study guide for NTR 241 exam 2
study guide for NTR 241 exam 2 NTR 241
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Natalie Willins on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to NTR 241 at Arizona State University taught by Miller in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 166 views. For similar materials see Human Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
NTR 241: Study Guide for Exam 2 Exam 2 is comprised of 60 multiple choice and true/false questions along with 2 short answer questions. Please bring a pencil for scantron form and a BASIC calculator for figuring out calories from carbohydrates and fat grams. NO PHONES OR GRAPHING CALCULATORS WILL BE ALLOWED!!!!! Chapter 4: Carbohydrates Calories in a gram of carbohydrate o 4 calories How to calculate calories of carb from grams of carb o Ex: food has 4 grams of carbs, so multiply 4 (# of grams) by 4 (number of calories in a gram), therefore there are 16 calories of carbohydrates in 4 grams How to calculate grams of carb from calories of carb o Ex: 16 calories of carbohydrates, so divide 16 (# of calories) by 4 (number of calories in a gram), therefore there are 4 grams of carbohydrates Be familiar with where to find carbs/fiber on a food label What makes a grain a “whole grain”—anatomy of a grain and what each part contains o Whole grains contain all 3 parts of the grain Bran: outermost covering; high in fiber, contains most of the vitamins and minerals Endosperm: middle part that surrounds the germ; contains most of the carbs and protein Germ: in base of kernel; contains the healthy fats and some vitamins Definition of monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides o Monosaccharides: carbohydrates that only consist of 1 sugar molecule Fructose (levulose): occurs in fruits and vegetables; exists in high-fructose corn syrup Galactose: doesn’t occur alone in foods Ribose: 5-carbons; bodies produce ribose from what we eat; contained in genetic material from cells (DNA/RNA) Glucose: doesn’t occur by itself in foods; attaches to other sugars to make disaccharides o Disaccharides: carbohydrates that consist of 2 sugar molecules Lactose: milk sugar, 1 glucose molecule + 1 galactose molecule Maltose: malt sugar; 2 glucose molecules; doesn’t occur by itself (bound with other molecules); by-product of bigger molecules being broken down; results from fermentation Sucrose: 1 glucose molecule + 1 fructose molecule Ingredients that indicate a whole grain or healthier choice on food label o Whole wheat o Whole oats o Other whole grains Definition of enriched vs. fortified o Enriched: nutrients are lost and then added back; product is lower in fiber because not all nutrients are replaced o Fortified: has nutrients that didn’t originally exist in the food or existed in very small amounts Definition and characteristics of soluble fiber vs. insoluble fiber o Soluble: dissolve in water; form gel when wet; easily digested by bacteria in colon; found in citrus fruits, oats, beans, berries. Reduces risk of cardiovascular disease/type 2 diabetes; lowers blood glucose/ cholesterol levels. Include pectins, gums, and mucilages. o Insoluble: don’t dissolve in water; found in whole grains and vegetables. Promote bowel movements; reduce risk for colon cancer. Includes lignins, cellulose, hemicelluloses What types of fiber are good for reducing colon cancer risk? o Insoluble Reducing high cholesterol levels? o Soluble Glycemic index and scoring related to it—what does a high number vs. low number mean? o High number: foods cause a sudden rise in blood glucose and insulin; followed by big drop in blood glucose o Low number: moderate fluctuations in blood glucose Why can’t all types of carbs be measured accurately on the glycemic index? o The way food is prepared and fat and fiber content can affect the length of time the body takes to absorb it. How does the fructose absorption differ from the other monosaccharides? o Fuel source used during high-intensity exercise vs. source used at rest o Carbohydrates are used during high-intensity exercise (sprinting) o Fat is used at rest Physiology of type 1 diabetes o Accounts for 10% of all cases o Beta cells don’t produce enough/any insulin o External insulin must be given o Genetic Be able to differentiate between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes o Type 2 diabetes Adult-onset Unclear cause; genetics, obesity, and physical inactivity play role Treatment: weight loss, healthy eating, regular exercise, medications Healthy lifestyle choices may prevent or delay onset In lactose intolerance, what is the issue or reason for the intolerance? o Insufficient lactase enzyme to digest lactose AMDR for carbohydrates o 45-65 Benefits of high fiber diet as it relates to chronic disease o Lower risk of coronary heart disease o Lower risk of colon cancer o Lower risk of diverticulosis o Lower risk of type 2 diabetes Most common type of diabetes? What puts you at higher risk? o Type 2 diabetes: most common o Metabolic syndrome: cluster of risk factors that increase risk Dietary fiber vs. functional fiber and where each can be found o Dietary fiber: non-digestible parts of plants; found in: leaves, stems, and seeds of plants o Functional fiber: non-digestible forms of carbohydrates; found in: extracted from plants or made in a lab Foods that contain sugar alcohols o Sugar-free gum, mints, diabetic candies Examples of nutritive vs. non-nutritive sweeteners o Nutritive: sucrose, fructose, honey, brown sugar, agave nectar, maple syrup (contribute calories) o Non-nutritive: saccharin, acesulfame-K, aspartame, sucralose, truvia, purevia (alternative sweeteners that don’t provide energy) Artificial sweetener with history of causing cancer in lab rats o Saccharin Insulin and glucagon—what do they do to blood glucose levels? o Insulin: secreted by beta cells of the pancreas in order to lower blood glucose levels o Glucagon: secreted by alpha cells of the pancreas in order to raise blood glucose levels What effect do cortisol, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and growth hormone have on blood glucose levels? o Epinephrine and cortisol: maintain blood glucose levels o Norepinephrine: increases blood glucose levels Diverticulitis and how to reduce risk of developing it o Pouches form in the wall of the colon become inflamed or infected o How to reduce risk: reduce stress, take pro/prebiotics Enzyme that breaks down carbohydrates in mouth and small intestine o Salivary amylase Characteristics simple vs. complex carbohydrates—why is one better than the other? o Simple: consist of 1 sugar molecule o Complex: carbohydrates with 3+ monosaccharides o Complex are better than simple due to the fiber content Storage sites for carbohydrates in body and form they are stored in o Glycogen What is used for fuel if there is not enough carb consumed? (Think ketosis) o Short term: ketosis- fat breaks down and forms ketones o Long term: ketoacidosis- excess ketones lead to increase in blood acidity What is gluconeogenesis? o Occurs when a diet is deficient in carbohydrate; body makes own glucose from protein Be familiar with how blood glucose is tested by a person at home o Use a blood glucose meter and strips. Test blood sugar before eating (fasting blood sugar) and then again one hour after eating a fast acting carb. Measure again after 2 and 3 hours. What is an insulin pump? Why is it used by some people and not everyone who has diabetes? o Delivers precise amounts of insulin into body continuously. Some people use shots to give themselves insulin. Chapter 5: Lipids/Fats Composition of a triglyceride o 3 fatty acid molecules o 1 glycerol molecule 3 characteristics used to classify triglycerides—why do these characteristics matter? o Carbon chain length: determines method of lipid digestion, rate of absorption, metabolism, use o Saturation level: can be saturated (hydrogen atoms surround every carbon in the chain), monounsaturated (missing 1 hydrogen atom), polyunsaturated (more than 1 double bond) o Shape: saturated (pack tightly together; solid at room temp), unsaturated (don’t stack together well; liquid at room temp) 3 types of lipids o Phospholipids o Glycolipids o Cholesterol Functions of fat in the body/importance of fat in our diet o Functions: energy, vitamin absorption, insulation, adds to flavor Calories in a gram of fat o 9 calories Enzymes involved in digestion of fats o Pancreatic lipase o Bile o Cholesterol esterase Site of digestion and absorption of fats o Digestion: gallbladder, liver, pancreas o Absorption: small intestine Two carriers for dietary TGs after digestion and the difference between the two o Micelles: transports lipid digestion to the enterocytes where components form micelles reform triglycerides and are repackaged o Chylomicrons: transport into the lymphatic system Factors that decrease risk of heart disease o Minimize saturated/trans fatty acid intake o Omega 3 fatty acids (alpha linonlenic acid maintain normal blood glucose level) o Eat throughout the day o No more than 2 alcoholic beverages for men and 1 drink/day for women o Decrease salt intake Types of fats that increase risk of CVD o High saturated and trans fat intakes increase blood cholesterol level 3 ways fat is used after it is absorbed by body—what are 3 different things or ways it is used? o Can be used immediately for energy o Used to make lipid-containing compounds o Stored in muscle and adipose tissue Where is fat stored in the body? o Adipose tissue o Muscle tissue Definition and characteristics of saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, and polyunsaturated fats o Saturated fats: have hydrogen surrounding every carbon in the chain o Monounsaturated: lack 1 hydrogen atom so it has 1 double bond o Polyunsaturated: more than 1 double bond, liquid at room temperature If given an ingredient list, how do you know if product contains trans fat (without seeing nutrition label)? o The words hydrogenated, partially hydrogenated oils Effect of exercise on triglyceride storage o Stored in muscle if exercise a lot Relationship between diabetes and heart disease o Starts with high blood sugar levels Difference in absorption of short, medium and long chain fatty acids o It is easier to absorb short and medium fatty acids Phospholipids—where are they found and what is their function? o They have a hydrophobic tail and hydrophilic head (phosphate head) o Helps to regulate transport of substances into/out of the cell HDL, LDL, VLDL—differences between these? o HDL: small dense lipoproteins with a very low cholesterol content and a high protein content. Synthesized in liver and released into blood. Transported throughout body, picking up free cholesterol o LDL: molecules resulting when VLDL release their triglyceride load and are much higher in cholesterol, phospholipids, and protein (more dense) o VLDL: 80% formed in liver, 20% formed in intestine Common food sources of saturated and unsaturated fats o Saturated: animal fats, lard, butter o Unsaturated: plant oils, cashews, nuts What are the specific essential fatty acids and why they are classified as “essential?” o Can’t be synthesized by body o Must be obtained from food o Precursors of eicosanoids o Regulate inflammation, maintain BP, vasodilation/constriction Cis vs. trans fatty acid structure (which of the 3 classifications of triglycerides is this related to?) o CIS: hydrogens are on the same side o Trans: fatty acids on opposite sides Chemical structure of triglycerides and monoglyceride o Triglycerides: 3 fatty acids, 1 glycerol o Monoglycerides: 1 glycerol molecule 1 fatty acid Good sources of EPA and DHA in diet o Fish Drugs that lower cholesterol levels and what they do—what lipoprotein do they affect? o Satins: endogenous cholesterol synthesis inhibitors Lower blood levels of LDL cholesterol and VLDL cholesterol o Bile acid sequestrants: bind bile acids, preventing them from being reabsorbed by intestinal tract o Nicotinic acid: affects all lipids when given pharmacollically Benefit of high HDL levels? o Associated with low risk of coronary artery disease o “Good cholesterol” Where is cholesterol made and who makes it? o Most cells in the body makes all of the cholesterol that it needs Functions of cholesterol?—why is it important for function of body? o Maintain cell membrane integrity o Modulate fluidity o Make sterol compounds (ex. Sex hormones/vitamin D) Why is dietary fat important for absorbing vitamins A, D, E, and K o The vitamins’ ability to dissolve in fat allows for their absorption o Fats can move across the cell walls of the small intestine into the general circulation (any vitamins dissolved in that fat are then absorbed into the body) o Fats carry the vitamins through intestine bloodstream liver storage o No fat = no absorption AMDR for fat o 20-35
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