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GEO 130 Midterm Study Guide

by: Sophia Clark

GEO 130 Midterm Study Guide GEOL 130

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Sophia Clark

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Study Guide for the Geology 130: Oceanography course at the University of Pennsylvania.
Oceanography: Oceans & Climate
Dr. Jane Dmochowski
Study Guide
GEO 130 GEO Geology
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This 44 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sophia Clark on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOL 130 at University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Jane Dmochowski in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 82 views. For similar materials see Oceanography: Oceans & Climate in Geology at University of Pennsylvania.

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Date Created: 02/28/16
Sunday, February 28, 2016 GEO 130 Midterm Study Guide SPRING 2016, UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA TEXTBOOK: ESSENTIALS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 11TH EDITION Notes on Study Guide: This study guide has been compiled from posted power points to determine the larger sections of focus, my notes from the required chapters as well as the in class assignments along and broken apart based on the modules. I attempted to determine what was the most pertinent information (and put it in the “Key Topics” section), as well as expand on those topics while also covering all the information covered in each module. Module 1 — Introduction I Key Topics: General information about oceans and seas, what is oceanography, early exploration of oceans, formation of solar system and Earth (briefly) Corresponding Chapters: Chapter 1 (Introduction to Planet “Earth”) BASICS ABOUT OCEAN: • 70.8% Earth covered by ocean • Interconnected global or world ocean • Oceans contain 97.2% of surface water - Principal Oceans (World Ocean = 4 +1) • Pacific: largest, deepest - world’s largest ocean, more than 1/2 ocean surface area • Atlantic: second largest, not as deep as pacific - lot of oceanic floor being created - separates Old World (Europe, Asia and Africa) from New World (North and South America) • Indian: mainly in Southern Hemisphere, slightly smaller, as deep as Atlantic - different circulation pattern 1 Sunday, February 28, 2016 • Arctic: smallest, shallowest, ice-covered - 7% size of Pacific, 1/4 deep as rest of oceans • (+1) Antarctic or Southern Ocean - Connects Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian - South of about 50 degrees S latitude, defines by meeting of currents - Seas: smaller and shallower than oceans • • salt water (what makes different than lake) • usually (mostly) enclosed by land • directly connected to world ocean - What are the 7 seas? • 15th century Europeans seven seas: Red Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Persian Gulf, Black Sea, Adriatic Sea, Caspian Sea, Indian Ocean - Modern “7 seas”: N and S Pacific, N and S Atlantic, Indian, Arctic, Antarctic - Comparison of elevation and depth on Earth: • Ocean is much deeper in elevation difference than land elevation differences • Ex. Himalayas on land aren’t as high as elevation loss to deepest part of ocean (Mariana Trench) - What is Oceanography? • It is a combination of many different branches of science. 2 Sunday, February 28, 2016 - Why is Oceanography important? • Resource (food, minerals, energy) Climate • • “Largest Museum on Earth” — Robert Ballard - shipwrecks • “Lungs” of Earth (photosynthetic organisms in ocean take in Co2 and water, forming sugar and releasing oxygen) • Hazards: Global Climate Change, Tsunami, Hurricanes, Earthquakes • Billions of people live on coastlines- depend on oceans for livelihood, major part of life EARLY EXPLORATION PART 1 - Early Exploration • Oceans were: - Source of food - transportation for large and heavy objects • Pacific Navigators: - ppl that inhabit Pacific Islands traveled there by boat - Pacific Islanders traveled long distances (1100 BC- 30 BC) • small islands widely scattered - European Navigators • Phoenicians: first from W. hemisphere to have developed navigation as early as 2000 BC Lived in eastern end of Med Sea - Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea, Indian Ocean, around Africa (590 BC), British Isles 3 Sunday, February 28, 2016 • Greeks - Pytheas reached Iceland 325 BC • developed way of determining latitude in N. Hemisphere - Library of Alexandria: written knowledge in Alexandria, Egypt library became intellectual capitol of world • - Eratosthenes (250 BC) est. circumference of Earth = 40,000 km • second librarian in Library of Alexandria - Ptolemy, map 150 AD (lines of latitude and longitude) • Established circumference of Earth = 29,000km— very off. Led Columbus astray… Module 2— Introduction II Key Topics: History of Early Exploration, Early tools for ocean exploration Corresponding Chapters: Chapter 1 (Introduction to Planet “Earth”) 4 Sunday, February 28, 2016 - “ using geometry to figure out circumference of Earth (Eratosthenes Experiment) - The Middle Ages (5th to 16th centuries) • Destruction of the Library of Alexandria (415 AD); fall of Roman empire 176 AD. Arabs retained some of the knowledge using this to dominate Mediterranean Sea • Christianity: discoveries that countered religious beliefs were suppressed - previous knowledge lost or ignored • Vikingsexplored N. Atlantic Ocean - Iceland and Greenland 9th and 10th centuries AD - Leif Eriksson, Vinland (Newfoundland) 995 AD - Greenland, Vinland settlements abandoned by 1450 AD - Ming Dynasty, China • 1405 and 1433: Zheng He - South China Sea and Indian Ocean - 8 diff. expeditions • In all, Zheng He - more than 30 countries and territories - about half a century before Columbus voyage to America - Age of Discovery in Europe (1495-1522): motivated by wanting good trade routes • Search for new Eastern trade routes by sea - Portugal trade routes around Africa (Prince Henry Navigator) - Europeans explore North and South America • Columbus Cabot • - Magellan and del Cano circumnavigate world (started with 5 ships and 280 sailors, end with 1 ship and 18 sailors) 5 Sunday, February 28, 2016 - British Naval Power: • British Isles dominate naval power from 1588 to early 1900s • Realized scientific knowledge of oceans = maritime superiority - Achievements: • 1699 Edmond Halley sailed to South Atlantic to survey to behavior of the magnetic compass for navigational purposes - extended from 52 degress north to 52 degrees south • H4 Chronometer: mechanism to measure longitude - clock that compares current time to GMT time - Beginning of Voyaging for Science Capt. James Cook: English explorer that discovered South Georgia, South • Sandwich and Hawaiian Islands - Mapped many islands in pacific - Systematically measured ocean characteristics - Marine chronograph (longitude)— used to make first accurate maps - Benjamin Franklin - Matthew Fontaine Mauray: first textbook of modern oceanography • Charles Darwin, began theory of evolution - Challenger Expedition: • British funded expedition began in 1872 and ran to 1876 were to describe - physical conditions - chemical composition - physical and chemical characteristics of deposits - distribution of organic life - 20th and 21st century: • Lamont Observatory and Scripps Institute of Oceanography: surveying world’s ocean floor 6 Sunday, February 28, 2016 Activities that should be able to explain and perform: Be sure to know how a chronometer and sextant works, Eratosthenes Experiment (measuring circumference of Earth as he did) Module 3— Introduction III Key Topics: formation of solar system, layers of Earth Corresponding Chapters: Chapter 1 (Introduction to Planet “Earth”) - How were Earth, Earth’s Oceans and Solar System created? - Formation of Solar System and Earth: • Nebular Hypothesis: all bodies in solar system formed from enormous cloud composed from hydrogen and helium - Nebula: cloud of gases and space dust mainly hydrogen and helium • • Solar system formed from nebula - Gravity concentrates material at center of cloud (Sun) - Protoplanets from smaller concentrations of matter (eddies) - Evolution of Planets: • Planets formed about 5 billion years ago • Solar system condensed from a gaseous nebula • Gravitational collapse overcame the expanding force of the gases • initial collapse might have been triggered by a variety of perturbations such as a supernova blast wave • Because of conservation of angular momentum, the cloud spins faster as it contracts - Protoearth: what scientists understand today based on the best information we have: • larger than Earth today • Initial atmosphere of H and He • Homogenous composition 7 Sunday, February 28, 2016 • Bombarded by meteorites - Moon formed from collision with large asteroid • Fusion reaction: interior releasing energy, occurs when temperature reaches tens of millions of degrees & hydrogen atoms combine to form helium, releasing energy Fusion within sun led to heat from solar radiation • - ionized particles (solar wind) swept away nebular gases, including Earth’s first atmosphere - Inner planets contract (shrink due to gravity) and heat due to spontaneous disintegration of atoms (radioactivity) and bombardment • Protoearth partially melts • density stratification (layered Earth) - Density and Density Stratification: • Density: how heavy something is for its size • Density Stratification: separation ofd different layers based on their density - Earth’s Internal Structure: • layered sphere based on density, highest density at core • Chemical Composition vs. Physical Properties: Chemical Composition: based on chemical Physical Properties: based on physical properties, Earth has 3 layers properties, Earth has 5 layers Crust: low-density rock, silicate materials Lithosphere: cool rigid outermost layer, crust + topmost part of mantle - Divided into oceanic and continental crust - Oceanic vs. Continental Crust: Oceanic crust: underlies ocean basics, • composed of igneous rock & basalt (high density) • Continental crust: lower density Mantle: largest volume of three layers, high Lithosphere: topmost part of mantle density iron and magnesium silicate rock Asthenosphere: plastic, flows when force applied - since plastic, can deform without fracturing • viscosity: measure of substances resistance to flow - asthenosphere has high viscosity 8 Sunday, February 28, 2016 Chemical Composition: based on chemical Physical Properties: based on physical properties, Earth has 3 layers properties, Earth has 5 layers Mesosphere: middle and lower mantle, rigid Core: highest density of three, iron and nickelOuter Core: liquid, flows Inner Core: rigid • Isostatic Adjustment: vertical movement of crust (container floating on water, movement when ship is denser vs. not as dense) - both continental and oceanic crusts float on mantle because of isostatic adjustment - isostatic rebound: rise of land masses after be depressed Module 4— Introduction IV Key Topics: formation of Earth’s atmosphere and ocean, age of Earth Corresponding Chapters: Chapter 1 (Introduction to Planet “Earth”) - How Lithosphere floats on Asthenosphere: • Lithosphere floating in the asthenosphere - Lithosphere sits on top of plastic asthenosphere - Comparison of Continental Lithosphere vs. Oceanic lithosphere • Continental lithosphere will sit higher on asthenosphere because less dense • Denser (basaltic rock) oceanic lithosphere will sit lower on asthenosphere • How do we know asthenosphere flows? - when “load” on mantle is increased or decreased, isostatic adjustment occurs - Example of ice sheets during ice age • Adding weight (ice) to continental crust, continent lowers further down into asthenosphere • By end of ice age, ice melts, weight goes off, continental lithosphere rises up as result of decreased weight 9 Sunday, February 28, 2016 - Origin of Earth’s Atmosphere: • Partial melting resulted in outgassing about 4 billion years ago—lowest density material contained within Earth was composed of gases—they rose to surface and were expelled to form our atm. • By about 3.8 Billion years ago, cool enough for liquid water nd • This outgassing (and bombardment by comets and asteroids) produced Earth’s 2 atmosphere - Oxygen • Original AND second atmosphere low in O becaus2 the little oxygen that was released quickly reacted with the iron in the rocks of the crust. Today’s atm is ~21% Oxygen. Why? How did the concentration increase so much? • Important for humans: - Oxygen helps us to burn food releasing energy - Ozone protects Earth from the Sun’s rays - Origin of Earth’s Oceans • Water vapor released by outgassing • Condensed as rain • Accumulated in ocean basins • Best understanding: about 3.8-4 billion years ago - Plants and Animals Evolve: • heterotrophs: early form of life, require external food supply • autotrophs: can manufacture own food supply • Photosynthesis and Respiration: - Chlorophyll: green pigment that captures Sun’s energy through photoshynthesis - cellular respiration: sugars oxidized & release stored energy - Life started to evolve, began to have photosynthesis Water combined CO2 plus light • 10 Sunday, February 28, 2016 - Decreases carbon dioxide in atmosphere, releases more oxygen into atmosphere - Oxygen cont. • Photosynthetic bacteria release oxygen (O ) to2atmosphere (beginning ~3.5 Ga) By 1.8 billion years ago, sufficient O in atmosphere to oxidize (rust) rocks and • 2 cause the extinction of many anaerobic organisms • Ozone (O )3builds up in atmosphere • Photosynthetic organisms created today’s O -ric2 atmosphere - Protects Earth’s surface from ultraviolet solar radiation • O 2akes up about 21% of gases in modern atmosphere - Does fluctuate between ~15-30% - Ocean Salinity • Rain dissolves rocks • Dissolved compounds (ions) accumulate in ocean basins • Ocean salinity based on balance between input and output of ions • Ocean salinity nearly constant over past 4 billion years - Life in Oceans: • Earliest life forms fossilized bacteria in rocks about 3.5 billion years old • Marine rocks Life originated in oceans? • - Other ideas include life arriving via meteors, comets or space dust; rock material deep below surface - Stanley Miller’s Experiment: simulated hypothetical conditions present in earth Earth • proves that led to formation of 20 diff. amino acids - Age of Earth: • Oldest known rock on earth—just over 4 billion years old and oldest known crystal within a rock is 4.4 Ga 11 Sunday, February 28, 2016 • Radiometric age dating - Radioactive decay—Radioactive materials spontaneously break apart or decay into atoms of other elements - Half-life—time required for half of the atoms to decay to other atoms • Earth is about 4.6 billion years old • Radiometric decay: radioactive decaying atoms, decay at predictable half-lives, long half lives can be used to date very old rocks Write in depth description of how density of different parts of lithosphere effects how low/high sits (isostatic adjustment etc) Module 5, 6, 7, 8— Plate Tectonics I, II, III & IV Key Topics: formation of theory of plate tectonics, plate tectonics, paleomagnetism (connection to polarity reversals + how connects to seafloor spreading), evidence for seafloor spreading, convection, differing theories for convection (layering at 660km, whole mantle, deep-layer), types of plate boundaries (and different variations), transform vaults, hot spots and plate motion Corresponding Chapters: Chapter 2 (Plate Tectonics and The Ocean Floor) - Continental drift: continents slowly drifing across globe • Theorized by Alfred Wegener (German meteorologist and geophysicists) - Alfred Wegener’s Evidence for Continental Drift: • Fits of the Continents: - matching shorelines on different continents (like a jigsaw puzzle) - Pangaea: continents together to form supercontinent - Panthalassa: huge ocean surrounding Pangaea • Included smaller Thethys Sea - Matching continents sea lines at about 200 feet below sea level, continents fit very well together • Matching Sequences of Rocks and Mountain Chains 12 Sunday, February 28, 2016 - Geologists tested rocks, sequences, ages and structural styles to determine if rocks and mountain ranges on separate continents matched— they did • Appalachian Mts and rocks in British Isles and Caledonian Mountains • Glacial Ages and Other Climate Evidence - Past glacial activity in areas that are now tropical • Means that some places that are now tropical were originally located closer to the poles - Animal and plant fossils indicate different climates that today • Distribution of Organisms - Used fossil remains found on different continents to make argument that same species couldn’t have crossed entire oceans at that time - Objections to Continental Drift and Wegener: - Continents cannot “plow” through ocean crust • continental crust cannot move… - Gravitational forces associated with tides too small - Wegener didn’t have suitable mechanisms - Wegener was a meteorologist and geophysicist • Much of best evidence wouldn’t be available till 1950’s • Wegener died in 1930: During and Afterward: - WWI and WWII: sonar used to map the ocean floor - Linear underwater mt. ranges in every ocean = mid-ocean ridges - 1947: sediment layer on ocean floor is very thin, if the same of as the continents would be much more sediment • sediment thinner near mountains, thicker away from mountains - Oceanic crust must not be as old as continental crust - Evidence Supporting Modern Plate Tectonics: • Plate Tectonics: how plates move on earth 13 Sunday, February 28, 2016 - Plates compose of lithosphere, thin, rigid blocks moving horizontally - Intersection of plates build major features of Earth’s crust - Physical layer: lithosphere, Crust, Upper part of mantle - Compositionally: crust and upper mantle • Plate Tectonics Explains: - Global distribution of volcanoes, earthquakes, inactive faults, mountain belts, features of seafloor - Evolution of continents and oceans • How did we get to Plate Tectonics? - Continental drift: Fit between coasts of South America and Africa • - Abraham Orelius - and Francis Bacon • Wegener proposed one large continent (1912) - Pangaea Discuss in depth continental drift and the nuances of Wegeners argument and exactly in detail why it was wrong, and what parts were wrong. PLATE TECTONICS: SEAFLOOR SPREADING - Paleomagnetics: geologic record of Earth’s magnetic field - Alfred Wegners, theory was rejected because mechanism wasn’t correct. - Seafloor spreading is part of evidence for plate tectonics - Connection between Paleomagnetics and Plate Tectonics: • Earths Magnetic Field and Paleomagnetism: - Earth has magnetic poles similar to bar magnetic attractions 14 Sunday, February 28, 2016 - Rocks Affected by Earth’s Magnetic Field: • Igneous: solidify from molten magma (underground or after volcanic eruptions at surface) this produces lava - Paleomagnetism: the study of Earth’s ancient magnetic field • magnetic dip (magnetic inclination): the angle at which rocks are relative to earths surface • inclination tells latitude - Helped to reveal continents in motion through time - Magnetic Polarity Reversals: World goes through periods of normal polarization, and reversed • Polarity: (North/South) polarity switches periodically throughout Earth’s history - Paleomagnetism and the Ocean Floor: • magnetometer: measures magnetism in the oceans - Results: North/South quite regular and symmetrical in respect to long mountain ranges • magnetic anomolies: regular pattern of alternating magnetic stripes • Fluid outer core gives earth magnetic field - Switching Earth’s Magnetic Field: • In a volcano, as magnetism changes, lava changes direction based on magnetism - How did Discovery of Seafloor Spreading Occur: • 1950’s: Scripps Institute of Oceanography • Discovered symmetrical striped patterns around mountain ranges • Symmetrical pattern (plotted areas of high or low magnetization) - Evidence to Support Sea Floor Spreading: • All evidence for continental drift + Parallel magnetic anomalies record changes in Earth’s magnetic polarity as sea floor created - Age of ocean floor increases away from crest of mid-ocean ridge 15 Sunday, February 28, 2016 - Earthquake and volcano distribution - Earthquake focal mechanisms - Oceans younger than continents • Oldest ocean floor ~200 million years old - Global distribution of earthquakes—occur along plate boundaries - Sea Floor Spreading and Features of the Ocean Basins: sea floor spreading: circular movement of rock material in mantle • • convection cells: driving force for sea floor spreading • mid-ocean ridge: continuous underwater mountain range that winds through all ocean basins New ocean is formed by trenches pulling land down and void in mid-ocean ridge • being filled by new molten rock • spreading center: mid-ocean ridge where rock spreads apart • ocean trenches: narrow crease or trough - subduction: plate bending downward and slowly entering Earth’s interior PLATE TECTONICS III: MECHANISMS AND PLATE BOUNDARIES - 1960’s Plate Tectonics Theory: • lithospheric plates “float” on the asthenosphere - Driving mechanism of plate tectonics = CONVECTION • Middle of Earth is cooling, as cools, the Earth releases heat. The heat rises up. • Movement of heat, sets up convection in mantle • What is leading/contributes to convection? - Slab-pull, slab suction and slab-push • descending oceanic crust pulls the plate elevated ridge system pushes the plate • • most scientists agree slab pull is bigger contribution 16 Sunday, February 28, 2016 • Several models for convection have been proposed - mantle plumes extend from mantle-core boundary and cause convection within the mantle - Models: layering at 660 km - Whole-mantle convection: warm mantle rising and sinking again as cools at subduction zones - deep-layer model: layer just outside outer core that would be convection by itself - Types of Plate boundaries (cause mountain building, volcanism and earthquakes) • Divergent boundaries: oceanic ridges where new lithosphere is being added • Convergent boundaries: plates moving together, one plate subducts beneath the other • Transform boundaries: lithospheric plates slowly grind against one another • Divergent Boundary Features: - common in ocean (mid-ocean ridge), rift valley usually occurs, which is when there is a central dowdropped linear depression - rifting: splitting apart of land - Ocean basin formed by divergent plates that slowly create a rift valley (a space exposing magma etc), as the magma cools and becomes the ocean basic it fils with water, and oceanic crust is also created - Ocean Rises Versus Oceanic Ridges: • oceanic rises: gently sloping and fast-spreading parts of mid-ocean ridges oceanic ridges: steeper-sloping and slower-spreading areas • - Earthquakes Associated with Divergent Boundaries: • Earthquakes are more powerful in slow spreading areas of divergent plate boundaries earthquakes occur - basaltic pillowy rock is created from lava, magma making way to surface and being cooled quickly by coolness of water - new ocean created 17 Sunday, February 28, 2016 - shallow earthquakes • Convergent Boundary Features: - Convergent boundaries: two plates move together and collide— results in destruction of oceanic crust. - Deep-ocean trenches (deep and narrow depression on sea floor marks beginning of subduction zone - Volcanicarc: arc-shaped row of highly active and explosively erupting volcanoes - Oceanic-Continental Convergence: oceanic plate subducts because older and denser - Oceanic-Oceanic Convergence: two oceanic plates converge- denser is subducted • subducting oceanic plate becomes heated, releases superheated gases, partially melts the overlying mantle. Material rises to surface and fuels active volcanoes - Continental-Continental Convergence: neither one is subducted- neither is dense enough to go any lower- INSTEAD a tall uplifted mountain range is created (Very deep earthquakes) - Earthquakes Associated with Convergent Boundaries: - bringing volatiles underneath, creates volcanism a little inland from plate boundary (volatiles rise) also creates island arc of volcanoes - earthquakes are along plate boundary, cool plate gets subducted down (where you get earthquakes) - oceanic crust destroyed: ocean trench, volcanic arc • Transform Boundary Features: - transform faults: offsets in ocean plates that llow different segments of mid- ocean ridge to spread apart at different rates - Oceanic Versus Continental Transform Faults: • oceanic transform fault and continental transform fault • BOTH ALWAYS occur between two segments of mid-ocean ridge 18 Sunday, February 28, 2016 - Earthquakes Associated with Transform Boundaries: • transform faulting: one plate moving past another - produces shallow strong earthquakes in the lithosphere • offsets oriented perpendicular to mid-ocean ridges - segments of plate slide past each other • Offsets permit mid-ocean ridge to move apart at different rates • shallow but strong earthquakes - Types of Spreading Centers: • Oceanic rise (Ex. East Pacific Rise) - fast-spreading - gentle slopes (because not a lot of time for basalt to accumulate) • Oceanic ridge (Ex. Mid-Atlantic Ridge) - intermediate steep slopes • Ultra-slow - deep rift valley, rugged terrain - wildely scattered volcanoes - Be able to explain: Wegeners description/demonstration about convection PLATE TECTONICS IV: HOT SPOTS AND MEASURING PLATE MOTION - Hotspots and Measuring Plate Motions: • intraplate features: features within plates that are not near plate boundaries • hotspots: volcanic activity in areas that are near the middle of a plate or that stay in the same place over a long period of time (and are therefore unrelated to plate boundaries or the movement of plates) - Ex. volcanism in Yellowstone National Park and Hawaii - Why hotspots occur: mantle plumes 19 Sunday, February 28, 2016 • Mantle Plumes: columnar areas of hot molten rock that rises from mantle - Plumes identified by measuring how fast seismic waves from earthquakes travel (travel slower in hot rock then cold rock) - Features of Hotspots: • aren’t near plate boundaries except when near divergent boundaries (lithosphere is thin) - Hotspots are Intraplate Features • Intraplate features: - volcanic islands within a plate - island chains - systematic variation of age • record ancient plate motion - Example: Hawaiian Islands-Emperor Seamount Chain: island chain that was created from a hotspot, 100+ volcanoes over thousands of miles - volcanoes in chain extinct, except one on Hawaii - age of volcanoes get increasingly older when moving northwest from Hawaii - Conclusion: Pacific Plate moved northwest & mantle plume that created volcanoes stayed in same spot - nematath (hotspot track): chain of extinct volcanoes that gets progressively older as move away from hotspot - Loihi: active volcano SE of Hawaii (underwater but predicted to become new island in Hawaii Island Chain) - Seamounts and Tablemounts: • seamounts: large volcano with cone shaped top • tablemounts (guyot): volcano that is flat on top • Origins of seamounts and tablemounts: - volcanic activity at hotspots - process in mid-ocean range 20 Sunday, February 28, 2016 - seamounts occur along crest of mid-ocean range - seafloor spreading moves seamount off source of magma, coned top flattened by waves —> becomes tablemount - evidence from tablemounts proves that they were once in shallower waters - Coral Reef Development: • coral reefs: colonial animals that live in shallow, warm tropical seawater & produce a limestone layer • Three stages of coral reef building: fringing, barrier and atoll - Fringing reefs: develop along landmass (island or continent) • associated with active volcanoes where lava kills coral (not think or well developed) • proximity of reef to landmass sometimes results in reef being buried under sediment from land - barrier reef: linear or circular reefs separated from landmass by lagoon • landmass decreases, barrier reef stays close to sea level by growing up • rate of landmass erosion and reef growth are key to survival or barrier reef • Great Barrier Reef (largest reef system located in Australia) - atoll reef: last stage of coral reefs, land mass subsides, coral reef builds towards surface • results in a circular coral reef enclosed around a lagoon - Applications of Plate Tectonics Model to Intraplate Features: • coral reefs associated with subsiding seafloor (or raising sea level) - Measuring plate motion by satellites: • continuing monitoring station: gps unit stationed on a plate that always sending back data • benchmarks that people go out and survey (once a year) - usually right after earthquake or major event 21 Sunday, February 28, 2016 Module 9, 10— Marine Provinces I & II Key Topics: bathymetry, ocean provinces and features within each Corresponding Chapters: Chapter 3 (Marine Provinces) - Bathymetry: measurement of ocean depths and charting of the shape (topography) - Soundings: • Soundings: process of measuring the depth of the ocean • Rope soundings: by dropping a line with a weight attached to measure the depth of the ocean - Used since 85 B.C for next 200 years - fathom (about 6 feet): standard unit of ocean depth • First systematic bathymetric measurements of oceans using soundings in 1872 by HMS Challenger - showed that oceans have variations in elevation like dry land - not very efficient because doesn’t give full picture of ocean bathymetry - Echo Soundings: • echo sounder (fathometer): type of sonar that helps to measure depth of oceans - echo sounder sends a sound signal from ship downward, echoes are created when signal bounces off of objects with density difference. Time it takes for echoes to return helps determine depth and shape of ocean floor - Cons of echo sounding: lack detail, gives inaccurate view of variations in elevation - precision depth recorder (PDR): improved sonar developed after WWII. Uses focused high-frequency sound beamsn - Modern echo sounding: • multibeam echo sounders: echo sounders that use multiple frequences of sound at the same • Seabeam (first multibeam echo sounder): can map features of ocean floor in strips of 60km wide 22 Sunday, February 28, 2016 • side-scan sonar systems (Ex. Sea MARC and GLORIA): towed behind ship and give detailed strip map. Used in deep water where detailed surveying is required - WWII- echo sounding technology increases due to desire to find submarines - Additionally, satellite measurements: horizontal resolution (10-15km) and a vertical resolution of .03m • A satellite measures the variation in ocean surface elevation, which is caused by gravity anomalies and therefore mimics the shape of seafloor (Ex 2,000m seamount -> 2m anomaly) - Seismic profiling: seismic reflection profiles looks at ocean structure beneath sea floor • similar to sonar, but receivers used can sense boundaries including different types of rocks under ocean floor surface - Using Satellites to Map Ocean Properties from Space: multibeam & side-scan sonar give very detailed bathymetry, very time consuming • and expensive • Instead, satellites used to measure large areas of ocean all at once • How Works: - depth of ocean and sea floor features influence Earth’s gravitational field - trenches have lower gravitational attraction - seamounts have extra gravitational attraction - difference in gravitational pull show on satellite readings - Ocean floor divided into: • continental margins: shallow-water areas close to continents • deep-ocean basins: deep water areas farther from land • mid-ocean ridge: shallow areas near middle of ocean - Continental Margins Features • Passive Versus Active Continental Margins: 23 Sunday, February 28, 2016 - continental margins are passive or active based on proximity to plate boundaries - Passive Margins: in interior of lithospheric plates— not near plate boundary • Built by rifting and sea floor spreading • Ex. East Coast of US • Features of passive margins: - don’t have much tectonic activity (earthquakes, volcanoes etc) - continental shelf, continental slope & continental rise - Active Margins: on or near lithospheric plate boundaries • high tectonic activity • Two Types of Margins: - Convergent Active Margins: usually oceanic-continental convergent plate boundaries • Ex. Western South America (Nazca Plate subducting beneath South American plate) • usually includes a arc-shaped row of active volcanoes, narrow shelf, steep slope and offshore trench - transform active margins: less common, connected to transform plate boundaries • Ex. Coastal California along San Andreas Fault • usually parallel transform plate boundary fault and make islands, banks and deep basins close to shore • Continental Shelf: flat zone from shore under ocean surface to shelf break • Shelf break: increased slope angle that occurs at the end of a continental shelf • Usually flat, featureless. Can contain coastal islands, reefs & raised banks • Shelfs and shelf breaks vary in size and slope • changing sea levels effects the shoreline and therefore the breadth of the shelf • type of continental margin determines shape and features of continental shelf 24 Sunday, February 28, 2016 - passive margins — wider shelf - convergent active margin — narrow continental shelf and shelf break close to shore - transform active faults— offshore faults make continental shelf not flat (lots of change in elevation (continental borderland)) • Submarine Canyons and Turbidity Currents: - submarine canyons: narrow deep submarine valleys. V-shaped. • carved by rivers, or currents underwater • created on continental slope and get bigger over time - turbidity currents: underwater current moving downslope and carries sediment • might be how submarine canyons are created • move rocks and debris & sediment because of gravity and in process carve submarine canyons over time • Continental Rise: transition zone between continental margin and deep-ocean floor - materials transported by turbidity currents make up continental rise - graded bedding: material from currents eventual settles and is layered • larger pieces settled first, smaller pieces settle etc - turbidite deposits: different stacks of sediment from currents that make up continental rise - deep-sea fans (submarine fans): creation of continental rise along base of continental slope - Deep-Ocean Basins: • Abyssal plains: very flat depositional surfaces from base of continental rise - suspension settling of very fine particles - sediments cover ocean crust irregularities - well-developed in Atlantic and Indian oceans • smaller size- suspended sediment can make it to the basins 25 Sunday, February 28, 2016 • deep ocean trenches can “capture” sediment along active margins before it makes it to the basin, which is why less developed in Pacific • volcanic peaks: poke through sediment cover - Below sea level: • seamounts, tablemounts (or guyots) at least 1km above seafloor • abyssal hills or seaknolls are less that 1km - Above sea level: • volcanic islands • ocean trenches: linear narrow steep-sided - associated with subduction zones - deepest part of ocean • Mariana Trench (11,022 m) - Majority in Pacific Ocean • volcanic arcs: landward side of ocean trench - island arc: chain of islands • Japan - Continental arc: volcanic mountain range • Andes Mountains - Mid-Ocean Ridges: • Longest mountain range • on average, 2.5km above surrounding sea level • wholly volcanic basaltic lava • • divergent plate boundary • 23% of Earth’s surface • mid-ocean ridge is continuous mountain range 26 Sunday, February 28, 2016 - completely volcanic w/ basaltic lavas - rift valley: downdrop created by sea floor spreading • oceanic ridges: rift valley, steep rugged slopes • oceanic rises: gentler and less rugged - Oceanic Ridge (slower spreading) • prominent rift valley steep, rugged slopes • • example: Mid-Atlantic Ridge - Oceanic rise (faster spreading) • gentler, less rugged slopes • Ex. East Coast of US • Volcanic Features: - seamounts: tall volcanoes - pillow lavas (pillow basalts) smooth, rounded lobes of rock • created when hot basaltic lava spills on sea floor and is cooled rapidly • Hydrothermal Vents: - hydrothermal vents: sea floor hot springs. Made when cold seawater reaches through cracks into underground magma chambers • active for years or decades • Animals species similar to widely separated vents • Larvae drift from site to site • “Dead Whale hypothesis”: large carcasses may be stepping stones for larvae Why Scientists want to learn more about hydrothermal vents: • - underwater geysers believed to play important role in ocean’s temperatures, chemistry and circulation patterns - Unusual life that inhabits vent sites. These animals could lead scientists to new discoveries 27 Sunday, February 28, 2016 • extremophiles could help researchers find new enzymes for drugs or industry • + insight into how life evolved - mining the metal deposits - Three Different types of water based of of temperature of water: • warm-water vents: water temps below 30 C, clear colored water • White smokers: water temps between 30 C - 350 C, white water because of light-colored compounds • Black Smokers: water temps above 350 C, black water because of dark colored metal sulfides (iron, nickel, copper, zinc) - diverse ecosystems live within vents • Deep-sea hydrothermal vent biocommunities: - First discovered in 197 - Thriving on chemosynthesis, not photosynthesis - bacteria use sea floor chemicals to make organic matter • microbial mats • tube worms • giant clams and mussels • crabs How does life live in hydrothermal vents? • - dissolved metals precipitate to form metal sulfide deposits, sometimes silver and gold - able to survive without sunlight - bacteria oxidize hydrogen sulfide gas to provide food - Chemosynthesis: biological conversion of carbon molecules (carbon dioxide or methane) and nutrients into organic matter using the oxidation - Basalt vs. Granite 28 Sunday, February 28, 2016 • Basalt: - oceanic crust - extrusive • Intrunsive: gabbro - Mafic- silicates with heavier Fe and Mg - more dense, sits lower in asthenosphere Granite: • - continental crust - Intrusive: • extrusive: rhyolite - Felsic- silicates (Quartz, Feldspar) - less dense, rides higher in asthenosphere Module 11 & 12— Marine Sentiment (Lithogenous, Biogenous, Hydrogenous, Cosmogenous) Key Topics: four types of marine sediments, their features, where they are location and transportation Corresponding Chapters: Chapter 4 (Marine Sediment) - Collecting Marine Sediments: • dredges: first mechanism used to scoop sediment from ocean floor - bucket-like device, didn’t work because would disturb sediment & couldn’t go past sea floor • gravity corer: hollow steel tube, second mechanism used to get sediment - collected cores (cylinders of sediment and rock), depth of penetration limited • rotary drilling: current mechanism, special made ships that collect cores from deep ocean 29 Sunday, February 28, 2016 • 1963: U.S National Science Foundation funded project to discover more about subseafloor sediment, used drills from drilling companies and brought together multiple institutions • Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP): began in 1968, could drill up to 3.7 miles deep - Confirmed sea floor spreading by) • sea floor getting older farther away from mid-ocean ridge • sediment thickness increasing as farther away from mid-ocean ridge • Earth’s magnetic field polarity reversals • Ocean Drilling Program (ODP): DSDP increased to include 20 other countries • Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP): US, Japan and European Union, used multiple ships with drills - goals: to understand Earth’s history and system processes - Environmental Conditions Revealed by marine Sediments: • Analyzing cylindrical cores can tell us: - materials on ocean floor over time - conditions of environment - sea surface temperature - mineral supply - ocean current patterns - volcanic eruptions - major extinction events - movement of tectonic plates - Paleooceanography: study of how ocean, atmosphere and land have interacted to produce changes in ocean chemistry, circulation, biology and climate • looking at sediments in North Atlantic Ocean and others have show abrupt changes that occurred because of melting freshwater from glaciers 30 Sunday, February 28, 2016 - Classification of Marine Sediments: • Lithogenous/Terrigenous (derived from land) • Biogenous/Biogenic (derived from organisms) • Hydrogenous (derived from water) • Cosmogenous (derived from outer space) • Volcanogenic (lithogenous) (particles from volcanic eruptions) - Lithogenous sediment (terrigenous sediment): comes from pre-existing rock from continents or islands (erosion, volcanic eruptions or blown dust) - Origins of Lithogenous Sediment: weathering: actions such as water, temp extremes, chemical efffects break rocks • into smaller pieces • eroded: small rocks being picked up and transported • eroded materials carried to ocean in streams, wind, glaciers and gravity • can settle in dams, lagoons etc, but can also be transported to deep-sea by turbidity currents • Sediment input to ocean (largest to smallest): rivers, glaciers and ice sheets, wind blown dust, coastal erosion, volcanic debris, groundwater • most lithogenous sediments at continental margins • sediments’ mineral composition varies and reflects the source rock and weathering process • coarser sediment close to shore (higher energy suspends finer sediments until farther from shore) • finer sediments farther from shore (lower energy, finer sediments able to settle to bottom) - Composition of Lithogenous Sediment: • quartz: a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen - very durable 31 Sunday, February 28, 2016 - most sediment pieces are mostly quartz • most sediment that get to deep-sea are from winds - Sediment Texture: • Wentworth scale of grain size: scale system for lithogenous sediment - bounders (largest), cobbles, pebbles, granules, sand, silt, clay (smallest) - sediment size is connected to energy need to lay the sediment down wave action strong- cobbles and boulders • • low energy- fine-grained particles • lowest energy- clay, stick together cause so small • sorting: measure of uniformity of grain size and can be determined by selectivity of transportation process - sediment with same size particles= well sorted • Ex. transportation method: wind - sediment with different size particles= badly sorted • Ex. transportation method: glaciers - Lithogenous sediments: • most of world’s largest rivers are located in wet tropic regions where there is also high relief and intense chemical weathering so these are areas of high mud input into oceans - Fly river in Papua New Guinea —> more sediment to the ocean than do all of Australian rivers combined • Australian continent has low relief and low rainfall, make for limited erosion and sediment transport - Most material discharged by river is deposited along margins of continents. Some funneled across continental margins through submarine canyons and by currents as dilute suspensions • melting of ice sheets and iceburgs —< a major provider of sediment to sea floor in high latitudes. Ice is indiscriminate in what is carries: giant boulders to finely ground clay 32 Sunday, February 28, 2016 - Distribution of Lithogenous Sediment: • Marine sediment can be categorized as: - neritic deposits: found on continental shelfs and shallow water, usually coarse grained - pelagic deposits: deep-ocean basin, fine grained • Nercitic Deposits: sediment from rocks on landmass, usually coarse-grained, accumulates quickly on continental shelf, slope and rise - Beach Deposits: sediment locally available, washed down from rivers, transported by waves onto the shoreline - Continental Shelf Deposits: deposits from last ice age - Turbidite Deposits: deposits that settle on continental rise and eventually abyssal plains. Are transported through turbidity currents - Glacial Deposits: poorly sorted deposts, found on continental shelf. Laid down during most recent ice age. • ice rafting: new glacial deposits occuring on Antarctica and Iceland, as ice melts, sediment trapped in it floats to bottom of ocean Pelagic Deposits: fine grained, accumulated slowly on deep-ocean floor. Usually • volcanic eruptions, windblown dust - Abyssal clay (red clays): 70% fine, clay sized particles from continents (oldest sediment) • contain a lot of oxidized iron, usually brown-red - Biogenous sediment: remains of hard parts of once-living organisms (shells, bones, teeth) - Origin of Biogenous Sediment: • accumulated hard-pieces of once living organisms (shells, bones, teeth) • Macroscopic biogenous sediment: large enough to see (usually shells, bones & teeth of large organisms) • Microscopic biogenous sediment: particles that can’t be seen with blind eye 33 Sunday, February 28, 2016 - made by microscopic organisms, shells (tests) shed, and these pieces become sediment - ooze: deposts of microscopic biogenous sediment on deep-ocean floor - Organisms that makeup microscopic sediment: algae and protozoans - Composition of Biogenous Sediment: • Most common components: calcium carbonate & silica • Silica: come from diatom algae and radiolarian protozoans - diatoms: photoshynthesis b/c plants, live on upper surface of water • planktonic: free-floating - diatomaceous earth: a light rock that is made up of diatom tests and clay - radiolarians: also planktonic, long spikes/rays of silica coming out of shells - siliceous ooze: accumulation of siliceous tests from diatoms, radiolarians and other siliceous secreting animals • Calcium Carbonate: two sources of calcium carbonate are foraminifers & coccolithophores - coccolithophors: single-celled algae, make thin shields of calcium carbonate • photosynthesize, need sunlight • very small, also called nannoplankton • When dies, individual plates (coccoliths), detach from organism and accumulate on sea floor • chalk: accumulation of coccoliths, white in color, used by humans for many things (like chalk for chalkboards) - foraminifers: single-celled protozoans, vary in size. Don’t photosynthesize, eat other organisms. • Make hard calcium carbonate test that organism inhabits • calcareous ooze: deposits that are made primarily of calcareous-secreting organisms 34 Sunday, February 28, 2016 Mineral(Dep+> Silica Calcite Algae+(photosyn) Diatoms Coccolithophores Protozoans+ Radiolarians Foraminifers (ingest+ organisms) - Distribution of Biogenous sediments: • factors controlling distribution - Productivity (have to have organisms living in water column in high concentration so that it doesn’t dissolve on way to botoom of ocean) - Destruction (dissolution): ration of dissolution to productivity - Dilution: to be biogenous ooze, has to have significant amount of biogenous material, has to have 30% or more of biogenous material, otherwise is just lithogenous red clay • Neritic Deposits: even though is mainly lithogeneous sediment, macro and microscopic biogeneous material can be included - Carbonate Deposits: carbonate deposits have CO3 in chemical formula • limestones: rocks in marine environment that are mainly calcium carbonate - most likely formed in warm, shallow water - Stromatolites: lobate structures with thin layers of carbonate. Made in warm, shallow water with high salinity • Pelagic Deposits: microscopic biogenous ooze common on deep-sea floor - Siliceous ooze: contains at least 30% of hard remains from silica-secreting organisms • seawater continuously dissolving silica ooze, to accumulate on seafloor has to be produced faster then seawater can dissolve it 35 Sunday, February 28, 2016 - rate of production faster than rate of dissolution - Calcareous Ooze and CCD: calcareous ooze at least 30% of calcareous- secreting animals • destruction varies depending on depth - warmer surface, doesn’t dissolve as easily because saturated with calcium carbonate - colder deeper depths, has more calcium dioxide—> dissolves calcium carbonate higher pressure speeds up dissolution • • lysocline: depth of ocean when CO2 is high enough + pressure high enough to begin dissolving calcium carbonate • Calcite compensation depth (CCD): depth where calcite sediment isn’t present, because dissolves almost instantly - Hydrogenous Marine Sediments: • Minerals precipitate directly from seawater - Manganese nodules • Origin: chemical reaction btwn ozygen in water and dissolved manganese + Fe, hydro vents, decomp of basalt, precip of metal oxides by micro-organisms • Mn + Fe come mostly from sediments and hydrothermal vents - Phosphates: P released when organic matter degrades- phosophorous minerals • precipitated on Cont. shelf (< 1000 m) • Occur beneat areas in ocean of very high biological productivity - Carbonates CaCO3 precipitated directly- abiotic • • Aragonite or form round pellets (oolites) - Metal Sulfides: 36 Sunday, February 28, 2016 • Associated with black smoker vents • contain iron, nickel, cooper, zinc, silver and other metals • small portions of marine sediments - almost never the dominant sediment type • distributed in diverse environments • Evaporites: - minerals that form when seawater evaporates - restricted open ocean circulation - high evaporation rates - Halite (common table salt) and gypsum (calcium sulfate) - Iron-Manganese nodules: • fist-sized lumps of manganese, iron, and other metals • very slow accumulation rates • why are they on surface seawater? Why don’t they become buried? - Cosmogenous Marine Sediments: • microscopic spherules & macroscopic meteor debris • spherules: small globular masses - some silicate formed by extraterrestrial impact events on Earth - tektites: molten pieces of crust that rained down on earth and can create tektite fields • meteor debris: rare, but can found near meteor impact sites - meteorite: material from meteor debris either silicate or iron and nickel materials • - Mixtures of marine sediments: • usually mixture of different sediment types - for example, biogenic ooze can contain up to 70% non-biogenic components 37 Sunday, February 28, 2016 - Typically one sediment type dominates in different areas of the sea floor - Distribution controlled by: • proxminty to source of lithogenous sediments • productivity of microscopic marine ogranisms • depth of water • sea floor features currents, wind • - How sea floor sediments represent surface ocean conditions: • Microscopic tests sink slowly from surface ocean to sea floor (10-50 years) • Tests could be moved horizontally • Most biogenous tests clump together in fecal pellets - fecal pellets large enough to sink quickly (10-15 days) - Marine sediments often represent ocean surface conditions: • temperature • nutrient supply • abundance of marine life • atmospheric winds • ocean current patterns • volcanic eruptions • major extinction events- • changes in climate • movement of tectonic plates - Resources from marine sediments: • energy resources: - Petroleum: mainly from continental shelves • gas hydrates 38 Sunday, February 28, 2016 Module 13 & 14— Properties of Water Key Topics: the chemical makeup of seawater, properties of water, salinity in ocean Corresponding Chapters: Chapter 5 (Water and Seawater) SEAWATER - H2O Molecule: two hydrogen (H) and one Oxygen (O) atoms bonded by sharing electrons • both H atoms on same side of O atom • • Dipolar • Polarity means small negative charge at O end and small positive charge at H end • Attraction between + and - ends of water molecules to each other or other ions - Hydrogen bonding: weaker than covalent bonds but still strong enough to result in: • high surface tension • high solubility of chemical compounds in water • unusual thermal properties (high heat capacity) • solid, liquid, gas at Earth’s surface: - water has high melting and boiling temperatures - if water followed the pattern of other molecules with a similar mass it would melt at -90C and boiling -68C (on Earth we would only have water vapor) - Changes of state due to adding or subtracting heat: • heat: energy associated with motion of atoms or molecules. Capable of being transmitted through solid and fluid media by conduction, through fluid media by convection, and through empty space by radiation - Important: Heat is total amount of energy possessed by molecules in a piece of matter. This energy is both kinetic energy and potential energy • Calorie: amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1C 39 Sunday, February 28, 2016 - Unusual thermal properties of H2O: • H2O has high boiling point + high freezing point • Most H2O is in form of water (liquid) on Earth’s surface (food for life) - Because: • High latent (hidden) heats of - vaporization/condensation - melting/freezing - evaporation • Water high heat capacity: - C (heat capacity) = amount of heart added/change in T - Water can take in/lose lots of heat without changing temperature - Rocks low heat capacity • rocks quickly change temperature as they gain/lose heat - Global thermostatic effects: • Moderate temp on Earth’s surface: - equatorial oceans (warm) don’t boil - Polar oceans (cold) don’t freeze solid • Marine effects: oceans moderate temp changes day/night different seasons • Continental effect: land areas have greater range of temperatures day/night and during different seasons - Density of water: density increases as temperature decreases • density of ice is less than density of water from 4C to 0C density of water decreases as temperature decreases • - Salinity: • total amounts of solid material dissolved in water • typical salinity is 3.5% 40 Sunday, February 28, 2016 • six elements make up 99% of dissolved solids in seawater • 1 cubic food of sea water evaporates it yields about 2.2 pounds of salt, but 1 cupic foot of fresh water from Lake Michigan contains only about .01 pounds of salt - Salinity variations: • saltiest water occurs in Red Sea and Persian Gulf where rate of evaporation is very high • of major oceans, North Atlantic is saltiest • Water of the Puget Sound in Tacoma, WA (where lots of freshwater is being discharged from rivers + cool (not a lot of evaporation) coastal areas salinity varies more widely: • - influx of freshwater lowers salinity - greater rate of evaporation raises salinity or creates hypersaline conditions - salinity may vary with seasons - How to Change Salinity: add freshwater (decreasing) • remove freshwater (increasing) • add dissolved substances (increases) • • remove dissolved substances (decreasing) - Natural processes that add/subtract water from oceans and their changes to salinity: Salinity decreases through: Salinity increases through: precipitation (rain or snow) Evaporation Runoff (river flow) Formation of sea ice Melting icebergs Melting sea ice 41 Sunday, February 28, 2016 - Natural processes that add/subtract dissolved substances and their changes of salinity: Salinity increases throug


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