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Astronomy Midterm Study Guide

by: Raleigh Zook

Astronomy Midterm Study Guide ASTR 1210

Marketplace > University of Virginia > Astronomy > ASTR 1210 > Astronomy Midterm Study Guide
Raleigh Zook
GPA 3.55

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About this Document

This study guide includes questions and answers from topics such as light, the moon, history of astronomy, the motions of the earth and planets, etc.
Introduction to the Sky and Solar System
Remy Indebebetouw
Study Guide
astronomy, Science, Study Guide, midterm, sun, EARTH, galileo, light, moon, history, Astrology, constellations, planets
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Raleigh Zook on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ASTR 1210 at University of Virginia taught by Remy Indebebetouw in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Introduction to the Sky and Solar System in Astronomy at University of Virginia.

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Date Created: 02/28/16
Astronomy Midterm Study Guide Question Answer How long ago did the Big Band  13.8 billion years ago occur? What does the cosmic  Age of the universe, Amount of baryonic  microwave tell us? matter, Amount of dark matter What is a model?  Ideas and numbers that describe the state of  something  (past, present, future) What does it mean to simulate  To represent something’s function something? What were the two main  Hydrogen and helium elements in the creation of the  universe? What caused the creation of  Star fusion reactor our universe? How many degrees does the  15° earth rotate each hour? How do we measure angular  Physical size x (360°/2 π  x distance) size? How many arcminutes are in  60 one degree? How many arcseconds are in  60 one arcminute? What is the altitude of a zenith?90° What is the horizon’s altitude? 0° How do you determine the  Same as your personal latitude (e.g.  altitude of the celestial pole? Charlottesvile = 38° What is the right ascension  Hours, in accordance with the spring equinox  measured in? (Stars at midnight in fall equinox have a right  ascension of 0) ­­It is like longitude on the celestial sphere What is declination measured  Degrees above the celestial equator (Like the  in? latitude) What is the ecliptic plane? The Sun’s path around the celestial sphere  (Annual) What is the celestial equator? Earth’s ‘equator’ projected/predicted into space True/False. An object’s angular  True size is smaller if it is further  away.  True/False. We see all sides of  False. We only see one side of the moon. the moon. How long is the moon’s rotation 29.5 days cycle? What are the eight stages of  New moon, crescent, first quarter, waxing  the moon phase cycle? gibbous, full moon, waning gibbous, last  quarter, crescent,  What does waxing mean? The moon is visibly larger What does waning mean? The moon is visibly getting smaller What happens when the moon  It rises later in the day and is visible in the  is in the waxing phases? afternoon and evening What happens when the moon  It sets later every day and is visible in the later  is in the waning phase? morning times Why is only one side of the  Synchronous Rotation moon visibly seen? What is synchronous rotation? When the moon’s rotation in one month is at  the same speed of the earth Which side of the moon has  The side facing the sun, because the Earth is  more craters? Why? providing more protection to the other side Which side of the earth (in  Parallel sides relation to the moon)  undergoes high tide? What is a solar eclipse? When the Moon is a Full Moon, its shadow falls on earth. The moon is directly in between sun  and earth. What is a lunar eclipse? When Earth’s shadow covers the moon. The  moon would have been in its Full Moon phase.  The Earth is in between the sun and moon. How often could an eclipse  There are two possible eclipse seasons every  occur every year?  month How come an eclipse does not  There are two nodes in the moon’s orbit that  occur every year? intersect with earth’s ecliptic plane. They have  to line up exactly in those planes in order for  an eclipse to occur.  What is the apparent retrograde When planets/objects appear to move  motion? westward instead of eastward What is a tool in calculating  A clock (Need two fixed points) one’s longitude? Where is the sun’s position  Directly overhead; Peaking at meridian during summer solstice? What is Analemma? The sun’s position at noon When is the sun at its highest  Summer solstice; Winter solstice point in the sky? Lowest point? What shape is the earth’s orbit? Elliptical What is the tilt of the earth? 23.5° Which has a larger tilt: Venus  Uranus (82° tilt, while Venus’ is 2.6°) or Uranus? What does it mean to precess? For the planet’s tilt to ‘wobble’ due to friction What are the two solstices? Winter and summer What are the two equinoxes? Spring and fall What is the zodiac? When the stars are visible at the equinox at  noon. (The constellation is not seen at night  since it appears during the day). How often does precession  26,000 years occur? Do constellations stay the same Longitude. Different latitude levels mean you  on the same latitude or  see different constellations longitude? Who developed the scientific  Ancient Greeks method? What three points did the  1) A uniform speed of planets, the Sun,  Pythagorean Paradigm  and the Moon compose of? 2) They moved in perfectly circular orbits 3) Geocentrism What is the geocentric theory? The earth is at the center of the universe Who were the Sophistes? The poets and teachers What is relativism? An experience is understood through one’s  own bias What is the Socratic Method? Breaking down a problem into questions in  order to create a hypothesis What is deductive logic? Who  There is a general hypothesis for a specific  used this method? conclusion; Aristotle What is inductive logic? Who  Specific observations and guesses produce a  used this method? broad conclusion or generalization; Aristotle What is naturalistic reasoning? Using natural and physical reasons instead of  mythical/religious reasons What is positivism? Explaining how something happens What is materialistic method? Building a model of the universe does not  require human consciousness  What is a non­materialistic  Does not have testable predictions (Not  method? science) What is the sequence of the  Observation  Questions  Hypothesis   scientific method? Prediction  Test/experiments  Test  supporting and non­supporting hypotheses  What is a hypothesis? An untested, educated guess/explanation What are key components of a  1) Use simple principles to explain a  scientific theory? variety of observations 2) An abundance of supporting evidence 3) Not fail validity tests What is considered science? Using creativity and scrutiny to test new ideas;  Must be testable What is pseudoscience? Creativity and openness used, but not any  scrutiny or skepticism  What is the principle of  Not overcomplicating things Occam’s Razor? Is astrology a science or  Pseudoscience pseudoscience? Is astronomy a science or a  Science pseudoscience? Who created the heliocentric  Copernicus model? What was Brahe’s contribution  Collected better data since he used more  to astronomy? accurate eye measurements; Believed earth  was the center, but other planets orbited  around the Sun; Could not detect stellar  parallax; Hired Kepler What were Kepler’s three laws? 1  Law: Each planet’s orbit (around the Sun) is andellipse at one focus with the Sun 2  Law: A planet sweeps out equal areas in  equal times as it goes around its orbit 3  Law: The further the planet is from the sun,  the slower its orbit p2 = a 3 Who discovered the four moons Galileo  orbiting Jupiter? What was Galileo’s contribution The earth does not move, because objects  to astronomy? would remain in the air if it was moving;  Discovered that stars were much further than  perceived; Saw imperfections in the sun and  moon What kind of energy is light? Electromagnetic  What is wavelength? The distance between to adjacent crests or  troughs What is frequency? Amount of crests passing through a point each  second; Measured in Hertz What is amplitude? Half of the distance between the height of a  crest and trough What is speed? How fast the crests and troughs move How do you calculate the  Wavelength x Frequency speed of a wave? What is light? Particles and waves What is reflection of light? Bouncing off an object and going in one  direction—the angle it comes in is the same  angle it leaves What is transmitted light? It goes through an object What is scattering of light?  It bounces off an object in various directions;  Polarization; Selective scattering What is absorption of light? It does not go all the way through—becomes  absorbed; Selective absorption What is color? Wavelengths What is “Black Body”? Emission from a heated object is independent  of that object’s properties According to Wein’s Law, which Blue color is the ‘hottest’? How do you calculate peak  Constant / Temperature wavelength? What is it used  (The constant is 0.29 cm K); for? To determine the temperature of stars What is the Stefan­Boltzmann  Energy per area = Constant x  Temperature 4 ; Law? What is it used for? Helped provide reasoning for why sunspots are visible—temperature changes energy levels What is a redshift? Lower frequency and lower energy, causes it  to move away; Shifted to the right of the  standard What is a blueshift? Higher frequency and higher energy, causes it  to move closer; Shifted to the left of the  standard What is quantum  If two particles with wave properties interact,  entanglement?  their wave functions become synchronized and stay like that even when separated  What can we find out from the  Velocity Doppler shift? What can we learn from  Temperature blackbody? What can we learn from  Composition spectral lines? How does our solar system  Moves around its center at around  move around the Milky Way? 500,000mph or 800,000km What is the average density of  1 particle/cm3 gas in space of our galaxy? Why are there seasons? Due to the earth’s tilt relative to the sun  What is idealism? Non­materialistic method What is empiricism? Senses within an experience provide  knowledge What is a corner reflector?  When two mirrors are set at 90 degrees and  What is it used for? the light is sent back to where it came from;  Buoys, moon (to see how far away it is) What is intensity? Amount of light at every wavelength level What is angular size? The angle in a field of view of an object What is the meridian? Stretches from horizon of the south, through  zenith, into horizon of north; An imaginary line What are circumpolar star? Stars near a celestial pole What is a central umbra? Light from the sun is completely blocked What is a surrounding  Light from the sun is only partially blocked penumbra? How come Greeks did not  Did not believe in stellar parallax believe the actual cause for  planetary motion? What is continuous spectrum? Rainbow spans a broad range of wavelengths  without interruption What is emission line  Thin or less dense clouds emit light at certain  spectrum? wavelengths (Depending on its temperature  and composition, which contains bright  emission lines against black background) What is absorption line  The cloud is absorbing specific wavelengths of  spectrum? light so there are dark absorption lines What are radio waves? The longest wavelength of light—cosmic  microwave background and radio galaxy What are gamma rays?  The shortest wavelength of light—gamme ray  burst Place in order from shortest  Gamma rays, X rays, Ultraviolet, Visible,  wavelength to longest  Infrared, Radio wavelength: Ultraviolet, Visible,  Radio, Gamma Rays, Infrared,  X rays


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