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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Melanie Maino on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CRMJ348 at Towson University taught by Marion Cockey in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Women and Crime in Criminal Justice at Towson University.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE PSYC 314 Review of Chapter 1 What is Psychology? The science of cognition, emotion, and behavior. Commonsense Psychology is: Everyday, non scientific data gathering What are the 2 components of science as a whole? 1. CONTENT: knowledge within the field 2. PROCESS: understanding facts Where do we usually get our nonscientific data from? Do we usually test this data? Why or why not? • We get our nonscientific data from… o 1- specific sources: includes family, media, professors, friends, popular people, experts, attractive confident people….confirmation bias: only believe what we want to believe o 2- make different inferences that are not always accurate: 1) traits assigned to people we know 2) stereotypes 3) use data that we gather to estimate the probability of something occurring • Usually NOT tested...it is assumed that they are true What are the 3 common inferences made with commonsense psychology? 1. traits assigned to people we don’t know 2. Stereotypes 3. Use data that we gather to estimate probability of something occurring. What is the confirmation bias and how is it related to research? • Confirmation bias is when we only believe what we want to believe • Clouds judgement What are the 7 characteristics of the scientific method? 1. Scientific Mentality 2. Gather Empirical Data 3. Seek General Principles 4. Good Thinking 5. Self Correction 6. Publicize Results 7. Replication What are the 4 objectives of psychological science? 1. Description 2. Prediction 3. Explanation 4. Control What is the difference between Applied Research vs Basic Research? • Applied Research: designing our study to solve real world problems • Basic Research: (most common) designing a study to test theories and explanations about different psychological processes What are the 3 main tools of the scientific method? 1. Observation 2. Measurement 3. Experimentation What is the difference of Between-Subjects Research Design and Within- Subjects Research Design? • Between-Subjects Research Design: One kind of treatment for every participant • Within-Subjects Research Design: All treatment conditions given to all participants; behavior is analyzed after each treatment condition is given Chapter 2 Review 1.) How do we define responsible research? As always wanting to benefit humanity and advancing psychology but at the same time we want to make sure our research is safe. 2.) What does the Federal Law Title 45, Section 46 require any institution to do when they are accepting funding for their research from the Department of Health and Human Services? Requires any institution doing research with funding to ave a review committee set up (IRB). 3.) What does IRB stand for? What is the main duty of the IRB? IRB stands for the Institutional Review Board...reviews and evaluates all research proposals beforehand, protects humans that are participating . 4.) What types of people are found on the IRB committee? The average layperson and research methods experts. 5.) What is the risk/benefit analysis? it is a pro/con list for each study. 6.) What are the 6 main things the IRB looks for when reviewing a research application? 1- informed consent 2- no invasion of privacy 3- no coercion or forcing participants to stay in the study 4- minimal stress 5- deception 6- confidentiality 7.) What is an informed consent form? What should be included in the form? Paper a participant must sign and agree for a study to take place • o 1-Description of research project you are working on…as much detail as possible • o 2-Description of methodology • What will participants need to do? • What do they need to know • o 3- Assurances of risks and benefits (mentally and physically) • o 4- State that data is confidential • o 5- Voluntary- no coercion or influence • o 6- Free to withdraw at any time in the study-prior or during study • o 7- Participation or decision to not participate will NOT affect the participant’s status in any way • o 8- You will answer any questions the participants may have (state in writing) • o 9- Name and phone #’s of P.I., faculty sponsor (if applicable) and chairperson of IRB • o 10- two lines…space for date and signature of participant and P.I. 8.) What needs to happen if a researcher decides to use deception as a part of their research design? Debrief them after. 9.) What is the IACUC? What is their job? Who needs to be included in the committee? Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee- review board for animal research • the review board includes lay people, expert in research, and a vet. 10) 3 ethical principles of Belmont Report and explain each… • 1- Respect for persons: every human can make their own decisions about research (informed consent). External Coverage (pregnant women, prisoners, children, C.I. people) • 2- Beneficence: maximize risks and benefits • 3- Justice: fairness Chapter 3 Review 1.) When are nonexperimental research designs used? • Used whenever a true experiment is not practical • whenever we want to test a hypothesis in a real life setting 2.) What are the two main types of validity? Define each of them. • Internal Validity: free of confounding variables; controlled • External Validity: generalized beyond the specifics of the study 3.) Which type of validity is usually high in nonexperimental designs? Which type of validity is usually high in experimental designs? • External validity is HIGH in nonexperimental designs • Internal validity is HIGH in experimental designs 4.) What are the two major dimensions or continuums that all research approaches fall on? Which type of research designs are high and low in each dimension? • 1: Degree of manipulation of our antecedents • high degree of manipulation means that it is a true experiment • low degree of manipulation means that is is a non experimental designs 2: Degree of imposition of units • high degree of imposition of units means it is a true experiment • low degree of imposition of units means it is a non experimental designs 5.) What is phenomenology? To collect data based off personal experience. Limitations: • our attention can alter our results • no cause and effect • difficult to replicate 6.) What are case studies? What are deviant case studies? • Case studies are detailed reports of a single case • Deviant cases look at deviances versus normal behavior What are the 5 purposes of using a case study? 1. Source of inferences 2. Source for developing therapy techniques 3. Very rare cases can be studied 4. Can help explain and show expectations 5. Can explain abstract concepts Limitations: • low generalizability • No cause and effect • Rely on retrospective data 7.) What are the two common types of field studies? List the limitations of each. • Naturalistic Observation: • no cause and effect • if we bring natural behavior to a lab we have to be aware of natural behavior • time when study is dont, behavior may not occur Participant-Observer Study: • no cause and effect • Ethics • altered behavior • Objective 8.) What is an archival study? • Using already existing data for a new purpose Limitations: • no cause and effect • details may be lacking, and may not be collected with purpose in mind 9.) What is qualitative research? What is an example of qualitative research? • Use words rather than numbers • example self report Limitations: • watch out for bias • no cause and effect • retrospective data • hard to replicatec Chapter 4 Review 1.) Why do we use survey research? -To obtain information about people’s opinions, attitudes, preferences, and behaviors by simply asking. 2.) What are some pros about using this type of data collection? • direct access to participants minds • useful way of obtaining information • cheap • obtain large amounts of data • gather information that isn’t directly observable • gather data on sensitive topics 3.) How are surveys represented on the degree of manipulation and in the imposition of units? • Low manipulation of antecedents • varies on the imposition of units 4.) What are the two most common survey techniques? 1. written questionnaires 2. interview 5.) What are the general steps in conducting a survey? • 1. map out research objectives • 2. address imposition of units • 3. have a way to quantify open ended answers • 4. keep questions simple • 5. all response choices are exhaustive 6.) What should be avoided when conducting a survey? • no double negatives or complex questions • define all complex words if need be 7.) What do response choices need to be in a survey? What should be done if needed? • Need to be exhaustive • need to include all possible answers on open ended questions • use other options...but limit “OTHER” questions 8.) The two ways of addressing the imposition of units are: 1. close ended questions 2. open ended questions 9.) What is a level of measurement? • type of scale used to measure a response 10.) What are the 4 levels of measurements used when designing a survey or measuring behavior? 1. NOMINAL (lowest on the scale) Definition/Example:Categorizing our answers and using names as a way to divvy up our answers to questions • We aren’t quantifying everything • 2 or more answers/ categories • used with qualitative data • no magnitude involved or strength 2. ORDINAL Definition/Example: rank ordering our responses • Rank ordering our responses • Magnitude/ strength is measured in ranks • Ex. unhappy, very unhappy, okay, happy, very happy 3. INTERVAL Definition/Example: second to highest level; equal intervals between each response. • There is NO true zero point 4. RATIO Definition/Example: equal intervals between each response. • There is a true zero point • Ex. height, time, weight 10.) Which level of measurement should always be chosen when possible? • the strongest one…. 11.) What requirements should the first question of a survey have? 1. relevance 2. easy to answer 3. interesting 4. easy to understand 5. should always be close ended questions 12.) There are six ways to collect survey data: 1. self administered questionnaire 2. mail out survey 3. computer of internet 4. telephone 5. interviews 6. focus group interviews 13.) What are the two ways in which we can evaluate the accuracy of a survey? 1. RELIABILITY 2. VALIDITY 14.) What is a population? Since we cannot measure an entire population at once, what do we do instead? • includes people, animals, or objects that have at least one common characteristic or quality • use a representative sample 15.) What are the two main sampling approaches? 1. probability 2. non probability 16.) What are the 4 types of sampling of the first approach listed above? 1. simple random 2. systematic random 3. stratified random 4. cluster 17.) What are the 4 types of sampling of the second approach listed above? 1. quota 2. convenience 3. purposive 4. snowball 18.) What should we consider when reporting samples within our research reports? Review of Chapter 5 (1st half) 1.) When do we use a correlational research design? • are used to show relationships between specific antecedents and behaviors…our antecedent conditions are already existing…simply observing them and certain behaviors. 2.) When do we use a quasi-experimental research design? • model a true experiment style but are lacking one or more essential elements of a true experiment. Usually what we are lacking is manipulation or random assignment. 3.) How do correlational research designs and quasi-experimental research designs rate in external validity? • HIGH in external validity 4.) Where do correlational and quasi-experimental research designs fall on the continuum of manipulation and imposition of units? • Both are also high in manipulation of units (restricted and limited from the responses they want to obtain from their participants) • Correlational Designs tend to be low in imposition of units • Quasi Experimental Designs tend to vary in imposition of units…all depends on those variables that are missing
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