "gate" in the spinal cord that can be closed, thus blocking ascending pain signals Concept checks – these appear occasionally throughout the chapter. Try to answer them, and then check your answers in Appendix A. Reality checks – these also appear occasionally throughout the chapter. Look them over and make sure you clear up any misconceptions you may have about psychology. Figures – try to get the main points from the ones listed below. These are good summaries of the corresponding section of the chapter. Figure 4.1 Figure 4.2 Figure 4.4 Figure 4.5 Figure 4.6 Figure 4.11 Figure 4.15 Figure 4.17 Figure 4.21 Figure 4.29 Figure 4.33 Chapter practice tests – these appear in Appendix A. These allow you to test your knowledge and get a good sense of what questions on the actual test will look like. CHAPTER 6: Key learning goals on pages 212213 review all but the personal applications (6.15 and 6.16) and critical thinking application (6.17). Although these will not be tested on the exam, they provide valuable information you might want to pursue on your own. Key terms and individuals – these are roughly in the order in which they appear in the chapter. Pavlov and discovery of psychic reflexes: stumbled on to psychic reflexes when studying the role of saliva in the digestive processes of dogs; how stimulusresponse associations are formed by events in an organism's environment Classical conditioning: a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus Unconditioned stimulus (US): stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning; unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning UR: Conditioned stimulus (CS): previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response; is an learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioning CR: Basic processes in classical conditioning Acquisition: refers to the initial stage of learning a new response tendency Extinction: gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response tendency Spontaneous recovery: reappearance of an extinguished response after a period of nonexposure to the conditioned stimulus Stimulus generalization: occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus Stimulus discrimination: occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus Higherorder conditioning: a conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus Operant conditioning: a form of learning in which voluntary responses come to be controlled by their consequences Skinner: created a prototype experimental procedure that has been repeated thousands of times Skinner box: small enclosure in which an animal can make a specific response that is systematically recorded while the consequences of the response are controlled cumulative recorder: creates a graphic record of responding and reinforcement in a skinner box as a function of time Reinforcement contingencies: circumstances or rules that determine whether responses lead to the presentation of renforcers Basic processes in operant conditioning Acquisition and shaping: reinforcement of closer and closer approximation of a desired response Extinction: gradual weakening and disappearance of a response tendency because the response is no longer followed by reinforcment Resistance to extinction: occurs when an organism continues to make a response after delivery of the reinforcer for it has been terminated Stimulus control generalization: responding to new stimulus as if it were the original Discrimination: are cues that influence operant behavior by indicating the probably consequences of a response Reinforcement Definition Primary: events that are inherently reinforcing because they satisfy biological needs secondary: events that acquire reinforcing qualities by being associated with primary reinforcers Schedules of reinforcement: specific pattern of presentation of reinforcers over time Continuous: every instance of designated response is reinforced intermittent or partial: occurs when a designated response is reinforced only some of the time Four types of intermittent/partial schedules (FR, FI, VR, VI) Fixedration: reinforcer is given a fixed number of nonreinforced responses variableration: the reinforcer is given after a variable number of nonreinforced responses fixedinterval: the reinforcer is given for the first response that occurs after a fixed time interval has elapsed variableinerval: reinforcer is given for the first response after a variable time interval has elapsed Effects of variable vs. fixed schedules on response rates and resistance to extinction Positive reinforcement: occurs when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the presentation of a reward negative reinforcement: occurs when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the removal of an aversive stimulus Escape learning: organism acquires a response that decreases or ends some aversive stimulation avoidance learning: organism acquires a response that prevents some aversive stimulation from occurring Punishment: occurs when an event following a response weaken the tendency to make that response Biological constraints on conditioning Conditioned taste aversion: Preparedness and phobias: involves speciesspecific predisposition to be conditioned in certain ways and not others Cognitive processes in conditioning Signal relations Noncontingent reinforcement and superstition Observational learning: occurs when an organism's responding is influenced by the observation of others, who are called models. Basic processes in observational learning Attention: to learn through observation, you must pay attention to another person's behavior and its consequences Retention: you may not have occasion to use an observed response for weeks, months, or even years. Thus, you must store a mental representation of what you have witnessed in your memory Reproduction: enacting a modeled response depends on your ability to reproduce the response by converting your stored mental images into overt behavior Motivation: You are unlikely to reproduce an observed response unless you are motivated to do so Observational learning and media violence Concept checks – these appear occasionally throughout the chapter. Try to answer them, and then check your answers in Appendix A. Reality checks – these also appear occasionally throughout the chapter. Look them over and make sure you clear up any misconceptions you may have about psychology. Figures and Tables – try to get the main points from the ones listed below. These are good summaries of the corresponding section of the chapter. Figure 6.2 Figure 6.6 Figure 6.8 Figure 6.9 Table 6.1 Figure 6.10 Figure 6.11 Figure 6.12 Figure 6.13 Figure 6.14 Chapter practice tests – these appear in Appendix A. These allow you to test your knowledge and get a good sense of what questions on the actual test will look like. CHAPTER 7: Key terms and individuals – these are roughly in the order in which they appear in the chapter. Encoding: involves forming a memory code The role of attention: focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events Levels of processing: proposes that deeper levels of processing results in longerlasting memory codes structural encoding: relatively shallow processing that emphasizes the physical structure of the stimulus phonemic encoding: emphasizes what a word sounds like semantic encoding: emphasizes the meaning of a verbal input ; thinking about it Enriching encoding: structural, phonemic, and semantic encoding are not the only process involved in forming memory codes elaboration: linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding visual imagery: the creation of visual images to represent the words to be remembered motivation to remember: people are more likely to exert extra effort to attend to and organize information in ways that facilitate future recall Storage: involves maintaining encoded information in memory over time Sensory memory: preserves information in its original sensory form for a brief time, usually only a fraction of a second Shortterm memory: is a limitedcapacity store that can maintain unrehearsed information for up to about 20 seconds durability of storage (rehearsal, decay, interference):lost in 1020 seconds, the loss of information from shortterm memory was attributed purely to timerelated decay of memory traces, but followup research showed that interference from competing material also contributes capacity of storage (seven vs. four) people could recall only about 7 items in tasks that require the use of STM; capacity of STM is four plus or minus one chunking: a group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit working memory (phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, central executive, episodic buffer): a modular system for temporary storage and manipulation of information Longterm memory: is an unlimited capacity store that can hold information over lengthy periods of time Retrieval: involves recovering information from memory stores Retrieval cues: stimuli that help gain access to memorieshints, related information or partial recollection Context cues: trying to recall an event by putting yourself back in the context in which it occurred Schemas: organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or event abstracted from pervious experience with the object or event Reconstructing memories Misinformation effect: occurs when participants' recall of an event they witnessed is altered by introducing misleading postevent information Source monitoring error: occurs when a memory derived from one source is misattributed to another source Forgetting: when memory lapses Ebbinghaus’s forgetting curve: graphs retention and forgetting over time Measures of forgetting/retention: proportion of material retained recall: requires participants to reproduce information on their own without any cues recognition: retention requires participants to select previously learned information from an array of options relearning: retention requires a participant to memorize information a second time to determine how much time or effort is saved by having learned it before Why we forget ineffective encoding: lack of attention decay: proposes that forgetting occurs because memory traces fade with time interference: proposes that people forget information because of competition from other material retroactive interference: occurs when new information impairs the retention of previously learned information proactive interference: occurs when previously learned information interferes with the retention of new information retrieval failure: people often remember things they were unable to recall at an earlier time encoding specificity hypothesis: the value of a retrieval cue depends on how well it corresponds to the memory code motivated forgetting (Freudian repression): The tendency to forget things one doesn't want to think about Repressed memory controversy: keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious Physiology of memory Amnesia: extensive memory loss retrograde: a person loses memories for events that occurred prior to the injury anterograde: a person loses memories for events that occur after the injury Hippocampus: responsible for the initial consolidation of memories Medial temporal lobe memory system: broader memory complex consolidation: hypothetical process involving the gradual conversion of information into durable memory codes stored in longterm memory Neural circuitry of memory localized neural circuits: unique, reusable pathways in the brain along which signals flow alterations in synaptic transmission: neurogenesis: the formation of new neuronsmay contribute to the sculpting of neutral circuits that underlie memory Systems and types of memory Declarative: handles factual information nondeclarative or procedural memory: houses memory for action, skills, conditioned responses and emotional memories Semantic : contains general knowledge that is not tied to the time when the information was learned episodic memory: made up of chronological, or temporally dated, recollections of personal experiences Prospective: involves remembering to perform actions in the future retrospective memory: involves remembering events from the past or previously learned information Concept checks – these appear occasionally throughout the chapter. Try to answer them, and then check your answers in Appendix A. Reality checks – these also appear occasionally throughout the chapter. Look them over and make sure you clear up any misconceptions you may have about psychology. Figures – try to get the main points from the ones listed below. These are good summaries of the corresponding section of the chapter. Figure 7.3 Figure 7.4 Figure 7.5 Figure 7.6 Figure 7.7 Figure 7.9 Figure 7.10 Figure 7.12 Figure 7.13 Figure 7.14 Figure 7.15 Chapter practice tests – these appear in Appendix A. These allow you to test your knowledge and get a good sense of what questions on the actual test will look like.
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