ARH 300 Egyptian Art Study Guide #2
ARH 300 Egyptian Art Study Guide #2 ARH 300
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Audrey Pontin on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ARH 300 at University of North Carolina - Wilmington taught by Nicholas F. Hudson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Egyptian Art in Art History at University of North Carolina - Wilmington.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
Egyptian Art Study Guide Djoser: 3 Dynasty (ca. 26862613) Stepped Pyramid of DJoser Five Kings: 1 Sanakhte Ruled ca. 18 yrs. 2 Djoser Ruled ca. 19 yrs. 3 Sekhemkhet 4 Khaba 5 Huni Memphite = from Memphis Saqqarah: the necropolis for the regal family of the royal court at Memphis. Mastaba: Small platform of Cory stoned, built upward to stick out and be visible form Black lands, land of the living. Mastaba seen as most popular form of tomb. o Vertically decline into deep shafts and bed rock of the desert, leading to burial chambers of the deceased. Contains: Mummies funerary furniture o Important to aristocracy as well o Temenos walls: wall separating the profane (the outside world) from the sacred. Djoser Pyrmaid Layout: o North Court (not yet excavated) o Northern Temple o Hebsed Court o South Court South Court Chapel of South tomb Phases: o Phase 1 = mastaba o Phase 2 = stepped pyramid o Phase 3 = bigger stepped pyramid 3 phases due to long lifetime of Djoser Architect: Imhotep o Deified at end of life for all life accomplishments: Djoser pyramid along with poetry. sciences and literature Ptolemaic figurine: shows Imhotep’s impact and importance on Egyptian architecture o Originally covered in white limestone Time and erosion reveals layer of sand stone as seen today Walkthrough/Layout o Bordered with false entrances as there is only one true entrance. Palace façade o Doorway tall and narrow Ceiling made of stone imitating logs o Opens up to large courtyard of colonnades engaged column: column built into wall Effect: restricts walking pathways, flow o After courtyard, entrance way into the South court o South court: o Hedsed lined with false temples to serve as shrines Temples held niches where statues of Djoser resided, celebrating his jubilee to rule o North face of payramid: Lays seated staute of Djoser: Serdab statue To be viewed through holes of wall. Serdab holes serve a roost/open vessel for the Ka (the spirit) to enter and leave the statue Nemes: head cloth worn over wig Headscarf/symbol of the power of the royalty Along with false beard, symbol of pharaoh Statue holds a flail and Sheppard’s crook o Flail: tool used to fresh wheat or whip slaves Reference to agricultural connection Wears long, white gown =hedsed festival o Under pyramid: Lay ca. 40,000 stone vessels Made of alabaster o South Tomb: Believed location of where Djoser’s innards was kept Palace façade Above doorway: sedge plant design Sedge plant: symbol of Upper Egypt Where as in the North House reside Papyrus columns o Papyrus: symbol of Lower Egypt Blue Chambers: embedded in rock walls Tubelike structure resembled reeds; rolled up blinds creating illusion to doorway Viewer then given privileged access to relief on wall. Old Kingdom: Pyramids of Giza Khufu (25892566 BC) o Pyramid of Khufu, a.k.a. “The Great Pyramid” Khafre (25582532 BC): son of Khufu o Pyramid of Khafre Menkaure: son of Khafre, grandson of Khufu o Pyramid of Menkaure Khafre o Khafre statue/sculpture: Resides in Temple of the Sphinx King seated full frontal on throne Throne with lion posts Eye level and posture show disengagement from viewer and mortal world Khafre equivalent with Egyptian god Horus Flacon of Horus embraces Khafre’s head King wears head cloth and false beard Physically fit showing strength reminding world he is a strong leader and has divine authority. Feet face forward in same direction as eyes Limbs connected to torso through blocking, no spaces in between Cobra crown: uraeus; cobra with head flared Thin band of gold commonly appearing in shallow relief Cobra represents Goddess Wadjet (Lower Egypt) o As seen on King Tut funerary mask: cobra and vulture= Nekhbet (upper Egypt) o Cobra commonly found in the Delta Still kind of Upper and Lower Egypt, prefers Lower Egypt through uraeus Throne decoration: underneath chair Depicts plant matter in stylized versions: o Lotus plant (Upper Egypt) o Papyrus plant (Lower Egypt) o Both plants symbolize unity of Egypt under the king o Knot in the middle of plants= symbol for king, highlighting power and hold of the two divisions o Right hand in fist that once held scepter of authority while left hand lays flat on thigh o Sculpture made of Gneiss/dicrite of Nubia Strong economic control, source of gold and stone Most likely painted to enhance details, no pigments survived Menkaure (25322504) o Funerary temple connected to Valley/Temple of Menkaure by long cause way o Three mini pyramids outside main temple: pyramids of Queens o Temple holds statue of Hathor and Menkaure in form of a triad Hathor Goddess of love, mother figure and consort of Horus Appears large while sitting Hathor has arms around Menkaure’s abdomen Smaller figure on left: nome of Upper Egypt Nome: representative of Egypt Female with standard of hare nome behind her Another reference to upper Egypt through white crown on Menkaure’s head Hare nome holds ankh Ankh: symbol of life Text on floor of triad where figures feet stand Text represents the granting of Horus to Menkaure of all power and divine gifts of Upper Egypt Another statue/triad Similar in showing Menkaure as larger figure surrounded by Hathor and nome with a different standard Walkingnonwalking pose in triad statues show divine posture None royal figures + feet together Menkaure and Khamerernebty The Queen holds Menkaure like Hathor in triad, hands around his torso Menkaure and Khamerernebty o Khamerernebty holds Menkaure like Hathor in other triads, with one arm around waist, the other on his left arm. Highlights Her support for her husband as they need each other to rule. o Triad formed through abrasion with sandstone to create smooth surfaces. o Hard lines articulate features; sharp and unnatural o Less formal schematic design of human body o Hair of Queen appears artificial, making it clear she is wearing a wig as her natural hair line peeps out from under wig. o Absence of where the Queen’s dress starts Dress would have been painted on in original context o Canon of proportions: set of rules of how the anatomy of a body is to be laid out A fist is used as a unit o Both figures left foot forward in walkingonwalking pose: importance o Elegant posture with chins high Court official and wife (4 Dynasty) o No direct canon used Heads too big for bodies Man and woman are different heights Emphasizes sexual dimorphism as all humans have different proportions. o Smaller figure not in same social standing/not as important as taller figure. o Yet equality is present in this marriage o Means of support as court official drapes arm around wife’s neck. o Appear more grounded o Court official wears no headdress and wears a common quilt. o Triad is made from limestone and is covered in a thin layer of plaster that is then painted. Rahotep (“Son of the King”) and wife Nofret o Probably son of Snefru Builds mastaba and not pyramid as he never is considered king Mastabas always part of larger necropoli, never isolated. o Resided in Meidum (Lower Egypt) Same place as stepped pyramid of Huni o Rahotep pose similar to that of Djoser sculpture o Colors vibrant o Rahotep Mastaba: Doorway depicts tasks of laborers as they interact with livestock and harvest. Relief Depicts funerary offerings from the dead Offering table o Floating above table is a simple list of offerings as one would expect to be presented to the deceased. o List on far right is an extended list of offerings o Not meant to be a functional piece of art Wall paintings Usually scenes of agricultural production/process, capturing livestock More detail treatment in terms of painting animals opposed to human laborers o i.e. fowl o All products of the Nile, fertilizing the lands Court associate sculpture: “Seated Scribe” Saqqara Made to look more natural and human like. Older man, with slumping musculature and a hollowed face Distinct unique feature (big ears) representing a specific individual Folds of flesh and not geometric cut of the anatomy Highly educated and employed by the court, earning a good living to commission this sculpture for himself. Soft lines opposed to sharp hard lines Eyes made of different materials: o Iris of the eyes made of smooth rock crystal o Whites of the eye made of white stone with red veins Eyes can therefore communicate and connect with the viewer as they are so realistic Th 5 Dynasty (24982345 BC) Heliopolitan: city of the sun First King, Userkaf, was the soninlaw to Menkaure Tradition of burying kings in burial area; better preserve of temple construction in Ahu Ghurab o Worship of the sun and god, Ra o Head of falcon god, Horus with sun above his head Sun or Solar temple of Ra o Down below, valley temple, connected to sun temple toy cosway Valley temple: close to black lands, acting as a “bridge” o Temple/pyramids: red lands 100 x 150 cubits Funerary Art o Court scribe and family Scribe seated with wife and son by his side Son is naked Nakedness represents: o A slave o (Captive) foreigner o Or young boy Innocence expressed through side braid Finger over mouth =symbol for depicting of young men th More non royal funerary slaves made after 4 dynasty Wealth is distributed to royal court instead of kings Power of king diminished slightly Made of local limestone and then plastered opposed to exotic stones used for pharaohs, kings, and the royal family. Question of means of affordability and if materials were restricted for royal use th 6 Dynasty (23452181 BC) Memphite First King, Teti, was soninlaw of late 5 Dynasty King Important Kings: o Teti I Teti’s Horus name = Seheteptawy: “he who pacifies the Two Lands” o Pepi I o Pepi II Pepi I figurine in Alabaster o Flail and shepherd crock present in hand o Falcon of Horus on his throne o Hands crossed over chest in corpse funerary position o Wearing only white crown Falcon does not embrace king’s head Pepi possibly not comfortable with presence of Horus Has support opposed to protection Young Pepi I statue o Young Pepi making on offering o Finally, brighteyed face, holding jars to the Gods Pepi II and mother statue o Pepi II as a child on lap of mother as he inherited throne as a child, passing off power to new king Mereruka, Teti’s vizier o Relief of laborers often portrayed as bottomless, showing genitals = people of lower class equivalent with animals o Servants bring offerings/resources of the land Question of who the offerings are for: The deceased or the king? The Physician Nyankhre, 5 Dynasty o Seated on the ground, legs bent/drawn in o Appears more functional and human like
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