ANFS251 Exam 1 Study Guide
ANFS251 Exam 1 Study Guide ANFS251
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This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rachel Schmuckler on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANFS251 at University of Delaware taught by Dr. Lesa Griffiths in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Animal Nutrition in Animal Science and Zoology at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
ANFS251 Exam 1 Study Guide What are the different types of plants animals eat? Cereal grains = energy Legumes = protein o Beans (i.e. soybeans) o Pasture or forage legumes (i.e. alfalfa, clover) Can be preserved as hay or grazed Grasses (i.e. timothy, rye, fescue) o Can be preserved as hay or grazed as pasture Silage o Can be made from different plants listed above Forbs, shurbs Which ones are considered forages or roughages? Legumes Grasses Silage Forbs, Browse o Found in natural (versus manmade or seeded) pastures Pastures Collections of plants that ruminants and non-ruminant herbivores graze and eat Can be as natural as the vast open spaces in the US o Native grasses and other plants like forbs and shrubs Can be manmade which means a livestock producer has selected a complimentary grouping of plant seeds to plant, fertilize, and manage for animal feed o Excessive growth (beyond what the animals graze) is harvested and preserved as hay for eating at a later time o Combination of grasses and legumes (not bean legumes) is common o Examples: Kentucky bluegrass Orchardgrass Timothy grass Perennial ryegrass Reed canarygrass Tall fescule Tall fescue endophyte (fescue toxicity) Pasture Legumes Symbiotic association with soil bacteria 1 Fix nitrogen High protein, enhance palatability and digestibility, maintain forage quality longer than grases Helps other plants that grow by fertilizing the soil Legumes are not seeded at more than 1/3 of a grass/legume mixture by weight Non-ruminates Combine harvesting wheat, removing seed heads, leaving stems in the field Stalks are edible but do not contain many nutrients because the plants put the nutrients in the seeds Stems of plants like wheat, oats, and rye are often cut, dried I the sun, and baled for animal bedding (i.e. straw) Energy from highly digestible cereal grains Where does the protein come from? Legume plants are included in pastures to boost protein for monogastric animals Bean-type legumes are used in the diet, but the forage-type legumes Soybeans o Bean pods o Left in the field until very dry o Harvested and processed o Oil extracted and the rest of the seed is further processed for animal feed Forage-type legumes do not have beans (i.e. alfalfa and white clover) Silage Made when a plant is harvested when it still has considerable moisture Plant is chopped and put in a storage container/silo Microbial growth from bacteria in the warm, moist environment Bacteria die when they run out of oxygen, producing acids which preserve the plant material Plant is processed and used Can be made from many plants, but corn silage (the whole plant, not just the seed head) is widely used Popular amongst cattle GI tract is a unique system providing the means by which an animal accomplishes: Digestion of food consumed Absorption of essential nutrients Conservation of water Synthesis of essential vitamins and other nutrients 2 Gastrointestinal Tract and Nutrient Utilization Convert complex nutrient sources into forms that the animal can absorb and use Digestion – converting complex feed nutrients into absorbable forms Absorption – digested nutrients cross the cellular lining (membranes) of the GI tract Classification of Various Digestive Systems Based on type of diet o Herbivores – primarily plants o Carnivores – other animals o Omnivores – combination of plants and animals Based on digestive physiology o Monogastric o Ruminant Classification of Various Digestive systems Swine – omnivore, monograstic Poultry – omnivore, monograstic, complex foregut and relatively simple intestinal tract Dogs and cats – monograstic carnivores Horses and mules – monogastric herbivores Ruminants – consume and digest plant materials and are classified as herbivores (cattle, sheep, goats, deer, elk, many wild species) o Pre-gastric fermenters (versus post-gastric) Gastric means stomach Fermentation chamber with a structure full of bacteria before the stomach – “rumen” Bacteria = main source of protein “Cecum” for post-gastric fermenter 3 Proventriculus = stomach Large the structure, more complex the diet Relative size can provide insight as to where digestion will take place Rabbit Monograstic herbivore Complex large intestine Big cecum 4 Characteristics and Function of Digestive Tract Mouth and associated structures – beak, teeth, lips, tongue o Primary function Prehension and preparation of food Increase surface area, increase what is exposed to digestive enzymes/bacteria Cattle and sheep will masticate food only to a limited extent before ingesting Subsequently regurgitate coarser constituents and remasticate them Rumination – decreasing particle size to increase the surfaces where bacteria can attach Teeth o Herbivorous Incisor teeth adapted to nipping off plant material Molars with flat surfaces grind plant fibers o Ruminants No upper incisors depend on upper dental pad and lower incisors (i.e. sheep) o Omnivores Use incisor teeth primarily to bite off pieces of food (i.e. swine) o Avian No teeth Break and or claws reduce food o Carnivores Teeth adapted to tearing of muscle and bone Pointed molars are adapted for crushing bones and mastication of food Saliva and Swallowing o Good mixed with saliva and formed into bolus Bolus is coated with saliva (lubricated) o Other functions of saliva Keeping the mouth moist Aiding taste mechanisms Providing digestive enzymes Acting as a buffer o Salivary Amylase = enzyme Esophagus o Bolus is transported (swallowed) to GIT CNS controls contractions Peristalsis = contractions Ruminants have two way (regurgitation) 5 Challenge of the horse is that it is only one way – commonly chokes Length varies considerably Rumination – moving the bolus from reticulorumen to the mouth Allows the animal to chew its cud Aids the digestion of fibrous feed components Glandular Stomach o All stomach/stomach-like structures function the same way Difference: Location of the stomach Pre-gastric = rumen Post-gastric = cecum o Lined with specialized secretory tissues o Contractions of the muscles lining the stomach mix with the bolus gastric secretions Amount of muscle varies amongst species Horse challenge – lacks a muscular stomach o Buildup of fluid causes colic Muscles contracting to churn the fluids in the stomach to aid digestion o Regions of the stomach Nonglandular region – no digestive secretions are produced Cardiac region – lined with epithelial cells, secrete mucin Fundic region – three cell types Parietal – secrete HCl (chemical, not an enzyme) Neck chief – secrete mucin (protect the stomach from the acid) Body chief – secrete pepsinogen, rennin, lipase o Pepsinogen - protein enzyme o Lipase - fat enzyme o Rennin - milk digestion Plyoric – has only the neck chief and body chief cells o Presence of food causes secretion of HCl and enzymes and begins contractions of muscular lining o Chyme The bolus becomes this acidic material resembling a thick slurry Enters the small intestine (primary site for enzymatic digestion) 6 Small Intestine o Composed of duodenum, jejunum, ileum o Duodenum Bile Neutralizes the pH of chyme to 6.8 to 7.0 Emulsification of fat Pancreatic enzymes secreted into duodenum to break down fat Enzymes secreted by duodenum to convert proteins and carbohydrates into amino acids and monosaccharides o Lined with fingerlike projections called villi that increases surface area One cell thick for easy absorption Complexly vascular o Contractions mix the digested food and move it down the GI tract o Digesta pass into the jejunum and ileum Enzymatic digestion continues Primary sites for absorption of nutrients in monogastic animals Large Intestine o Cecum, Colon, Rectum o Microbial digestion o Most nutrients already absorbed No villi o Type/number of microorganisms depend on the amount of undigested food constituents Varies depending on the diet and species Prevent rapid changes of diet in any animal because it kills the healthy gut bacteria that are accustomed to that particular diet Good bacteria will die, bad bacteria will grow Bad health results (i.e. diarrhea) o Absorption of some organic acids and water 7 o Relative length, diameter, and extent of sacculation vary considerable among species Much larger in herbivorous species (i.e. horse, rabbit) o Indigestible components are eliminated via the rectum Small ceca in hawks, large in grouse The big foregut (hoatzin), long midgut (emu), and long colon (ostrich) compensates for the small ceca Other Functions of the GI tract Major route for excretion o Liver Active site of detoxification Some excretion of mineral elements Some net excretion in large intestine Depends on level of mineral stores in the animal and the number of minerals in the diet Synthesis of specific nutrients by microbial organisms Amount of absorption after small intestine is limited, so mostly are excreted o In some animals (particularly rodents and horses) this potential lack of absorption is circumvented by coprophagy Enables an animal to survive on diets lacking sufficient vitamins and amino acids Material excreted from cecum separately from that of the small intestine (different poops) Cecal pellets are nutrient rich from the vitamins made by bacteria in the cecum o Immediately eaten by the animal Avian Species Crop: temporary storage 8 Proventriculus: similar to stomach, gastric secretions produced, less grinding action than the stomach Gizzard: tough muscular lining contracts Crop, proventriculus, and gizzard together function as a stomach, but the proventriculus contains the acids/enzymes, the crop is the storage, and the gizzard is the movement Relatively long small intestine Two rather large ceca – located in the large intestine (past the main site of absorption) so the ceca do not contribute highly to the ability to consume a high forage diet, not very functional Very short sections of large intestine o Urinary secretions are combined with the feces before being eliminated Ruminant Species Stomach o Divided into four compartments Reticulum – honeycomb Rumen (name for the entire “stomach” structure, but also a part of the 4 compartments) Aka Paunch Allows for a high forage diet Located before the small intestine Contains bacteria, nutrients absorbed Tongue-like projections called papillae Several strong, muscular pillars which contract in a rhythmic manner Causes ingesta to be mixed o Course fibrous feeds regurgitated and re- chewed Omasum Contains various-sized leaves extending into the lumen to prevent large particles from leaving the rumen Abomasum Same function as the glandular stomach in monogastric species o In pseudoruminants, the stomach has only three compartments Camel and related species Ingested food subjected to pregastric microbial fermentation Small intestine – similar to monogastric species 9 o No benefit to feeding ruminants high quality protein because the bacteria eat it regardless, and they get a good amount of protein from consuming that bacteria Bacteria break the feed into volatile fatty acids (VFAs) Absorbed from cecal wall From sugars and starch Absorbed and sued as primary energy source Readily used but less efficient than if original carbs were digested and asbored from small intestine 8-20% of carbs consumed converted to methane (wasteful!) Nonruminants must break food into glucose for energy Large intestine – considerably larger than omnivorous species Digestive tract of a sheep Large rumen for microbial fermentation! – main contribution to digestion Small intestine = absorption Cecum not as useful, some fermentation, reabsorption of water Rumination 10 Undigested coarse foods are collected in the reticulum Formed into a bolus Moved back up and the esophagus to the mouth for further chewing Eructation Belching of gas Microbial fermentation in rumen produces gases (CO2 and methane) which must be eliminated to avoid bloat o Occurs when froth forms in the rumen o Usually after consuming legume species, or a high-concentrate diet (i.e. grains) o Can inhibit eructation o Results in reduced performance and many deaths (pressure on other organs) o Cattle swell on the left side Symbiosis Mutually beneficial relationship between rumen microorganisms and animals Very favorable environment for microbes – moist, narrow temp range, feed source, end products removed Many bacteria types (25-80 billion per ml) Ciliated protozoa o 35+ species o 20,000-50,000 per ml Type of organisms depends on feed consumed o High forage diet High in cellulose and hemicellulose Relatively in digestible in mammals Microorganisms digest those substrates o Same for diets high in cereal grains but for starch o Number of organisms affected by feed intake o VFAs and ammonia (nitrogen to amino acids to protein) are end products of microbial digestion Continually absorbed across rumen wall When microbial populations thrive, it greatly affects nutrient requirements of the host animal Fibrous digested more efficiently by microbes in the rumen Cellulose and hemicellulose digested only by microbial enzymes Bacteria can use simple forms of nitrogen (i.e. urea, ammonia) to synthesize cellular proteins, reducing dependence on high-quality dietary protein sources Microbes synthesize adequate amounts of vitamins Except A, D, and E – fat soluble 11 No need to worry about giving ruminants water soluble vitamins Moisture and pH of rumen are maintained by the 150+ liters of saliva secreted per day in a mature cow Contains large amounts of sodium bicarbonate o Acts as a buffer and neutralizes acids produced in the rumen Disadvantage: High quality dietary protein sources are partially degraded to produce ammonia o Resynthesized into microbial protein (medium quality protein) Advantage: Low quality dietary protein sources are partially regarded when consumed by bacteria “Pounds per feed per pound of gain” More pounds of feed for ruminants because feeding bacteria before the animal Overall effect of rumen fermentation = animals utilize good quality ingredients less efficiently than monogastric animals Differences in feed types and how they are digested illustrate why feed conversion in ruminants is low Young Ruminants Born with nonfunctional rumen o Depending on digestion in the abomasum and small intestine o Reticular (or esophageal) groove Allows milk to bypass reticulorumen Goes directly to omasum and then abomasum Escapes bacterial fermentation Start to consume solid food o Reticulum and rumen start to develop o Fully functional by 8 weeks in lambs and 6-9 months in cattle Differences with Respect to the Types of Diet for Different Species Avian species do not have the ability to effectively utilize large amounts of fibrous plant materials Omnivorous species (i.e. swine) can utilize more fiber than avians, but much less than herbivorous species o Adult omnivores do better than young omnivores o Well developed ceca o Less complex digestive tracts, limited ability to digest fibrous plant carbs 12 Nonruminant herbivorous species (i.e. horse) can survive and do well on plant materials of much lower quality than that required by swine o Hind-gut fermenters o Developed ceca o No coprophagy Ruminant animals are well developed to diets that consist primarily of fibrous plant materials o Pre-gastric rumen o Poor efficiency tons of food to get nutrients because the bacteria need to be fed before the animal (caloric cost) Monogastrics use the calories immediately o Simple stomach and intestines o i.e. poultry o Fed highly digestible diets with high quality nutrient sources Nutrient Utilization Animals that can use large amounts of forages have a stomach or large intestine that allow either: o Pregastric microbial fermentation (ruminant) o Postgastric microbial fermentation (horses, rabbits) Water Often overlooked Extremely important to animals 71-73% of the animal’s fat-free body weight Water intake is directly related to food intake Short-term impact Water is a nutrient too! Companion animals probably suffer the most because water just sits in a bowl Livestock get automatic waterers - constant supply of clean fresh water When humans by a home, water quality is always checked Functions Solvent for digestion Transport medium o Blood and lymph Waste products eliminated Thermoregulation o Absorbs a large amount of heat o Examples Sweating Evaporation off the surface of the mouth when panting When hot, blood vessels dilate, bringing water to the surface for evaporation 13 When cold, blood vessels constrict, keeping water closer to the vital organs for warmth Sources Drinking o Often overlooked because it is so common o Quality and quantity are therefore overlooked Feedstuffs o Free water is not chemically bound to the feed, but moisture is associated with it o i.e. grass pasture versus hay Metabolic Water o Chemically bound o Released when tissues are broken down by metabolic processes Normal Losses Urine Feces o Amount lost in feces varies greatly among species o Water content in feces reflects the water content in the food Evaporative water losses o Greater in the heat o i.e. horses sweat, pigs do not o Lungs and skin surfaces Milk o Dairy cow 100lb milk per day, 87lb water in milk Kidney functions – concentrated versus diluted urine (differ across species) Water consumption reduced = feed consumption and performance reduced High in protein, mineral salt, fibers will increase water loss Quality Affects feed consumption and animal health o As water quality declines, consumption of water and feed intake also normally decline Good-quality water should contain less than 2500mg/L (0.25%) of dissolved salts May affect palatability or be toxic o Pathogenic microorganisms, algae, protozoa, hydrocarbons, pesticides, industrial chemicals Non-nutritional/environmental quality issues (i.e. temperature) A Sources for Minerals Water is an overlooked source of dissolved minerals Chloride, sodium, calcium, magnesium, sulfate, bicarbonate Content varies greatly Consider water when formulating mineral supplements 14 o Especially in areas where the amounts of dissolved solids are high Requirements Vary considerably among species o Type of diet o Environmental conditions o Important to have an adequate supply of acceptable-quality water available for animals Carbohydrates Primary component found in livestock feeds Why not protein? o Necessary for young animals to grow o Older animals use it for repair o Very expensive form of energy Why not fat? o Expensive o Little supply due to human demand Carbs o Abundant o Inexpensive Carbohydrate = energy! Bulk of the diet Forages Corn – highly digestible starch Synthesized by plants Primary building block in most plant materials = glucose Primary subunit of glucose = carbohydrate Many different types of carbohydrates coming from different parts of a plant Comprise up to 70% of forage dry matter and 80% of grains No specific dietary requirement for carbohydrates, but rather for energy (calories) Types Composed of C, H, O Simplest form = monosaccharide o 5 carbon monosaccharide = pentose o 6 carbon monosaccharide = hexose Disaccharide = two monosaccharides combined Polysaccharide = 3+ monosaccharides combined o Complicated polysaccharide chains are indigestible by mammals (only by bacteria in the rumen and cecum) 15 Types of carbohydrates associated with feeds: Common Carbohydrates Glucose and fructose – most common simple sugars in feed Sucrose o Glucose + fructose o Found in plants as sugar cane and sugar beets o Highly digestible Lactose o Glucose + galactose o Only in milk 16 o Lactose intolerant = no enzyme to break apart the glucose and galactose Maltose o Glucose + glucose o Intermediate breakdown product produced when starches are digestible Starch and Cellulose o Polysaccharide in plants in the highest concentrations o Starch Grains (i.e. corn), tubers, and other roots Links between glucose subunits can be easily digested by mammalian enzymes Sweet taste o Cellulose Forages (in the stalks of plants) Links between glucose subunits cannot be digested by mammalian enzymes Digested by microbial organisms in GIT Gums, pectins, hemicelluloses o Occur in varying amounts in some plant material o More indigestible than digestible Absorption and Metabolism Monogastrics o Dietary carbs converted to monosaccharides o Amylase 17 Salivary glands of some species Primary source = pancreas Starch to maltose o Other enzymes from mucosal lining of the duodenum o Corn, milo, barley, oats = common Dietary carb levels exceed animal’s ability to digest it - diarrhea occurs Monosaccharides rapidly absorbed by small intestine and transported via blood to be metabolized as an energy source Storage o Little stored as carbohydrates o Some glucose stored as glycogen Rapid release in muscular activity Regulation of blood glucose No enzymes to digest cellulose, hemicellulose, and other carbs in fibrous feedstuffs o Occurs in rumen, cecum, colon from microbial action with varying success Monogastrics: horses > swine, rabbits > poultry, dogs, cats Ruminants o Young ruminant animals are functionally monogastric Eat solid food Bacterial and protozoal populations gradually develop in the rumen Microbial organisms produce VFAs Papillae in rumen to develop and mature, enabling the animal to digest more complex carbohydrates (cellulose, hemicellulose) o Fully developed rumen Anaerobic microorganisms digest the starches, sugars, cellulose, and other polysaccharides (different microbes eat different foods) Produce CO2, water, heat, VFAs VFAs absorbed through rumen wall as energy Different substrates (feeds) produce different VFAs o High cellulose = more acetic acid o High cereal grains = more proprionic acid o Butyric acid Amylase secreted into the small intestine o Secretion in the small intestine is low o Lower ability to digest starches in small intestine o Some animals can secrete salivary amylase These animals can taste sweet Limited 18 Microorganisms in the rumen is most efficient at digesting fibrous carbohydrates o Cellulose and hemicellulose o Retained in rumen for long periods of time o Lignin Indigestible polyphenolic polymer Combines with the cellular wall components of plants to increase rigidity of the plant Digestibility decreases as plant age increases Higher concentrations in the stems than leaves The presence of lignin is what allows an animal to digest the cellulose/hemicellulose Protein Energy: Monogastrics cannot breakdown VFAs or regular fatty acids A fat has to be broken down into a glycerol + 3 fatty acids Ruminants: VFAs are not broken down, but rather absorbed through the rumen wall and used immediately Most expensive feed ingredient CALORIES!! Highest concentration of any nutrient, except water All living cells synthesize proteins Range from very insoluble (feather, hair, wool hooves) to soluble (plasma globulins) Large molecules i.e. immunoglobulins (antibodies) Long chains of amino acids linked together Amino Acid Contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (COOH) group Attached to a carbon skeleton Contain nitrogen! Physical and chemical derived from amino acid sequence and linkages to other compounds o Iron (hemoglobin) o Phosphorous (casein – milk) o Carbohydrates (glucoproteins) o Lipids (lipoproteins) Transporting lipids to areas of the body where the animal needs them Protein Synthesis Controlled by DNA DNA specifies the order in which amino acids are linked o Order determines the type of protein being synthesized 19 Sources of Amino Acids Supplies in the diet or as a result of digestive processes Most proteins in plants and animals composed of about 20 amino acids o Plants and many microorganisms can synthesize all amino acids they need from inorganic nitrogen sources Inorganic nitrogen sources: ammonia (NH3), nitrate Higher animals are not capable of synthesizing all amino acids required for tissues o Essential amino acids (non-dispensable): animal cannot produce adequate amounts to satisfy the requirement o Nonessential amino acids (dispensable): tissues of the animal synthesize adequate amounts First limiting amino acid: the amino acid that is present in the least amount as compared to what the animal needs o Most likely to be deficient = lysine, methionine, tryptophan Cereal grains very low If a specific amino acid is required to synthesize a protein but that amino acid is not available, the protein cannot be synthesized Sources of Amino Acids in Ruminants Do not have the same dietary requirements for amino acids Microbes synthesize microbial protein (microbes have baby microbes!) o Can provide amino acids o Can survive on diets that contain a nitrogen source What makes a good source of protein? Microbes are a mediums source of protein 20 Large numbers of amino acids in the perfect balance o Not limited (i.e. lysine) Nutritive Value of Protein Sources Animal must be able to convert dietary protein into amino acids o Cannot consume C-O-R-N protein. Must break the bonds to make C O R N. Those amino acids are brought to different areas of the body (i.e. C brought to the hoof to make H-O-O-F) Most protein sources used in feeding animals are 75-80% digestible Monogastrics stomach o Ability to digest various protein sources varies o Plant protein sources can contain various inhibitors that affect protein utilization Soybeans - trypsin inhibitor Trypsin is an enzyme that breaks down proteins Soybeans prevent trypsin from working Can be inactivated by heat-treating soybeans Measures of Protein Adequacy o How well dietary amino acids match the animal’s need to synthesize protein o Relative Biological Value (BV) Portion of amino acids that are actually retained by the animal Amino acids readily absorbed in the anterior portion of the small intestine Balance of amino acids being absorbed affects the BV of the protein source Take C-O-R-N. Say that R is not needed so only C, O, and N are absorbed. R is eliminated. BV is 75% Amount of available amino acids (especially essential amino acids) present in the protein source affect its BV Getting amino acids from animal tissue has a BV than that of a plant tissue i.e. fish meal has a high BV Expensive to feed animal protein to animals because of the human meat industry o Common in companion animals and baby animals o Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER): number of grams of body weight gain of an animal per unit of protein consumed o Net Protein Value (NPV) Efficiency of growth Measured by comparing body nitrogen uptake from feeding a test protein with that from feeding a comparable group of animals a protein-free diet for the same amount of time 21 Computed by multiplying the digestibility of a protein by the BV Horses and companion animals have feedstuffs that have high amounts of protein (i.e. 12% CP) o Protein makes muscle, hair, fingernails, etc. o High amounts of protein needed for growing animals i.e. baby pig – 21% CP, 6 month old pig – 13% CP, etc. o Protein turnover occurs thanks to calories Blending of Feedstuffs o Associative effect between feeds To obtain an ideal balance of amino acids at the most economical price Excess amino acids can be absorbed, metabolized, and used as a source of energy, but most of them are simply excreted o Quality is less important to ruminants than monogastrics Ruminants eat microbial protein Dietary Requirements – Monogastric and Avian Species Dietary requirement for essential amino acids Highest for young animals and decreases with age/growth Lowest for adult animals in maintenance situations (i.e. replacement of hair, nails, etc.) Increase during pregnancy and peak lactation/egg production Dietary Protein Deficiency If one or more amino acids are limited If dietary protein level is inadequate Symptoms of deficiency o Poor growth rate o Reduced nitrogen retention o Poor utilization and low consumption of feed i.e. digestive enzymes o Lowered birth weights, high infant mortality 22 o Reduced milk or egg production o Infertility in both males and females Severity of symptoms related to severity of protein deficiency Accompanied by deficiencies of other nutrients Ruminants: causes a depression of appetite resulting in inadequate dietary energy intake Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN Test) can assess protein status Lysine only – specific sign of deficiency o i.e. black feathered turkeys – lysine deficiency produces a white barring of the primary fight feathers Excess Dietary Protein Herbivorous animals in natural habitat – during periods of lush growth of vegetation Confined domestic animals (i.e. pigs) – not a common problem because livestock owners are more aware of the costs of protein supplements No adverse effects from consuming excess protein Monogastrics – problems occur when non-protein nitrogen sources are mistakenly incorporated into rations o Nitrogen in its pure form (i.e. fertilizer) or urea (nitrogen containing compound) 23
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