FILM 2120 Intro to Cinema Midterm 1 Review
FILM 2120 Intro to Cinema Midterm 1 Review FILM 2120
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kay Patel on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to FILM 2120 at University of Georgia taught by Dr. Seiving in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Cinema in Fine arts at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
Film Form the sum of all parts of the film, unified and given shape by patterns such as reputation and variation, story lines, and character traits Referential meaning the meaning depends on the spectators ability to identify specific items such as things or places already in the real world Explicit meaning an openly asserted meaning, can be used to describe the "point" of the film Implicit meaning normally said to be an interpreted meaning Symptomatic meaning understanding a film's implicit and explicit meanings as bearing traces of a particular set of social values revealed by ideology Evaluation making claim about the film's goodness and badness Shot a uninterrupted run of the camera to expose a series of frames, also called a take Scene a segment in a narrative film that takes place in one time and space or that uses cross cutting to show two or more simultaneous actions Pattern patterns of development create expectations Motif any significant repeated element that contributes to the overall form Variations changes, to notice one is to alert another Formal systems formal expectations are what makes us interested in watching a film and keep us interested, expectations are adjusted throughout the film Stylistic systems stylistic elements are ways the camera moves, use of music, arrangement of color in the frame Parallels cue us to compare two or more distinct elements by highlighting some similarity Narrative chain of events in cause and effect relationship occurring in time and space "Primitive cinema" examples: The Lonely Villa and Life of the American fireman old movies for a time silent films were enough to satisfy until they realized they needed a story D.W Griffith came up with the crosscutting idea the lonely villa Classic Hollywood Narrative basic components: exposition and enigmas, causality, motivation, goaloriented protagonist, and tight closure Exposition sets up character traits and important story information we need to follow along Enigmas things we wonder and question, when all enigmas are answered, the film ends Sets forth a question based on exposition Causality cause and effect, each scene builds on each other Episodic narrative when some events don't build off one another Ex. The Pumpkin Race (1908) Motivation avoids coincidence, justification given in the film for presence of an element Rule of thumb they are allowed to have one big coincidence at the start of the film, which often times serves as a catalyst Goaloriented protagonist usually behaves in an unambiguous and consistent way, few traits, character typically develops Ex. Jack in Speed The character arc character development of the goal oriented protagonist Ex. Jack's evolving attitude toward the hostages Dual plot line two plot lines are strongly linked, normally dominant and romantic Closure when the plot lines are tied up and all the enigmas are answered Plot explicitly presented diegetic events and added nondiegetic material (credits, nondiegetic music) What we see and hear Diegesis world inhabited by the characters in a film Story world of a film Story explicitly presented diegetic events and inferred material (aka back story and ellipsis) A mental construct of the viewer based on the information given in the plot Order story always in chronological order; plot can rearrange order (flashbacks and flash forwards) Duration how long evens last (diff. b/w plot, story, and screen) Story, screen, plot duration Titanic story: 95+ years (19001997) from jack as a child to rise dying Screen: 3 hrs. and 15 mins Plot: 23 days on the explorer ship Screen duration the duration of the movie Screen and plot duration Cleo 5 to 7 all the same Frequency the # of times we see a story event represented in the plot Turning point the refining of the protagonists goals Ex. Casablanca (when rick sees isla Narration plots way of distributing story information in an order to achieve specific effects The way the narrative is conveyed Range of narration how much we know compared to what the character knows Unrestricted/restricted Unrestricted range of narration when the audience knows more than the characters Restricted range of narration when our knowledge of the plot is the same as one character Hierarchy of knowledge a matter of degree, we learn something the character doesn't know therefore having a greater range of knowledge than the character Changing the range of narration Changes over the course of the film Depth of narration how deeply we are given to a characters psychological traits Objective/subjective Objective depth of narration when we see the external behavior The character knows more than we do Perceptual subjectivity we see and hear what the character does Ex: the lady in the lake Mental subjectivity deeper into their thoughts, most common= flashbacks Psychology Narrator helps tell the story in the film, could be a character or not Flashbacks often motivated by a character's memory Flash forward gives us incite about the future events in the movie Realism Art style which tried to depict life as it really was. Loose cause and effect Lack of closure Italian Neorealism one of the most influential movements in film history Desire to break from normal Italian cinema used nonactors to make it more realistic Some scenes are not motivated (Bicycle Thieves) Often NOT told the end of the story Uncontrolled miseenscene post WW2 French new wave casual humor shot on location Influence from Italian neorealism cheap and more realistic Young people Handheld cameras Natural light Government support German Expressionism highly controlled miseenscene Angular performances Heavy makeup distorted setting The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1919) Art cinema as mode of production appears after WWII Inconsistent, meandering protagonist Psychologically complex characters Loose/no cause and effect Loose/no closure Authorial expressivity realism Objective realism psychologically complex characters who act inconsistently Makes us question the perception of the mental state of the character Subjective realism flashbacks aren't signaled, overall weakens causality Shows how people really remember things, the way they think or dream Authorial expressivity three step process 1. Question the reality and whether it shows life as it really is 2. Question the mental perception of the character 3. Question the writer/director Categories of film style editing, miseenscene, cinematography, and sounds Transitions relationship b/w shots Cut, fadein, fadeout, dissolve, wipe Cut instantaneous shot change One ends and the other one begins automatically Fadein from black to shot Dark to light Fadeout from shot to black Light to dark Dissolve one shot fades in while another fades out Wipe shot a replaces shot B gradually Graphic relations between shots independent of subject matter Graphic match shapes, colors, and overall composition may be picked up from shot A to shot B Rhythmic relation between shots every shot is a certain length and takes up a certain amount of time, soundtrack contributes Graphic contrast cut from light to dark, opposite from shot to shot Accelerated editing used to build tension, we react subconsciously Temporal order flashbacks, flash forwards, chronological Temporal duration ellipses and expansion Temporal ellipses parts of events/story are omitted because they are not necessary to the plot Temporal expansion an event/story is prolonged than it should in real life Temporal frequency temporal overlap Used to show the same story in same action Same event happens consecutive times in the plot and only once in the story Spatial relations establishing shot, cutins, reverse shot, match on action Match on action A cut which splices two different views of the same action together at the same moment in the movement, making it seem to continue uninterrupted. 180 degree rule/axis of short line where camera stays behind, everything is filmed around an axis of action Screen direction the rightleft relationships in a scene, set up in an establishing shot and determined by the position of characters and objects in the frame, by the directions of movement, and by the characters Establishing shot widest framing in a scene A shot that shows the spatial relations among the important figures, objects, and setting in a scene Master shot editor edits together the shots for the shot/reverse shots The recording of a full scene, from start to finish, that has all of the talent and action in one framed sequence. Cutin a shift from a distant framing to a closer view to highlight a narrative detail Shot/reverse shot two or more shots edited together that alternate characters, typically in a conversations situation Cross cutting editing that alternates shots of two or more lines of action occurring in different places usually simultaneously Montage sequence a segment of film that summarizes a topic or compresses a passage of time into brief symbolic or typical images Eye line match 2 shots, first shot shows a person looking off in one direction and the second shows a nearby space containing what they see POV shot Pointofview shot taken w/ camera placed approximately where the characters eyes would be, showing what the character would see The Kuleshov effect using editing to manipulate the audiences view of the space "Creative geography" space is constructed out of editing Creates an illusion of continuous time and space Continuity editing continuous in time and space, aims to transmit narrative info smoothly and clearly over a series of shots Relies on matching screen directions, position, and temporal relations Ex: axis of action, crosscutting, cutin, establishing shot, eyeliner match, match on action, screen direction, shot/reverse shot Discontinuity editing violates space and time Possible temporal and spatial relations Ex. elliptical editing, graphic match, intellectual montage, jump cut, overlapping Most common in art films Jump cut an elliptical cut that appears to be an interruption of a single shot Either the figure seems to change instantly against a constant background or vice versa Soviet montage many young people were getting into film, by pushing American methods to the limit, they created new marketing tools Sergei Eisenstein used Kuleshov effects and cross cutting The Battleship Potemkin: most important form of discontinuity editing The plot is there to support the style Nondiegetic insert filmmaker cuts from scene to a metaphorical or symbolic shot that doesn't belong to the space and time of the narrative Conceptual editing editing different images together that are related purely ideologically Association between images ex: the Battleship Potemkin and the lions Intellectual montage The juxtaposition of a series of images to create an abstract idea not present in any one image. Miseenscene all the elements placed in front of the camera to be photographed: setting and props, lighting, costume and makeup, figure behavior Ex. The Sixth Sense (Shyamalan 1999) Setting physical environment and props ex. the hurtlocker (Bigelow 2009) Snow globe in citizen Kane se7en (Fincher 1995): old setting for police office to show they are a step behind the killer Lighting 4 elements: quality, direction, source, color of lighting Quality of lighting hard lighting creates clearly defined shadows, crisp textures, and sharp edges Soft lighting creates diffused illumination Direction of lighting: front, side, back, and rim front lighting: eliminates shadows, Sidelight: creates volume, Back light: can create silhouettes, under lighting, over lighting Rim light: placed behind the characters; helps separate the figure from the background Source of lighting key light, fill light, back light Color of lighting filters used to create colors, can convey emotion Ex. Wizard of Oz Lack of color commonly signify lack of imagination/ a dead quality Ex: Edwards Scissorhands: lack of color is associated with uniqueness and color with conformity Three point lighting key light: primary source Fill light: eliminates shadows Back light Low key lighting low fill light, high in contrast Ex. out of the past (1947), film noir Low fill light associated with lowkey lighting Very little light to knock out the shadows High key lighting overall lighting design uses fill and back lighting to create low contrast b/w light and dark Sense of a wellrounded figure Costume and makeup different colors show changes in character Indicate personality if a character Ex. Edward Scissorhands (Burton, 1990) Written on the Wind (Sirk, 1956): costumes show how characters change and don’t change Figure behavior and staging describes arrangement of figures within the frame Ex. Silence of the Lambs (Demme 1991) How the actors are depicted and what they are doing Understanding their intention and psychology by the way they act and react Triangular staging help convey the idea that third party are driving wedges between characters Highly controlled miseenscene shot in studio to have max control settings are very exaggerated and distorted buildings are not architecturally correct acting is exaggerated shadows painted Uncontrolled miseenscene studio space was scarce shoot in real locations use real people as extras sometimes the main characters were nonprofessionals Miseenscene in In the Mood for Love repression characters inability to change costumes were changed a lot to signify passing time (her dresses) Deep space compositions separate planes Foreground, middle ground, background Deep space staging has nothing to do with camera, its placement creates a diff. b/w foreground and action, helps make a scene look realistic Cinematography clarifies the work the technology does to interpret miseenscene Camera framing To compose a camera shot. The photographic image focal length, zooms, depth of field Extreme long shot human figure is lost or tiny/ in a far distance Long shot whole body in frame A framing in which the scale of the object shown is small, a standing human figure would appear nearly the height of the screen Medium long shot plan Americain/American shot Knees/shins up Medium shot waist up Medium close up chest up Close up head, hands, feet, or small object Extreme close up portion of a face, magnifies object ex. king Kong Angle the relation of the frame in relation to the subject it shows High angle above eyelevel and point downward Low angle below eyelevel and point upward Eye or chest angle horizontal, on same level Canted angle tilt of the camera (very rare) Mobile framing the effect on the screen of a moving camera Pan camera turns from right to left Tilt camera body moving upward or downward on a stationary support Track/dolly travels through space forward, backward, or laterally Crane accomplished by placing camera above the subject and moving through the air in any direction Reframing short panning or tilting movements to adjust the figure's movements, keeping them on screen and centered Handheld cam the use of the camera operator's body as camera support, either holding it by hand or using a harness Steadicam helps stabilize handheld shots, make them smoother, ex. The Godfather Focal length distance from the center of the lens to the point at which the light rays meet in sharp focus, the FL determines perspective relations of the space presented wideangle lens short focal length used to exaggerate distance b/w foreground and background frames ex. shot of room in Edward Scissorhands, shot of buildings in I Am Cuba Telephoto lens long focal length that flattens perspective and makes planes seem closer ex. The Conversation Zoom appears to change framing in a shot, but the camera stays stationary, not commonly used until the 1960's Retrograde zoom combination of a track and a zoom ex. Jaws, Vertigo (Hitchcock) Depth of field range of distance in which objects can be photographed (closest and farthest planes), limited in Hollywood films before the 1940's Foreground, middle ground, background Deep focus use of camera lens and lighting that keeps object in both close and distance planes in clear focus ex. citizen Kane and the lonely villa Shallow focus when only one plane is in focus (usually foreground or middle ground) Rack focus changing out of focal plane during a single shot ex. the untouchables (focus and zoom) and speed (classical rack focus) Aspect ratio relationship of the frames width to its height, standard academy ratio is currently 1.85:1 Onscreen space what we see onscreen Off screen space areas not shown in frame, lumier discovered every aspect of framing creates relationships, most common in horror films Tonality matter of considering how the light registers on film Rates (speed of motion) # of frames per second Usually at 24 frames per second Ramping filmmakers can choose to call our attention to changes in the spread of capturing action Long take a shot that continues for a long time with no interruptions from cuts and edits Ex. Children of Men Functions of narration and style in Citizen Kane several minutes into the film, the viewers can form more specific expectations about the relevant genre ending does not provide a degree of closure causality is defined around traits and goals conflicts lead to consequences time is motivated by plot necessity narration is mostly objective multiple narrators narration is omniscient (it withholds a key piece of story information at outset, teases with hints, and finally reveals it) derives unity from systematic choices, causality, and time flashbacks are restricted Early sound film history "silent" Nickelodeons had a piano or organ; were the first movie theaters 10's and 20's: full piece orchestra accompaniment 1926 warner bros and western electric release short sound films Two major difficulties: synchronization and amplification considered most appropriate for short periods before films The parttalkie used only some dialogue, sounds as a novelty Ex. the jazz singer; warner bros (1927) "you ain't heard nothin yet" Sound in gangster films creative usage of sound Ex. the public enemy (1931) death conveyed by sound on the piano keys Soundondisk sound recorded on a separate disk, easy to knock out of sync Soundonfilm sounds photographically encoded on film with light pulses to audible sound Components of soundtrack dialogue, music, sound effects, and silence Dialogue most important to the story. Conveys the story and the back story Ex. in speed when dialogue is heard above the bus burning Dialogue overlap a spoken line continues across a cut Ex. lector in silence of the lambs (garage scene) Helps smooth over a cut Music to support an image or create a mood To make an ironic remark Spike/bus an accent or punch in a particular moment, used to sometimes trick the audience/falsely leads them Common in horror films Ex. Scream (1996) Sound effects extra diegetic noises, contribute to realism Ex. silence of the lambs Silence used to emphasize a narrative point Brings life to lifeless places Ex. Kane in Bernstein’s flashback and in Xanadu Dimensions of sound rhythm, fidelity, time and space Rhythm rate and regularity of sounds, series of shots and movements with in shots (beat, accent, tempo) Fidelity how true the sound is to the image Space where the sound is coming from Time when the sound happens Diabetic sound sounds within the diaresis Sound that is logically heard during a scene, including dialogue, music and sound effects corresponding to what we see on screen. Nondiabetic sound sounds from outside the diaresis Sound that is not logically heard during the scene. Most music is nondiabetic, as are some examples of moodenhancing sound effects that are not logically part of the scene. Onscreen sound sound that comes from within the frame Where we can see the source of the sound, e.g. a gun fired by an actor. Offscreen sound sound that comes from outside the frame Occurs offscreen External/objective sound sound represented as coming from a physical source within the story space that the characters can hear as well Internal/subjective inside the characters head Flashbacks, dreams, hallucinations The character cannot hear it Simultaneous sound happens at the same time as the image Nonsimultaneous sound sound goes with earlier or later events Sound bridge sound technique to bridge 2 scenes, sound from scene A can continue after cut, sound from scene B can start before the cut ex. (Raging Bull; Scorsese 1980) When a sound carries over a visual transition of a film; Music that connects scenes, dialog that is heard before the speaking characters appear. Perceptual properties of sound loudness, pitch, timbre Loudness amplitude of sound vibrations Pitch the frequency of sound vibrations How high or low a sound is Timbre harmonic components of sound Quality of sound produced by a particular instrument or voice Tone color Functions of sounds and visual style in the conversation use of traffic noise to release tension sound is the main focus of the plot/the core element
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