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Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Mallory Ivy

Exam 2 Study Guide BSC 310

Mallory Ivy
GPA 3.82

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About this Document

These notecards are for Exam 2 in Dr. Olson's microbiology test. You are actually able to convert your printer to print directly onto index cards. the oddly numbered pages are the words/phrases on ...
Dr. Olson
Study Guide
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This 69 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mallory Ivy on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BSC 310 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Olson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 02/28/16
Respiration • Aerobic catabolism • Compound oxidized with O2 • Uses oxidative phosphorylation to produce ATP • Requires proton motive force (PMF) Substrate-Level Phosphorylation • ATP synthesized from energy-rich intermediates • [sugars] act as both electron donor and electron acceptor Glycolysis • breaks down glucose into pyruvate • anaerobic • 3 stages: o I and II present in all organism o III present in fermenting organisms only • Net gain= 2 ATP Glucose in Fermentation • If not glucose, sugars can be converted to glucose by isomerase enzymes and then fermented by glycolysis Fatty Acid Synthesis • Synthesized 2 carbons at a time using acyl carrier proteins (ACP) which holds growing fatty acid • Each C2 unit originates from malonate (C3) Which 2 bacteria’s heterolactic fermentation produces sauerkraut and pickles? Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc Which bacterium is involved in the production of swiss cheese? • Propionibacteriaceae Fermentation • Anaerobic catabolism • Organic compound= electron donor AND acceptor • Uses substrate level phosphorylation to produce ATP • If product is a fatty acid, more ATP can be made • It’s possible to ferment AA, purines, and pyrimidines which do not use glycolysis Aerobic respiration • Respiration with O2 as final electron acceptor Ferredoxin • Fe S2 2s an iron-sulfur containing protein that functions in electron transport Cytochrome • Proteins containing heme prosthetic groups • Can form complexes with other cytochromes or with Fe-S proteins Redox Enzymes that Participate in Electron Transport Chain • Flavoproteins • Cytochromes • NADH dehydrogenases • Fe-S proteins (Fe2S2= ferredoxin) Reduction Potential • Difference between two points on redox tower Quinones (CoQ) • Non-protein electron carriers involved in ETC • Hydrophobic • Can accept 2 electrons and 2 protons but only transfers the two electrons “Dissociation of Water” • Oxygen pulls electron from H so hydrogen is slightly positively charged while oxygen is slightly negative 3 Characteristics of ALL Electron Carriers • Arranged in order of increasingly more posivie (E ) 01 reduction potential • Alternate electron-only and electron-plus-proton carriers • Generation of PMF Oxidative Phosphorylation • ATP synthesis that is driven by PMF produced during respiration How Does ATPase Work? • F 1and F 0are rotary motors • Proton move through F cau0ing rotation of C proteins generating torque in F t1rough rotation of gamma- episolon subunits and results in conformational change of beta subunits, allowing them to bind ADP + phosphate. Return to original conformation produces ATP. • Synthesis= oxidative phosphorylation if PMF originates from respiration or photophosphorylation if it originates from photosynthesis Photophosphorylation • ATP synthesis powered by PMF generated by photosynthesis ATP Synthase (ATPase) • 2 Components: multi-protein (5 subunits) cytoplasmic complex called F th1t carries out ATP synthesis (α,β,γ,δ,ε) and a membrane-integrated (3 subunits) protein component called F res0onsible for ion translation (C 12 ch has 12 subunits, b 2 which has 2 subunits, a) • found in all organisms • 3 to 4 protons per ATP • early origin; highly conserved across all domains ATPase in organisms with ETC versus those without • with ETC: functions bi-directionally • without ETC: functions uni-directionally; only breaks down ATP so that is can restore PMF Products of Citric Acid Cycle • 1 pyruvateà 3 CO2, 4 NADH, 1 FADH2, and 1 GTP Process/Direction of Number of Carbons Through Citric Acid Cycle C 2C àC 6C àC 5 4 2 ATP Produced in Fermentation vs. Aerobic Respiration • Fermentation= 2 ATP • Aerobic Respiration= 38 ATP Citric Acid Cycle has both bio_________ and bio___________ roles • Energy; synthetic Glycoxylate Cycle • Variation of CAC utilized when oxaloactetate or other intermediates are siphoned off for other purposes • Generates malate (precursor of oxaloacetate) Importance of Oxaloacetate • Binds to acetyl-CoA to begin CAC Catabolic Processes of Chemoorganotrophs and Chemolithotrophs • Chemoorganotrophsà organic o Fermentation o Aerobic and anaerobic respiration • Chemolithotrophsà inorganic o Aerobic and anaerobic respiration Anaerobic Respiration • Uses NO (re3uctionà NO or N ), Fe 2- 2 3+ 2+ 2- 2- (ReductionàFe ), SO à H S, CO 4à CH or2 3 4 acetate and some organic compounds • Less energy released than with aerobic Chemolithotrophy • Organisms that use inorganic chemicals as electron 2+ donors (e.g. H S2 , 2e , NH ) 3 • Typically aerobic but some anaerobic • Uses ETC and PMF (thus uses ATPase bi- directionally) • Autotrophic for the most part; use CO for c2rbon source Photoautotrophs • Use ATP for assimilation of CO2 for biosynthesis (whereas photoheterotrophs utilize ATP for assimilation of organic carbon) Microbial metabolic diversity relies on _______ for energy conservation • ETC/ PMF for energy conservation Photophosphorylation • Light-mediated ATP synthesis Activated Forms of Glucose • Used to synthesize polysaccharides • Uridine diphosphoglucose (UDPG) or adenosine diphosphoglucose (ADPG) o UDPG- precursor for cell wall o ADPG- precursor for glycogen


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