Exam 1 guide
Exam 1 guide CMN 230
Popular in Intro to Interpersonal Comm
Popular in Communication Studies
This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Naqia Haideri on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CMN 230 at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign taught by Abendschein, B in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see Intro to Interpersonal Comm in Communication Studies at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
Lecture Material Four reasons to study interpersonal communication 1. You spend so much time doing it 2. Have better relationships with friends, family members, and romantic partners 3. Be more successful in your career 4. Have better health Definition of interpersonal communication (DeVito, 2008) Verbal and nonverbal interaction (facetoface or mediated) between twinterdependent people Five principles of interpersonal communication 1. Purposeful 2. Transactional: give and take 3. Relational 4. Irreversible 5. Synchronous: happening in realtime or Asynchronous: not in realtime Five stages of coming together (Knapp & Vangelisti, 2009) and examples of behaviors appropriate for each stage 1. Initiating Two goals: (1) want to show we are interested in meeting the person, (2) want them to know you are interesting to meet too 2. Experimenting: G etting to know each other, small talk 3. Intensifying Integrate our lives/ routines a little bit more 4. Integrating:Two individuals merge into this single shared identity 5. Bonding: Formalized relationship, declaring commitment, share jewellery Five stages of coming apart (Knapp & Vangelisti, 2009) and examples of behaviors appropriate for each stage 5. Differentiating:Using less pronouns (us, we vs me, my) 4. Circumscribing: Quality and quantity of communication decreases 3. Stagnating: No sense of excitement, but all hope is not lost 2. Avoiding: People drop the pretense and admit they don’t like it anymore 1. Terminating: chance of maintaining some type of relationship if you have gone through all the stages properly Three principles of relationship development 1. Movement is systematic andsequential:Incredibly rare to skip steps 2. Movement can be forward, ackward or within stages 3. Movement is always to a new place Definition of an interpersonal goal (Canary, Cody, & Manusov, 2008) A state an individual wants to achieve that is linked to another person’s behavior Three types of interpersonal goals and examples of each 1. Instrumental Goals: Resources/ favors we try to get from other people, Tangible 2. Relational Goals: Preserving or changing the status of your relationship 3. Selfpresentational goals: What you think other people think about you Guidelines for achieving interpersonal goals 1. Interpersonal goals differ in clarity. 2. Interpersonal goals vary in difficulty 3. People pursue multiple interpersonal goals at the same time. 4. Interpersonal goals differ in urgency. 5. Interpersonal goals prompt plans for action. Three interpersonal needs 1. Inclusion: Feel like a part of something 2. Control: Influence relationship and have the relationship influence us 3. Affection: We need other people to love us and we also need to love others Interpersonal needs in the four stages of human development Children: egocentric, have everything done for them, parents have all the control Adolescence: reciprocity of interpersonal control becomes the dominant force Adulthood: interpersonal needs change, start to look for live long friends and partners Later adulthood: back to needing someone in control, egocentric, unable to totally reciprocate Four interpersonal wants 1. Physical appearance: Tend to be attracted to people who we think we can get 2. Similarity 3. More rewards than costs 4. Reciprocal liking: We tend to like other people who like us first Four environmental influences on interpersonal communication Culture, Media, Space, Family Three dimensions of culture Individualism Collectivism Individual goals are primary, competition Group goals are primary, collaboration High Context Low Context Meaning is implied Meaning is directly stated attention to detail, look for different cues, save face just facts, efficiency, don’t care if your feelings are hurt High Tolerance for Uncertainty Low Tolerance for Uncertainty Ambiguity is Comfortable Ambiguity is Anxiety Provoking Two dimensions of family communication 1. Conversation : degree to which members are encouraged to discuss any topic 2. Conformity : degree to which members are encouraged to share the same values, attitudes High on conformity: Share the same beliefs, harmony Four family communication patterns Two effects of family communication patterns 1. SelfEsteem: People who are high in conversation tend to have higher selfesteem 2. Relational Maintenance : Those low on conformity are better at relational maintenance Definition of attribution (Heider, 1958) The process of explaining the cause of a person’s behavior Two types of attributions 1. Internal attributions: someone did something because of the way they are 2. External attributions: attributing their behavior to external factors Four factors affecting type of attribution 1. Intent: purposeful nature of someone’s behavior a. Internal (behavior was intentional) or external (unintentional) 2. Distinctiveness: whether the behavior is unique to the person at that time a. if the behavior is distinct, we use external factors 3. Consistency: the extent to which the person’s behavior is the same over time a. opposite of distinctiveness 4. Consensus: perception of similar people in similar situations Four perceptual biases and examples of each 1. Selffulfilling prophecy: perception that comes true because you act as though it is true 2. Selfserving bias: take credit for all the good stuff but we deny credit for all the bad 3. Fundamental attribution error 4. Overattribution: stereotyping based on one or two attributions Four differences between verbal and nonverbal communication Verbal Nonverbal Usually conscious Often unconscious Intermittent: Spaces between words Continuous: always doing something Content focused: Particular topics to discuss Relationally focused: Social functions Single channel: Only the words you speak Multiple channels: Six different channels simultaneously Six types of nonverbal communication 1. Facial Cues and Eye Gaze ○ First impression management happens in two ways i. Static facial cues: used to determine how attractive we think people are ii. Dynamic facial cues: can change, expressions (Ex: eyebrow movement) 2. Kinesics: Body language 3. Haptics: Study of touch 4. Vocalics: The study of voice, Encompasses all noncontent aspects of language 5. Proxemics: Personal space 6. Chronemics: Cues that are based on time Three guidelines for effective nonverbal communication 1. Interpret clusters of nonverbal cues: Taking into account all these nonverbals 2. Maintain consistency in your verbal and nonverbal cues: Avoid mixed messages 3. Adapt your nonverbal cues to the situation: Situations vary in their professionality Equilibrium theory Individuals try to maintain a comfortable degree of intimacy through anapproachavoidance ratio.Ex: no one looks at each other in the elevator Five components of listening 1. Selecting:What you pay attention to 2. Attending: We will listen to new information or information that meets our interests 3. Understanding: A ssign meaning to what someone is saying 4. Remembering Recall 5. Responding: giving feedback Four barriers to listening 1. External (coughing, laughing) /internal noise (psychological) 2. Information Overload 3. Selfabsorption how does this message relate to me 4. Message complexity: we don’t listen when there is too much info Four styles of listening ActionCentered: Organized, errorfree ContentCentered: want complex detailed information TimeCentered: brief and precious, straight to the point PeopleCentered: partner's emotion and attitude Three guidelines for effective listening 1. be present bothphysically and mentally 2. take advantage of differingspeech rate and thought rate (thought rate> speaking rate) 3. consider what your partner isthinking and feeling Discussion Section Material Definition of rewards and costs within interpersonal relationships and examples of each Three interpersonal needs and examples of each Definitions of symmetry and complementarity and examples of each Symmetry: partner exchange the same behaviors/needs Complementary: exchange different behaviors/needs but they complement each other Definition of scripts and examples of when scripts are used in interpersonal communication understood behavioral patterns , playing it safe and engaging other person The role of scripts in small talk within interpersonal communication To avoid awkwardness and difficulty in conversations; everyone is comfortable with them ex. how are you? the weather huh? Textbook Material (Ch: 14) Definitions of the content and relationship levels of messages Content: some rather specific behaviors to follow Relationship: the message that combines vocal, verbal, and nonverbal cues Five misconceptions about communication in relationships 1. Consistency: it's a valuable opportunity for learning more about the other person 2. Simple meaning: there's more meaning to what is said than just words 3. Communicator independence: when there is a cmn problem, it's both people's fault 4. Obvious causation: don’t jump to conclusions about why someone said something 5. Finality: something that you think may be finished does not mean it's finished forever people change and your relationship may change Eight communication dimensions that change in developing and decaying relationships 1. Narrowbroad: range of info that you reveal 2. Publicpersonal: depth of social interaction 3. Stylizingunique: interacting w/the other person as a unique individual rather than as a member of a particular society 4. Difficultefficient it's more difficult to talk to someone, but as we go on it's easier and efficiency decreases bc you're talking about pointless stuff 5. Rigidflexible: the more you know someone, the more flexible it becomes w/ the number of ways you can communicate 6. Awkwardsmooth 7. Hesitant spontaneous 8. Overt judgement suspended overt judgment given Five directions available for movement through stages of relationship development 1. Generally systematic and sequential 2. May be forward 3. May be backward 4. Occurs within stages 5. Always to a new stage Examples of ways that interpersonal needs vary for males and females Males: repress emotion, get excited for sports, difficult to show they need affection, rely on external signs of control Females: more demonstrative about feelings, free to express feeling, control indirectly Four trends in U.S. society that affect interpersonal communication and examples of each 1. Patterns of work 2. Relationship styles 3. Attitudes toward selffulfillment 4. Messages from mass media Six perceptions of communication environments and examples of each 1. formality 2. warmth 3. privacy 4. familiarity 5. constraint 6. distance
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