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Exam 1 guide

by: Naqia Haideri
Naqia Haideri
GPA 3.7

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Study guide for Exam 1
Intro to Interpersonal Comm
Abendschein, B
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Naqia Haideri on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CMN 230 at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign taught by Abendschein, B in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see Intro to Interpersonal Comm in Communication Studies at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

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Date Created: 02/28/16
Lecture Material  Four reasons to study interpersonal communication  1. You spend so much time doing it  2. Have better relationships with friends, family members, and romantic partners  3. Be more successful in your career  4. Have better health    Definition of interpersonal communication (DeVito, 2008)  Verbal and nonverbal interaction (face­to­face or mediated) between twinterdependent​ people     Five principles of interpersonal communication  1. Purposeful  2. Transactional: give and take  3. Relational  4. Irreversible  5. Synchronous: happening in real­time or Asynchronous: not in real­time    Five stages of coming together (Knapp & Vangelisti, 2009) and examples of behaviors  appropriate for each stage  1. Initiating Two goals: (1) want to show we are interested in meeting the person, (2) want  them to know you are interesting to meet too  2. Experimenting: G​ etting to know each other, small talk  3. Intensifying Integrate our lives/ routines a little bit more  4. Integrating:Two individuals merge into this single shared identity  5. Bonding:​ Formalized relationship, declaring commitment, share jewellery    Five stages of coming apart (Knapp & Vangelisti, 2009) and examples of behaviors appropriate  for each stage  5. Differentiating:Using less pronouns (us, we vs me, my)  4. Circumscribing:​ Quality and quantity of communication decreases  3. Stagnating: No sense of excitement, but all hope is not lost  2. Avoiding: People drop the pretense and admit they don’t like it anymore  1. Terminating: ​chance of maintaining some type of relationship if you have gone through all  the stages properly    Three principles of relationship development  1. Movement is ​systematic andsequential:Incredibly rare to skip steps  2. Movement can be f​orward, ​ackward ​or within stages  3. Movement is always to a new place  Definition of an interpersonal goal (Canary, Cody, & Manusov, 2008)  A state an individual wants to achieve that is linked to another person’s behavior    Three types of interpersonal goals and examples of each  1. Instrumental Goals: ​ Resources/ favors we try to get from other people, Tangible  2. Relational Goals: ​ Preserving or changing the status of your relationship  3. Self­presentational goals: ​What ​ you think other people think about you    Guidelines for achieving interpersonal goals  1. Interpersonal goals differ in clarity.  2. Interpersonal goals vary in difficulty  3. People pursue multiple interpersonal goals at the same time.   4. Interpersonal goals differ in urgency.  5. Interpersonal goals prompt plans for action.    Three interpersonal needs  1. Inclusion:​ Feel like a part of something  2. Control​: Influence relationship and have the relationship influence us  3. Affection​: We need other people to love us and we also need to love others    Interpersonal needs in the four stages of human development  Children: ​ egocentric, have everything done for them, parents have all the control  Adolescence: ​ reciprocity of interpersonal control becomes the dominant force  Adulthood:​  interpersonal needs change, start to look for live long friends and partners  Later adulthood:​  back to needing someone in control, egocentric, unable to totally reciprocate    Four interpersonal wants   1. Physical appearance:​  Tend to be attracted to people who we think we can get  2. Similarity   3. More rewards than costs  4. Reciprocal liking: ​We tend to like other people who like us first    Four environmental influences on interpersonal communication  Culture, Media, Space, Family    Three dimensions of culture  Individualism  Collectivism  Individual goals are primary, competition  Group goals are primary, collaboration    High Context  Low Context  Meaning is implied  Meaning is directly stated  attention to detail, look for different cues, save face  just facts, efficiency, don’t care if your feelings are hurt    High Tolerance for Uncertainty  Low Tolerance for Uncertainty  Ambiguity is Comfortable  Ambiguity is Anxiety Provoking      Two dimensions of family communication  1. Conversation​ : degree to which members are encouraged to discuss any topic  2. Conformity​ : degree to which members are encouraged to share the same values, attitudes  ­ High on conformity: Share the same beliefs, harmony    Four family communication patterns                        Two effects of family communication patterns  1. Self­Esteem: ​ People who are high in conversation tend to have higher self­esteem  2. Relational Maintenance : ​ Those low on conformity are better at relational maintenance    Definition of attribution (Heider, 1958)  The process of explaining the cause of a person’s behavior    Two types of attributions  1. Internal attributions: ​someone did something because of the way they are  2. External attributions:​  attributing their behavior to external factors    Four factors affecting type of attribution  1. Intent: ​purposeful nature of someone’s behavior  a. Internal (behavior was intentional) or external (unintentional)  2. Distinctiveness: ​whether the behavior is unique to the person at that time  a. if the behavior is distinct, we use external factors  3. Consistency: ​ the extent to which the person’s behavior is the same over time  a. opposite of distinctiveness  4. Consensus: ​ perception of similar people in similar situations    Four perceptual biases and examples of each  1. Self­fulfilling prophecy: ​perception that comes true because you act as though it is true  2. Self­serving bias: ​take credit for all the good stuff but we deny credit for all the bad  3. Fundamental attribution error  4. Overattribution: ​ stereotyping based on one or two attributions    Four differences between verbal and nonverbal communication  Verbal  Nonverbal  Usually conscious  Often unconscious  Intermittent: ​Spaces between words  Continuous: ​ always doing something  Content focused: ​ Particular topics to discuss  Relationally focused: ​Social functions  Single channel: ​Only the words you speak   Multiple channels: ​ Six different channels simultaneously     Six types of nonverbal communication  1. Facial Cues and Eye Gaze  ○ First impression management happens in two ways  i. Static facial cues: used to determine how attractive we think people are  ii. Dynamic facial cues: can change, expressions (Ex: eyebrow movement)  2. Kinesics: ​Body language  3. Haptics: ​Study of touch  4. Vocalics:  ​The study of voice, Encompasses all non­content aspects of language  5. Proxemics: ​ Personal space   6. Chronemics: ​ Cues that are based on time  Three guidelines for effective nonverbal communication  1. Interpret clusters of nonverbal cues: Taking into account all these nonverbals  2. Maintain consistency in your verbal and nonverbal cues: ​ Avoid mixed messages   3. Adapt your nonverbal cues to the situation: ​ Situations vary in their professionality    Equilibrium theory  Individuals try to maintain a comfortable degree of intimacy through anapproach­avoidance  ratio.Ex: no one looks at each other in the elevator    Five components of listening  1. Selecting:What you pay attention to  2. Attending: We will listen to new information or information that  meets our interests  3. Understanding:  A​ ssign meaning to what someone is saying  4. Remembering ​ Recall  5. Responding: ​ giving feedback    Four barriers to listening  1. External​ (coughing, laughing) /internal noise (psychological)  2. Information Overload  3. Self­absorption­​ how does this message relate to me  4. Message complexity: ​ we don’t listen when there is too much info    Four styles of listening  Action­Centered: ​ Organized, error­free  Content­Centered: ​ want complex detailed information  Time­Centered: ​ brief and precious, straight to the point  People­Centered: ​ partner's emotion and attitude    Three guidelines for effective listening  1. be present bothphysically and mentally  2. take advantage of differingspeech rate and thought rate​ (thought rate> speaking rate)  3. consider what your partner isthinking and feeling         Discussion Section Material  Definition of rewards and costs within interpersonal relationships and examples of each  Three interpersonal needs and examples of each    Definitions of symmetry and complementarity and examples of each  Symmetry: partner exchange the same behaviors/needs  Complementary: exchange different behaviors/needs but they complement each other    Definition of scripts and examples of when scripts are used in interpersonal communication  understood behavioral patterns , playing it safe and engaging other person    The role of scripts in small talk within interpersonal communication   To avoid awkwardness and difficulty in conversations; everyone is comfortable with them ex.  how are you? the weather huh?     Textbook Material ​ (Ch: 1­4)  Definitions of the content and relationship levels of messages  Content: some rather specific behaviors to follow  Relationship: the message that combines vocal, verbal, and nonverbal cues    Five misconceptions about communication in relationships  1. Consistency: ​it's a valuable opportunity for learning more about the other person  2. Simple meaning: ​ there's more meaning to what is said than just words  3. Communicator independence:​  when there is a cmn problem, it's both people's fault   4. Obvious causation:​  don’t jump to conclusions about why someone said something  5. Finality: something that you think may be finished does not mean it's finished forever ­  people change and your relationship may change    Eight communication dimensions that change in developing and decaying relationships  1. Narrow­broad:​  range of info that you reveal  2. Public­personal:​  depth of social interaction  3. Stylizing­unique: ​interacting w/the other person as a unique individual rather than as a  member of a particular society  4. Difficult­efficient it's more difficult to talk to someone, but as we go on it's easier and  efficiency decreases bc you're talking about pointless stuff  5. Rigid­flexible: the more you know someone, the more flexible it becomes w/ the number of  ways you can communicate  6. Awkward­smooth  7. Hesitant­ spontaneous  8. Overt judgement suspended ­overt judgment given    Five directions available for movement through stages of relationship development  1. Generally systematic and sequential  2. May be forward  3. May be backward  4. Occurs within stages  5. Always to a new stage    Examples of ways that interpersonal needs vary for males and females    Males: ​ repress emotion, get excited for sports, difficult to show they need affection, rely on  external signs of control   Females:​  more demonstrative about feelings, free to express feeling, control indirectly    Four trends in U.S. society that affect interpersonal communication and examples of each  1. Patterns of work  2. Relationship styles  3. Attitudes toward self­fulfillment  4. Messages from mass media    Six perceptions of communication environments and examples of each  1. formality  2. warmth  3. privacy  4. familiarity  5. constraint  6. distance    


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