BIO 1230 Test #2 Study Guide
BIO 1230 Test #2 Study Guide BIO 123
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Abby Joannes on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 123 at Clemson University taught by Professor Minor in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 145 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Human Biology in Biology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
Exam 2 Study Guide Biology 1230 – S16 Terms to Understand • Mitosis: duplication and division of genetic material to make identical daughter cells. Starts with one cell, makes two identical cells • Meiosis: specialized cell division reduces chromosome number to make gametes for reproduction • Cytokinesis: the division of the cytoplasm and organelles into two daughter cells. Usually occurs during telophase • Diploid: condition of having two sets of chromosomes in each cell. • Haploid: condition of having one set of chromosomes (egg & sperm) • Gene/locus: segment of DNA located in a specific site on a specific chromosome that contains information for producing a particular protein • Allele: an alternative form of a gene located on a specific site of a specific chromosome. One allele is inherited from the mother and the other from the father. • Chromatin: DNA in a dispersed state. Found during interphase. • Chromosome: DNA and specialized proteins. Found in prophase first. • Homologous chromosome/pair: carries genes for the same traits. One member of each pair was inherited from the mother and the other from the father • Gamete: reproductive cell (egg and sperm) that contains only one copy of each chromosome • Parent cell: the original cell • Daughter cell: the cell that is produced from the parent cell • Autosome: 22 pairs of chromosomes that determine the expression of most characteristics of a person • Sex chromosome: X & Y chromosomes. Pair that determines gender Diagrams Mitosis Meiosis Key Concepts: • When is meiosis and mitosis used during the human life cycle? o Meiosis: used only during reproduction to reduce the amount of genetic material o Mitosis: used for growth, replace, and repair o Fundamental differences: Mitosis makes 2 cells, exact genetic makeup, one division, Homologous chromosomes. Meiosis makes 4 cells, haploid division, two divisions. • What are the differences between chromatin, chromosomes, sister chromatids, homologous chromosome? o Chromatin: untangled and unfolded DNA o Chromosomes: condensed DNA o Sister Chromatids: ½ of the duplicated chromosome. ONLY AFTER REPLICATION o Homologous chromosomes: where one chromatid comes from mother and the other comes from the father. Don’t have to be identical but share the same genes in the same order. Alleles may be different though. • Given the number of chromosomes in an organism, be able to determine the haploid number or diploid number. o Haploid = N, Diploid = 2N o A human has 23 chromosomes, the haploid number would be 23, the diploid number would be 46. • Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis. • What is spermatogenesis and oogenesis? o Spermatogenesis: production of sperm o Oogenesis: production of ova. Only time the egg finishes meiosis is after penetration of sperm • Female reproductive structures to know (ID and function): ovaries, oviducts, uterus, cervix, vagina, clitoris, labium majora and minora o Ovaries: production of egg, production of estrogen and progesterone o Oviducts (fallopian tubes): conduit for egg movement from ovary to uterus, site of fertilization. Ectopic pregnancies occur if implantation occurs here o Uterus: sit of egg implantation and embryo development o Cervix: opening to uterus, normally plugged with mucus o Vagina: allows for internal fertilization, very acidic environment to protect the uterus o Clitoris: developmentally analogous to the penis with many nerve endings, much of sexual arousal centered here. o Labium majora: outer folds around vagina covered with hair o Labium minora: inner folds around vagina, continuous up over clitoris • Male reproductive structures to know (ID and function): testes, scrotum, epididymis, vas deferens, prostate, seminal vesicles, urethra, penis, foreskin o Testes: site of spermatogenesis in the seminiferous tubules, sperm in constant production under the influence of testosterone or inhibin o Scrotum: loose skin covering around testes and epididymis, muscles allow it to retract and expand to keep testes slightly below body temperature for sperm production o Epididymis: sperm mature here, grow tails and streamline to swim. Stored here until ejaculation o Vas deferens: long tube that conducts sperm from epididymis to urethra o Prostate: encircles urethra and vas deferens where they join the urethra, commonly enlarges with age, produces components of semen o Seminal vesicles: produce components of semen to nourish sperm o Urethra: conduit to outside of the body for both urinary and reproductive systems o Penis: for internal fertilization, surrounds urethra, erectile tissue allows enlargement for penetration of the female o Foreskin: often removed in our culture, covers the glans penis • Describe the types of contraceptives & which ones protect against STDs. o Abstinence: refraining from sex o Sterilization • Vasectomy (male) • Tubal ligation (female) o Hormonal Methods • Combination estrogen and progesterone • Pill • Injection • Vaginal ring • Patch • Progesterone only • Minipill • Injection (Depo-Provera) • IUD o Barrier methods • Diaphragm • Cervical Cap • Male Condom (only contraceptive method that prevents STDs) • Female condom • Spermacide o Fertility Awareness o Morning-after pill • STDs – what can be cured vs what can’t. o Bacterial Infections • Chlamydia: discharge, itching, painful urination • Gonorrhea: discharge, puss, PID • Syphilis: ulcers in early stages, fatal if not treated • THESE CAN BE CURED WITH ANTIBIOTICS o Virus • Herpes: recurring symptoms of small blisters • Genital Warts: painless growths on genitalia • AIDS and HIV • THESE CANNOT BE CURED • Describe menstrual regulation and sperm production. o Menstrual regulation • Anterior pituitary gland, inside the ovaries, and the uterus all tell the body what is going on and determines the cycle • Day 0: start of cycle • Hormones: progesterone & estrogen • LH & FSH highest during ovulation • Estrogen & progesterone are the lowest during menstruation • Sperm Production o o Inhibin is produced when sperm is being over produced • Describe Stem Cells o Definition: undifferentiated cells that can divide continually and can be induced to differentiate into different cell types o Sources • Adult - most restricted, multipotent • Embryonic stem cells- pluripotent • Zygote – least restricted, totipotent o Controversy • Some people see cloning as unethical o Uses • Can be altered genetically and actually “cure” genetic defects • Cloning • Skin regeneration • Disease curing • Structure and function of DNA and RNA o • Who were Watson, Crick, Franklin, Chargaff, Wilkins and what did they have to do with the discovery of DNA? o Chargaff: finds that there are equal percentages of adenine and thymine, as well as guanine and cytosine in each DNA molecule (known as Chargaff’s Rule) o Franklin, Crick, Watson: structure of DNA and how it works. Franklin created the model, Watson stole it and fixed it up with Crick. • How is DNA copied? And why do we need to copy it? o H-bonds between A&T/C&G are broken to expose sugars that need to be paired with again. These parental strands make two daughter strands. o Nucleotides are “read” as the pattern for replication and code for proteins. • What is transcription and translation? o Transcription is the process from DNA to RNA. o RNA is then edited to mRNA o Translation is the process from mRNA to proteins • What are mRNA, tRNA, ribosomes, polymerases, ligases? o mRNA carries from RNA to the protein o tRNA helps with the translation process. tRNA comes after mRNA o Ribosomes are also needed in the translation process o Polymerases puts together either DNA or RNA o Ligases used in making recombinant DNA and seals the bandbone • What is a codon and anti-codon? How does this help with translation? o Codon is on the protein while the anti-codon matches with the codons from the RNA o RNA is translated using code to protein • What is RNA editing? How does this result in mRNA? o mRNA is translated into protein o Protein is the foundation of traits o RNA needs to be small and streamlined. Exons are kept, introns are in the way. When this process is finished, it is officially mRNA • What are DNA mutations? Would RNA mutations matter to a cell? Would DNA mutations in cells that don’t reproduce matter? o Changes in RNA do not effect the cell o DNA exons make the big differences • Define Biotechnology. What are some aspects of its use? What are some controversies with its use? o Definition: any use of technologies derived from the biological sciences for the betterment of the human condition o Can be used for many things such as: • Genetic engineering • Cloning • Stem cells • Cell and tissue culture • Bioengineering • What is gene sequencing and why is this useful? What are limitations of knowing sequences? o We don’t know what it does, just the sequence. • What are some things genetic testing can be used for? o Looking to see if somebody has a gene version where someone might have a disease. o Screen for specific gene products o Screen for changes in known gene sequences o Currently, we can be screened for ~900 genetic abnormalities • What is recombinant DNA? o Taking DNA from two different sources • What is a transgenic organism? o Organism that has recombinant DNA o Fundamentally changes the organism o Genetically modified organisms • What would we use Polymerase Chain Reaction for? o A way for making multiple copies of DNA • What would we use DNA fingerprinting for? o For identity science, tracing relatedness, solving crime • What are restriction endonucleases and what are they used for? o Molecular scissors o Cuts DNA • What is gel electrophoresis and what is it used for? o Allows us to look at DNA based on fragment size after cutting with Restriction endonucleases • What is transformation and what does it have to do with recombinant DNA? o Putting recombinant DNA into the organism • What is the Human Genome Project? How does ENCODE relate to the project now? o Human Genome Project was the attempt of gene sequencing, we wanted to know the complete order of DNA. (1995) o ENCODE is the new project where we are trying to figure out what all of the sequences actually do.
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