Developmental Study Guide Exam 2
Developmental Study Guide Exam 2 PSYC 3120
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashlyn Masters on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 3120 at Auburn University taught by Elizabeth Brestan Knight in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 107 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
Developmental Psychology Exam 2 Study Guide Highlight = important terms Highlight = important people Highlight = important concepts **Anything bolded is a “vocab term” 1. Vygotsky: zone of proximal development, cultural tools, scaffolding, level of independent functioning, level of assisted functioning • Level of independent functioning: what can a child do by themselves • Level of assisted functioning: what can a child do with help • Zone of proximal development (ZPD): area between these two types of performance • Scaffolding: the support for learning and problem solving that encourages independence and growth • Cultural tools: actual, physical items as well as an intellectual and conceptual framework for solving problems 2. Preoperational period and the phenomena associated with it (e.g., egocentrism, animistic thinking, transformation, symbolic function) • Age 2-7 (not a concrete age range) • Children begin to understand symbolic function: the notion that a symbol can stand for something else o E.g., letters can stand for sounds, words can stand for objects, objects can represent things in the real world • Egocentrism: child sees the world from their point of view o They have a hard time seeing how others may see them; they can’t put themselves in someone else’s shoes o Example: if they get a gift they don’t like, they show it. When you’re older, however, you learn to pretend like you like the gift • Animistic thinking: the belief that inanimate objects have life-like qualities (thoughts, wishes, feelings and intentions) o Example: attribute human like qualities to stuffed animals/dolls for example; the stuffed animal needs a friend on the shelf with it so that it’s not lonely and scared • Transformation: the process in which one state is changed into another o Example: adults know that if a pencil that is held upright is allowed to fall down, it passes through a series of successive stages until it reaches its final, horizontal resting spot. In contrast, children are unable to envision the successive transformations that the pencil followed in moving from the upright to the horizontal position • Centration: the process of concentrating on one limited aspect of a stimulus and ignoring other aspects o Example: When children of this age are shown two rows of buttons, one with 10 buttons that are spaced closely together and the other with 8 buttons spread out to form a longer row and asked which of the rows contains more buttons, children usually choose the row that looks longer rather than the one that actually contains more buttons 3. Concrete operational period and the phenomena associated with it (e.g., Decentration) 4. Tasks of Conservation • Conservation: the knowledge that quantity is unrelated to the arrangement and physical appearance of objects • Types: number, substance/mass, length, area, weight, volume 5. Piagetian developmental phenomena illustrated by our class guest 6. Schooling—views of Piaget vs. Vygotsky • Piaget believed children move through stages o Thought egocentric speech wasn’t good- anytime a child was talking to themselves, it didn’t serve any purpose • Vygotsky believed that having social relationships/situations is how children learned best o Thought egocentric speech was good (although he called it inner speech) o Assisted discovery: a teacher helping a student solve a problem o Peer collaboration: a teacher setting up a problem and having the whole class work on it 7. Know the three parenting styles (Baumrind) • Authoritarian parents: parents who are controlling, punitive, rigid and cold, and whose word is law • Permissive parents: parents who provide lax and inconsistent feedback and require little of their children • Authoritative parents: parents who are firm, setting clear and consistent limits, but who try to reason with their children, giving explanations for why they should behave in a particular way 8. Types of play (e.g., functional, cooperative) • Functional play: simple, repetitive activities typical of 3 year olds. May involve objects or repetitive muscular movements o Example: moving dolls or cars repetitively. Skipping, jumping, rolling or unrolling a piece of clay • Constructive play: more sophisticated play in which children manipulate objects to produce or build something. Developed by age 4, it lets children test physical and cognitive skills and practice fine muscle movements o Example: building a dollhouse or car garage out of Legos, putting together a puzzle, making an animal out of clay • Parallel play: children use similar toys in a similar manner at the same time, but do not interact with each other. Typical of children during the early preschool years o Example: children sitting side by side, each playing with his or her own toy car, putting together his or her own puzzle, or making an individual clay animal • Onlooker play: Children simply watch others at play, but do not actually participate. They may look on silently or they may make comments of encouragement or advice. Common among preschoolers and can be helpful when a child wishes to join a group already at play o Example: one child watches as a group of others plays with dolls, cars or clay; builds with Legos or works on a puzzle together • Associative play: two or more children interact, sharing or borrowing toys or materials, although they do not do the same thing o Example: two children, each building his or her own Lego garage, may trade bricks back and forth • Cooperative play: children genuinely play with one another, taking turns, playing games or devising contests o Example: a group of children working on a puzzle may take turns fitting in the pieces. Children playing with dolls or cars may take turns making the dolls talk or may agree on rules to race the cars 9. Know the Cycle of Violence Hypothesis & definitions of child abuse, physical and behavioral signs of abuse • Cycle of violence hypothesis: the theory that the abuse and neglect that children suffer predispose them as adults to abuse and neglect their own children • Physical Abuse: non-accidental injury to a child under the age of 18 by a parent or caretaker o Physical Indicators § Unexplained bruises and welts in unusual places § Several bruises or welts in different stages of healing, in usual shapes or clusters § Unexplained fractures/dislocations § Unexplained burns § Other unexplained injuries such as human bite marks, bald patches, retinal hemorrhage and abdominal injuries o Behavioral Indicators § Reports injury by parents § Gives unbelievable explanation for injuries § Feels deserving of punishment § Afraid to go home § Overly shy, tends to avoid physical contact § Displays emotional extremes • Sexual Abuse: exploitation of a child or adolescent for the sexual gratification of another person o Physical indicators § Somatic complaints à headache or stomach ache § Difficulty walking or sitting § Pain and irritation of the genitals § Sexually transmitted disease § Pregnancy in young adolescents § Frequent unexplained sore throats, yeast, or urinary infections o Behavioral indicators § Advanced sexual knowledge or behavior § Depression, suicidal gestures § Frequent psychosomatic complaints § Chronic running away § Drugs or alcohol abuse § Avoidance of undressing or wearing extra layers of clothes § Sudden avoidance of certain familiar adults § Decline in school performance • Neglect: chronic failure of a parent or caretaker to provide a child under 18 with basic needs such as food, clothing, shelter, medical care, educational opportunity, protection and supervision o Physical indicators § Height and weight significantly below age level § Inappropriate clothing for weather § Poor hygiene, including lice, body odor, scaly skin § Has not received needed medical/dental care § Child abandoned or left with inadequate supervision § Untreated illness or injury § Lack of safe, warm, sanitary shelter o Behavioral indicators § Begging or stealing food § Falling asleep in school § Poor school attendance § Reports no caretaker in the home § Chronic hunger § Dull, apathetic appearance § Running away from home § Repeated acts of vandalism § Assumes adult responsibilities 10. Factors related to ADHD (prevalence, symptoms, co-occurring problems, and treatment) • Prevalence o 3-5% of school aged children o Boys diagnosed 5 to 10 times more often than girls • Symptoms o Inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity • Comorbidity (co-occurring problems) o Externalizing behavior disorders § Oppositional defiant disorder § Conduct disorder o Learning disabilities o School underachievement o Poor self esteem • Treatment o Drugs (Ritalin, Dexedrine) § Doesn’t work for everyone § Drug must be at optimal level § Long-term improvement is questionable o Behavioral Parent Training 11. Know the PCIT material (CDI skills, PDI skills, mastery criteria, TO sequence) 12. Mental age • Mental age: the typical intelligence level found for people at a given chronological age 13. Chronological age • Chronological age: the actual age of the child taking the intelligence test 14. Factors related to Moral Development 15. Kohlberg’s stages of Moral Development and the Heinz dilemma (recognize examples) • Heinz dilemma: Heinz’s wife was dying from a particular type of cancer. Doctors said a new drug might save her. The drug had been discovered by a local chemist and Heinz tried desperately to buy some, but the chemist was charging ten times the money it cost to make the drug and this was much more than the Heinz could afford. Heinz could only raise half the money, even after help from family and friends. He explained to the chemist that his wife was dying and asked if he could have the drug cheaper or pay the rest of the money later. The chemist refused, saying that he had discovered the drug and was going to make money from it. The husband was desperate to save his wife, so later that night he broke into the chemist’s and stole the drug. • Kohlberg’s levels of morality o Level 1: Pre Conventional Morality (Self-interest) § Stage 1: punishment • “I won’t do it, because I don’t want to get punished” § Stage 2: reward • “I won’t do it, because I want a reward” o Level 2: Conventional morality (social approval) § Stage 3: interpersonal relations • “I won’t do it, because I want people to like me” § Stage 4: social order • “I won’t do it, because it would break the law” o Level 3: Post Conventional morality (abstract ideals) § Stage 5: social contract • “I won’t do it, because I’m obliged not to” • Also might condemn themselves for not doing it § Stage 6: universal rights • “I won’t do it, because it’s not right, no matter what others say” 16. Gilligan’s stages of Moral Development (be able to recognize examples) • Stage 1: orientation toward individual survival o Example: a first grader may insist on playing only games of her own choosing when playing with a friend • Stage 2: goodness as self sacrifice o Example: now older, the same girl may believe that to be a good friend, she must play the games her friend chooses, even if she herself doesn’t like them • Stage 3: morality of nonviolence o Example: the same girl may realize that both friends must enjoy their time together and look for activities that both she and her friend can enjoy 17. Differentiate between social competence, self-esteem, self-concept, and self- efficacy • Self competence: • Self esteem: an individual’s overall and specific positive and negative self- evaluation (tied to positive or negative emotion) o Example: I’m really proud that I’m a great soccer player • Self concept: less emotional than self-esteem o Example: you identify as an athlete • Self efficacy: 18. Recognize characteristics used by children of different ages to form self-concept • Academic self-concept (academic subjects) • Social self-concept (peers, significant others) • Emotional self-concept (particular emotional states) • Physical self-concept (physical ability, physical appearance) 19. Downward social comparison • Social comparison: the desire to evaluate one’s own behavior, abilities, expertise and opinions by comparing them to those of others • Downward social comparison: when children compare themselves to others who are obviously less competent or successful 20. Stages of Friendship • Stage 1: basing friendship on others’ behavior (ages 4-7) o Children see friends as others who like them and with whom they share toys and other activities • Stage 2: basing friendship on trust (ages 8-10) o Children take others’ personal qualities and traits as well as the rewards they provide into consideration • Stage 3: basing friendship on psychological closeness (ages 11-15) o Main criteria for friendship shift toward intimacy and loyalty 21. Kait's info on IQ/LD
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