ANT160 Midterm Study Guide
ANT160 Midterm Study Guide ANT 160
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aneissa Coulter on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANT 160 at University of Kentucky taught by Renee Bonzani in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 258 views. For similar materials see Cultural Diversity in the Modern World in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
ANT 160: Cultural Diversity in the Modern World MidTerm Exam Study Guide Spring 2016 Franz Boas, founder of the first department of Anthropology in the USA, is perhaps best known for which concept? Cultural Relativism: 1) all cultures are equal and comparable 2) there are no inferior or superior cultures French sociologist, Emile Durkheim, noted that an individuals’ access to resources, status, and power was dependent on which of two different types of societies he/she lived in. What did he call these; what might we call them; and what are the basic differences? Mechanical (Traditional): clan or kinship Organic (Industrial): division of labor Diagram, using the concept of alleles, the offspring of a parental generation with one parent heterozygote for a trait (Tt) and the other homozygote recessive for a trait (tt). T is dominant for red color and t is recessive for white color. Tt x tt – 50% will be red 50% will be white T t t Tt tt t Tt tt What is natural selection? Natural Selection: the survival of the fittest. Acts on traits that benefit the adaptation of the species to their environment. What are the basic postulates (three) of evolution by means of natural selection? 1. The ability of a population to expand is infinite, while resources available to sustain the population are finite. This dynamic causes a struggle for existence among individuals as they compete for resources a. Carrying capacity: maximum population 2. Organisms vary in their physical qualities; these variations allow some members to survive and reproduce more successfully than others (producing more offspring) in the same environment. 3. Organisms vary in their physical qualities; these variations allow some members to survive and reproduce more successfully than others (producing more offspring) in the same environment. a. Natural selection preserves the status quo when the most common type is the best adapted. b. Natural selection operates even over short time periods. 1 Why might skin color be different in different populations around the world? Pigment of skin Darknear the equator Light skins higher fitness and more offspring (more vitamin D) Explanation: • Protection from skin cancer • Protects body folic acid storage Formation of vitamin D: bone formation Why might body size be different in different populations of the world? EX. of how we vary: Body size and temperature Colderbigger Warmersmaller What are some of the changes to human societies that began to occur with the origins of food production and agriculture? Live in small villages that have the characteristics of supporting extended families Territorial control of land Division of labor: gender Strong basis in kinship relations Storage of resources in relation to season of hunger (dry or winter season) The rise of food production seems to correlate with intensification in processing tech as well. • Ex. Fermentation and improvement of health conditions Changes in cosmologies. It is the time of the formation of cemeteries as specialized areas The formation of religious cults • Mother goddess • Bull cults Skull cults (ancestors) What problems are associated to the origins of food production and agriculture? Problems with increased food production and reduction of mobility Increased pop growth Increased the spread of transmissible diseases Decreased the quality of the food Warfare • Economic inequality b/w groups and hereditary social inequality Where are some of the areas of the world where the origins of food production occurred? List some of the domesticated food plants associated with those areas. Middle East and Central Africa. 2 What are the five basic types of subsistence strategies that humans use based on plants? Domestication: the genetic changes to plant and animals that are caused by unintentional and intentional human manipulation and which result in the dependence of the plant or animal for its reproduction on humans. Foraging and collecting: the search for and collection of useful plant parts without intentional planting or changes to the landscape • Hunting and fishing 1 Ex. The Nukak, Columbian Amazon 1 Residential mobility. 1 Movement of group to resources. 2 Logistic mobility. 1 Use of base camps. 2 Movement of task groups to resources 3 Hunter and gathers 1 Large territories 2 Seasonal movement based on resource availability 2 Kun Shan! Managing/plant husbandry: the maintenance of important plants without intentional planting Cultivation/horticulture: the intentional planting, tending and harvesting of plants with changes to the landscape • Land modification • Continuum from mobile to semisedentary to sedentary (staying in 1 place for most of the year) 1 Historic Iroquois Agriculture: large scale, labor intensive production of plants. Changes to the landscape obvious • Ex. Slash and Burn Agriculture, Arboreal culture 1 Semisedentary to sedentary 2 Maintenance of a diversity of crops with a field 3 Use of fallow to replenish soils 4 Seasonal cycle of cutting, burning, planting, and harvest • Monocropping. Industrial agriculture 1 Sedentary societies 2 Focus on 1 or few crops within a field • Traditional Chinese Tibetans What are the five types of ways that humans interact with animals (exclude nomads) and what are the two general types of pastoralists? Hunters: are foodextractors who are only interested in dead animals. They interact with prey when it is about to be killed Herdfollowers: may correspond to a human population that ranges over the same area in 3 its annual cycle as the animal population, or it may apply to particular humans that are associated with particular herds of animals which is equivalent to ranching • Saami Rancher: loosely owns herds of animals for exploitation of meat and other resources that are often marketed. The animals may be wild, feral, or domestic but they love as wild animals except that their territory is usually restricted Transhumant: are agriculturalists who move their livestock b/w mountain and lowland pastures. Found in the Mediterranean and Southern Europe, also in the Andes Mountains of South America ◦ Pastoralists: live in North Africa, the Middle East, Europe, Asia and subSaharan Africa • They are herders whose activities focus on such domesticated animals as cattle, sheep, goats, camels, and the yak • Pastoralists are divided into 2 broad groups • Almost desert like locations Pastoral nomadism proper: characterized by an absence of agriculture as in the Sahara Desert. When the entire groupmen, women and children move with the animals throughout the year. Frequently found in the middle east and north Africa. Trade for crops Seminomadic pastoralism: when part of the group moves the herd periodically to new pastures but most people stay in the home village. Examples from Europe and Africa. Produce their own crops in the home village. Most common type Pastoralists are usually found in what type of environmental setting and where is transhumance generally practiced? Pastoralist: desert like locations Transhumance: Found in the Mediterranean and Southern Europe, also in the Andes Mountains of South America With what does language diversity appear to correlate and why might this correlation occur? The areas with the highest diversity seem to correlate with the environments with the richest diversity of plants and animals. Language families arise from languages that existed in the past and that have been reconstructed by linguists. What is the term for these languages? Protolanguage Language families appear to spread with what and from which areas of the world? The spread of archaeological complexes originating in areas where agriculture or food production was first initiated and appears to be due to the increase in population and migration from areas where agriculture originated. 4 Questions from the movies: “Understanding Race” 1. What is racism? People’s assumptions about a person because of their skin color/culture 2. Why might racism occur? Because people don’t look the same & because of the way some people act that can cause a reflection on the group as a whole. 3. Do there appear to be economic and political reasons for assigning a race to a person? Yes, economic and political reasons 4. Is this an ascribed status? “Out of Eden” Associated to the book “Guns, Germs, and Steel” 1.In the film what is “cargo” explained as encompassing? 2.Why were societies in the Old World (Euroasia) so much more advanced technologically in terms of metallurgy and weapons than those in the New World? 3.Large domesticated animals can be used for food but what else are they good for? 4.Where were most of the large domesticated animals first domesticated? 5.Why might domesticated plants and animals and all of the information and technology accompanying these accomplishments spread easier throughout Eurasia than throughout the Americas? “Dadi’s Family” 1.In the film, what type of kinship descent pattern is illustrated? Patrilineal 2.Where do women move when they get married and what is the term for this? They go to the husband’s family, Patrilocal 3.What changes are discussed in terms of husband and wife relations? How they felt inferior to their motherinlaw; Vails covered Dadi’s face but then she could show her face later on; They could eat together 4.How is a family defined and who controls the land and money (salaries)? The men, women have no rights to the land or money; A woman’s security rest on her relationship with her husband 5.Why might the families in the village be happier when a boy baby is born than when a girl baby is born? Sons will work for the family and the daughters will move away from the family 6.Who is Dadi and she refers to whom as the inferior cast? Does she think that education helps women? Dadi: grandmother; Dadi was afraid of her women; Educated daughters will get a better husband 5 Please define these terms based on lectures and readings. Know which of these terms is associated to the different groups discussed in the book “Marriage in Culture”. Domestication: the genetic changes to plant and animals that are caused by unintentional and intentional human manipulation and which result in the dependence of the plant or animal for its reproduction on humans. Huntergatherers: are foodextractors who are only interested in dead animals. They interact with prey when it is about to be killed Nuclear family: a unit consisting typically of a married man and woman with their offspring Consanguinity: “same blood” Affinity: relationship resulting from marriage rather than from descent from a common ancestor Bilineal descent: tracing kinship through both parents. Patrilineal descent: tracing family membership and rights through father's side exclusively Matrilineal descent: tracing family membership and rights through mother's side Monogamy: marriage to only 1 person Polygamy: marriage that includes more than 2 people Polygyny: a husband has more than one wife simultaneously Polyandry: brothers collectively marry one wife Patrilocal or virilocal marriage residence patterns: the bride is to live with the husband’s father’s family Matrilocal or uxorilocal marriage residence patterns: spouses living with wife’s mother’s family Cross cousins: cousin from a parent’s oppositesex sibling Parallel cousins: cousin from a parent’s samesex sibling Bridewealth or bride price: groom’s family gives money to the brides family Bride service: husband must hunt for the fatherinlaw for many years to establish and maintain his marriage to the man's daughter Dowry: many household effects that a new couple would need to furnish their new home 6 in the husband's family's home 7
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