PSCI 2014 Midterm Study Guide
PSCI 2014 Midterm Study Guide PSCI 2014
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by windwalkerr on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSCI 2014 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Rohan Kalyan in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Political Theory in Political Science at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
Midterm Study Guide 2.28.16 Positive social science: deals w/ being empirical. Has to do with reality, can be observed. It’s testable (falsifiable). Normative social science: more reflective. Not saying something that can be measured. Often not true or false per se; not necessarily measured but you can create propositions. When internally consistent, can constitute a theory. Evaluative; meaning what is its innate value. 2 basic diff kinds of it: Liberal: about how to create just liberal societies. Given ideas on society, we can make them exist. They should exist. Critical: questions liberalism. What else could there be beyond liberalism? Still asking a normative question, since not necessarily measureable. Positivists accept the world as it is so as to better measure it. A liberal theorist accepts this world not “as it is”, but “as it might become” or as it should be. Rather than asking who’s a democrat & who’s republican, are they qualified to vote? Critical theorists also disagree w/ “as it is” theory, ask if another world is possible (why are there only 2 parties?) Are both parties representing everyone? What’s being excluded? Why are things the way that they are? Nation state: yielding their centrality to global community, to betterment (or detriment) of ppl everywhere. NS is building block of pol science. What is the role of the ns? Does it work w/ global community or against it? Ideology is a “specific form of untruth.”19 century is when politics becomes defined by ideology. 19 century ideology: Liberalism: What is valued? individual freedom political equality/rights economic inequality/market competition o Accepts that there’s some benefit to inequality. Because there are rich & poor, diff roles in society. Division of labor. Representative gov’t Rule of law o We still have a say in gov’t, even if indirect. Laws are an expression of our pol expressions, so we should obey them. They come from ppl thru representative gov’t Limited gov’t** o History of liberalism arose through rev against monarchies. Certain things that gov’t shouldn’t do. Gov’t shouldn’t interfere in market. Consent o Liberal polities work towards trying to meet in the middle. **Liberalism is always measuring what the limits of gov’t are. John Locke (16321704): Father of liberalism. Human beings work born as blank states; everything we know is a result of what we experience. **Social contract to agree to be governed btw members of society. o State of nature existed before gov’t. Midterm Study Guide 2.28.16 It has perfect freedom, absolute equality, & natural law. Implicit laws that said you had freedom as long as you didn’t infringe on someone else. Property→ labor theory of value. Property becomes most important thing to protect Contrast w/ Thomas Hobbes. Also spoke about state of nature, but he saw it in a more cruel way. He said life was poor, solitary, nasty, brutish, & short. For Locke: uncertain, unsafe, and dangerous. Birth of political society or social contract: People living in state of nature agree among themselves choose to live under gov’t. Individuals give up perfect freedom of state of nature for “bonds of civil society”. **When a gov’t stops protecting the liberties of the ppl, gov’t can be dissolved when state no longer protects property & liberty of citizens. Declaration of the Rights of Man Natural rights of man o Liberty, property, security, resistance to oppression Law as expression of community limited gov’t Protected rights: free religion, expression, assembly, innocent before guilty Edmund burke: Father of conservatism, whig party. What is valued? Tradition Don’t believe you can dissolve gov’t and start over; the past matters Stability over change Gradual over revolutionary change Liberal values of individualism, property, ec inequality Suspicious of political equality/democracy; some ppl aren’t as educated and shouldn’t vote. Burke’s issues w/ the French” Liberals too readily swept aside traditional authority & inherited rights in favor of idealizations (rights of man). Not all equal, some are educated, some aren’t, some have property, etc. Real rights of man vs. natural rights whose “abstract perfection is practical defect” He was against imperialism Social contract is not just w/ present citizens, but past & future generations. **There must be continuity. Marxism/Socialism: Means to get communist future. Radical equality (political/economic) o Economic equality is most imp, hand in hand w/ pol equality Working class o Looks less at ind, more at classes Politics = class struggle Collective action Disappearance of class distinctions Midterm Study Guide 2.28.16 Bourgeoisie: o Owners of means of production o Control the state o Promote ideology of liberalism o Agree w/ conservatives that not everyone is equal, but say it’s due to economic position in society. o Freemarket is means to domination; people that can take advantage vs those who can’t. o Exploit workers Proletarians: Conjured by bourgeoisie Politically free but socially unfree; no one’s forcing them, but they have to survive Must work to survive, nothing to sell but their own labor power Conservatism: Tradition Stability Gradual over rev change Liberal values of individualism, property, ec inequality Suspicious of pol equality/democracy Anarchism & more Anarchism: Emma Goldman Its most misunderstood political theory She was selftaught Politicized by Haymarket affair Group of anarchists lit a bomb during a workers protest Self gov’t o Don’t need an inst telling you what to do o Any centralized power results to power o Against all of them Voluntarism o No one should tell you to do something, you should do it yourself Horizontalism o Disdain for any hierarchy o Leaderless o Group comes up w/ consensus w/o leader Direct action/disruption/propaganda of the deed/occupation o Direct pol action, not violence for the most part o *occupy a space **Defines anarchism as: philosophy of new social order based on liberty unrestricted by manmade law; theory that all forms of gov’t rest on violence, & are therefore wrong & harmful, as well as unnecessary. Midterm Study Guide 2.28.16 Against org religion, private property, & gov’t. She says it isn’t return to state of nature. Doesn’t really believe it existed. We don’t actually know what human nature is bc we haven’t experienced it. Original social contract was for white men. Social contract is a myth that America tells itself to believe that state is neutral & legitimate, & that citizens are equal. 20 century ideologies Overall themes Nature of the state Individual autonomy vs social/pol authority o All these ideologies claim to speak for the individual How do individuals relate to the collective Utopian theory vs pragmatism o Ideal society is still yet to be achieved vs practical struggles of today V. Lenin State & Revolution Transition from capitalism to communism Argues that democracy never existed under capitalism Charts 2 phases of communism o First phase Characterized by dictatorship of proletariat Argues that you need the gov’t, need the state. But instead of bourgeoisie, you need proletariat to take control of state & institute reforms. Lenin says you need this, bc bourgeois values still reign supreme o Higher phase of communism As class distinction disappears, no longer need the state G. Gentile Philosophical Basis of Fascism Fascism is form of “ultranationalism” An elite few express will of the nation State & individual become one Fascist state goes looking for individual so as to create itself thru individual’s will o Abstract political citizen o Looks for individual that exists as specialized productive force Nazism = fascist state + racism Paul Starr Why Liberalism Works Egalitarianism Equality of outcome: succeed in same way Equality of opportunity: equal chances to succeed o Liberalism favored equality of opportunity. o Expansion of individual freedom o Stronger state State becomes more involved in society Midterm Study Guide 2.28.16 o Democratic partnership at home & abroad Old vs new liberalism o True political equality for all o Control raw capitalism (laissez faire) o International cooperation th Achievements of 20 century liberalism o Increased social welfare expenditures o Labor & environment regulation o Increased economic productivity thru public investment John Kekes Case for Conservatism Four conservative beliefs: o Skepticism o Pluralism o Traditionalism o Pessimism (good ppl & bad ppl) 3 criticisms of post war liberalism: o Failed attempts at “social engineering” o Moral permissiveness, value relativism o Social over military spending o Guiding assumption: Poverty, racial differences in wellbeing, environment deterioration have no clear or costless solutions New Quasi Ideologies Communitarianism emphasizes connection btw individual & community Based upon belief that person’s social identity & personality are largely molded by community relationships Critical of liberalism’s veneration of individual o Individuals don’t exist in a vacuum. Individuals influenced by everything o Can be taken leftward or rightward Michael Sandel – “America’s Search for New Public Philosophy” Old republicanism – shared responsibility among citizens o Main goal was to produce citizens responsible for selfgovernance New public philosophy citizens imagined as individuals free to choose their own ends o Procedural republic: gov’t should be neutral o Promise of liberty: individual sovereignty devoid of community moral restraints As long as you’re not harming someone else, you can do whatever you want o **Lacks resources to sustain selfgov’t Sandel’s issue o Leads to “present discontent” His assumption: liberty requires sense of community/civic engagement Politics cannot be neutral w/ respect to actions/decisions of individuals; needs normative direction Midterm Study Guide 2.28.16 Richard Neuhaus “Public religion & public reason” Shares communitarian concerns of Sandel, takes them in more conservative direction Sociological fact: values of am ppl are deeply rooted in religion Politics ← culture ← religion Against secular humanism Against religious fundamentalism o Religious arguments in pol must be informed by public reason Susan Moller Okin “Justice, Gender, & family” Liberal laws treat women as equal, but in other spheres of life women are treated as unequal Family is a political space, and women have long been assumed as unequal Gender vs sex o Sex: biologically determined (more or less fixed) o Gender: socially constructed (can change) o Feminism places greater emphasis on gender, argues that patriarchal ideologies favor biological determinism of sex at expense of understanding gender construction Post colonialism: Ecosophy: ecology & philosophy. View of humans as integral part of “total field image” of nature (includes all living things). Selfrealization: if one doesn’t know how outcomes of one’s actions will affect other beings, one should not act. It’s about recognizing your own limits in understanding the world. Deep ecology vs shallow ecology: Shallow ecology seeks to preserve or conserve nature w/in current political economic structure of liberalist capitalism Deep ecology challenges this current structure at several levels o Argues that economic growth isn’t neutral but harmful o Belief in never ending progress, development is artificial & bad for humans & environment. o Deep ecology privileges relational thinking & interdependence over autonomy favors life quality over standard of living (measurable) Anthropocentrism: human centered view of world. When we try to understand nonhumans, we attribute human qualities. Anthropocene: period of geological history where human actions have contributed to planetary level change. An era of planetary existence begins w/ Agricultural revolution 10000 years ago. Cereals domesticating humans from foraging & subsistence to cultivation o introduces division of labor, social hierarchy o family as laboring unit w/ gendered division of labor o women as biological & social reproduction o plantations were engines of European expansion Ontological Conceptions Midterm Study Guide 2.28.16 4 philosophical assumptions 1. Ultimate reality 2. Human nature 3. Images of society 4. Epistemological foundations What is real? The ultimate reality is material/physical ideational: not physical world that we experience with senses, but rather world of ideas & thought Schumaker argues that stronger ontological beliefs lead to less flexible politics, more ideologically rigid Ontologies Platonist/idealist ontology → Plato’s theory of forms Holistic ontology →Wilbur (expanding, transcendental consciousness) Representational/idealist ontology→ Rousseau (General Will) Materialist/Marxist ontology: (Marx & Engels (dialectical materialism Darwinism/evolutionary ontology →Darwin (natural selection) In response to Darwin: ethical ontology → Huxley (survival of most ethical) Postrepresentational ontology: Butler (performativity). She’s a feminist Plato, The republic (360 BC) Socrates was executive for “corrupting the youth” (questioning world of representations, distrust of empirical world) Plato’s theory of the forms: unmistakably political edge, distrust of demos, representative, empirical world Ideal/Spiritual Ontology Two separate realms: o Sensory world: changing, imperfect, temporary Visible (senses) Everything we sense in visible world is but imperfect manifestation of its eternal essence o Ideal world: perfect, unchanging, eternal (the intelligible (ideas)) We come from ideal world & return to it after death Hierarchy of consciousness Forms, abstract understanding → philosopher king Mathematical realities, reasoning → scientists, philosophers Objects of sense → citizens Implications of Platonism Midterm Study Guide 2.28.16 We must measure visible world according to ideal world in order to evaluate it (beginning of normative thought, moral & aesthetic judgment). Even if ideal world is impossible, it remains valuable as “regulative ideal”→ ideas of goodness, virtue, justice, morality, etc. Birth of metaphysics: physical world itself isn’t perfect. Metaphysical is where true reality exists Ullam, “Ascending & Descending theses of gov’t” Platonism as example of descending theory: original (ultimate) power/reality is located in supreme being, God, clergy, theocracy Ascending theory: original power is located in ppl/populist ontology Rousseau “on the General will” Populist/rep ontology General will is common good that unites “body politic” guided by justice Based on equality, direct democracy, & genuine freedom o Differs from Hobbes & Locke Social contract o Unlike Hobbes, unlike Locke More utopian than practical Engels, “Marx’ Materialist Conception of History” Argues against Hegel’s idealism: o History is progression/dev of actual states to absolute idea/end of history Marx’ inversion of Hegel’s Idealism o Replaces idealist w/ materialist ontology o How wealth is produced & distributed in society is causal determinant of dominant ideas o Ruling ideas of every age are always ideas of ruling class o Levels of reality: Base (mode/relations of production) Superstructure (ideas/ideologies) always lags behind base Implications: revolutionary pol must focus on economic/material base Capitalism is productive but wasteful; socialism will be scientific & ideal (Plato) Darwin “Natural Selection” Ontology of difference, change, & variation even within similar groups. Human selection: breeding of plants & animals (limited by our perceptions/interests Natural selection: survival of fittest (unlimited, shaped by the cosmos, meaning outside of our control) Geological materialism Planetary time → indifferent to humans o We can’t control it Superstructure → living beings Base → planet earth, matter, gravity Midterm Study Guide 2.28.16 Isolation is bad for any species Huxley “Evolution & Ethics” Natural selection is an amoral, cosmic process; not that it is bad, but it exists outside of morals o Nature is indifferent to our emotions, exists outside of our influence Humans transpose human characteristics to animals in an attempt to understand Human selection is moral; not just good/bad, but useful against social Darwinism Human evolution isn’t survival of the fittest but survival of most ethical The more advanced the civilization, the less natural selection matters Herbert Spencer & Social Darwinism Evolution guides natural, social, & human processes Societies are organisms that adopt, change & survive like others Social progress happens naturally, w/o need for human intervention (“survival of the fittest”) Takes visible (racial) differences & gives them social meaning → eugenics, Plato’s cave Dubois “Soul of Black Folk” Ellison “Invisible Man” (1952) They’ll only see me as a black man, not as a person Fanon “Fact of Blackness” Proposed that “blackness” isn’t a selfcreated identity, but one that is thrust upon black people describes blackness as a social uniform which functions as a means to set apart & ultimately alienate blacks o He characterizes this phenomenon as the fact of blackness A black man isn’t a slave of an idea that people have of him, but of his own appearance He argues that blackness is a constructed identity that exists for the purpose of distinguishing between black & white o Fixed image Fanon was born in Martinique (19251961) o Joined Algerian side of the Algerian war for independence from France o Black skins, white masks (1952) Ontology doesn’t permit us to understand the being of a black man. Human Nature St. Augustine Believed that human nature couldn’t be perfected Concept of “original sin” descended from Adam & Eve Idea of 2 cities: city of man & city of God o Man is too dependent on money & greed Midterm Study Guide 2.28.16 Lived 354430 AD o He lived and wrote during the steady decline of Roman Empire Linear history of humanity o Nothing lasts forever Creation Fall of man (Adam & Eve) Redemption o Augustine wasn’t that hopeful for human nature. He believed that most people will succumb to greed. Original sin: concept that we can’t achieve perfection because of our origins o Using free will to turn away from God’s will Herbert Deane on St. Augustine Evil is absence of good, not the positive creation of God, therefore God is not responsible for evil Human nature: egoistic, prideful, selfinterested, disobedient, insatiable desires Bifurcated world o City of god: eternal, peaceful, harmony o City of earth: corrupt, selfish, materialistic **Humans need gov’t to contain sinful ways Predetermination of the saved & damned, wealthy not necessarily righteous & vice versa Hobbes (15881679) Divine right of kings: kings chosen by God o Hobbes said that this was nonsense o Similar to Augustine, but w/o religion Leviathan: strong authoritarian rule o like Augustine, but replaces God w/gov’t from equality proceeds diffidence/insecurity/fear from diffidence proceeds war outside of gov’t; war of all against all (state of nature) social contract: o fear of death, desire for commodious living, hope to work hard to attain material goods pushes men to agreement o submission to rule of Leviathan is better than being out in state of nature o **Locke modifies Hobbes’ argument while retaining premise of cruelty of state of nature o Locke writes after Glorious Revolution (1688) & Hobbes during exile/English civil war (16421651) Locke is slightly more liberal, whereas Hobbes will take any form of gov’t Locke willing to overthrow gov’t if it isn’t doing what ppl want. MacPherson “Early Liberal Model of Man” th th Classical liberalism (18 & 19 century) inherits state of nature assumptions of Hobbes & Locke & shares some negative views regarding human nature from Hobbes & Augustine liberalism values selfishness, egotism, & competitive Midterm Study Guide 2.28.16 Utilitarian conception of human nature arises w/ industrial capitalism & maturation of liberal democracy o Man as utility maximizer, possessive individualism Money = happiness/utility Possessive individualism: whatever I’ve acquired is mine & mine alone, & I should want more Happiness/pleasure measured by $$ o Minimalist role for gov’t; gov’t shouldn’t interfere w/ your ability to make money bc it causes pain Marx “Estranged Labor” Centers on idea of worker alienation Industrial capitalism coincides w/ liberal democracy o Under liberal democracy, people are politically free but socially unfree o Liberalism protects liberal private property, but only the wealthy have it Poor people have only labor power, which they own & sell for a wage Only the capitalist class is both politically/socially free Voting is therefore only there to placate the masses Alienation: workers alienated from means of production as well as final product of their labor o turns workers into commodities o must sell themselves to live species being of humans is free; people live in inorganic nature Marx on Human nature Marx uses the term species being (essence of species) instead of “human nature” Work is the essence of humans o humans shaped by their social relations & that humans shape their own nature Against “human nature” bc term makes it seem like we never change makes the distinction btw humans & animals o Animals produce w/o planning or preparation o Human produce after thinking & planning Humans “humanize” nature o They recreate & reconstruct nature w/ human characteristics for their own ends (surplus production; more than we need) o Humans find their meaning/happiness in their life activity Product is theirs; unalienated labor, essence of our beings. Under capitalism, labor becomes estranged/alienated o Worker detached from means of production (cog in a machine) o Worker also detached from ends of production (final product) Capitalism is most efficient system o Increases surplus accumulation through efficiency & exploitation of labor Kropotkin “Mutual Aid” human evolution driven by 2 dialectical forces: o individual selfassertion (**Western thought) Midterm Study Guide 2.28.16 o mutual aid (mostly ignored in Western society) mutual aid: reduces struggle for existence in both animal/human society poor people tend to celebrate mutual aid & interdependence much more than the rich, who tend to forget who helped them get to the top believed people should help each other w/o gov’t telling them to Chang “assume the worst…” free market economists assume that humans are in it for their selfinterest o defines economic rationality; universal while selfinterest is primary driver of economic & political activity, it’s not only (or most important) influence ideologies of selfinterest can selfperpetuate how people think about morality of “small town” versus that of big city Rawls “Rationality & motivation of Parties in Original position” humans aren’t irredeemably selfcentered, dogmatic, prideful, etc o they have capacity for genuine toleration & mutual respect humans neither good/bad on others make their own life plans by acquiring social goods (income, wealth, power, status, education) Original position: abstract space/time when individuals rationally agree to sense of justice that can contain negative consequences of individual pursuits. **main point: humans are rational Humans have rational sense of justice Sandel “Procedural Republic & Unencumbered Self” Argues that liberals like Rawls & Kant use abstract individualism (unencumbered subjects guided by rationality) as basis for moral law/justice Humans aren’t abstract, unencumbered subjects o They are shaped by family, community, history, etc Parekh “Conceptual Human beings” Humans have universal traits, instincts, processes o Survival, nurturing, birth/death o These aren’t “human nature” o Humans are deeply socialized; no access to “natural human” So diverse & complex, impossible to know what a natural human is since we are deeply affected by nurture Politics of human nature o Philosophers often think about certain conceptions of human nature to justify particular social/political arrangement Male/female gender roles justify inequality/oppression 3 levels of thinking of human nature as universal: Common species Midterm Study Guide 2.28.16 Cultural/social communities Individual consciousness Possible responses: o cultural relativism → ignores what is shared o strong universalism → ignores what is distinct (monism) o weak universalism (minimalist) → ignores cultural meaning of universal pluralist universalism: o different cultures/societies define universal human instincts/traits/processes in distinct ways o universal morality is not an abstract form (like in Plato) or rationality (like Rawls/Kant) that comes from transcendent realm
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