ANTH 100 Exam 2 FULL STUDY GUIDE
ANTH 100 Exam 2 FULL STUDY GUIDE ANTH 10000
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Viktoryia Zhuleva on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 10000 at Purdue University taught by Dr. Richard Blanton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 149 views. For similar materials see Anthropology in Liberal Arts at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
Exam 2 study guide 1. "Birth of childhood" a. "baby phase" - a highly dependent neonate b. Post-lactation dependency – human children can't take independent care of themselves until roughly age of 7, this is also a critical period for cognitive growth, including Theory of mind c. Adolescence - from puberty to first birth. This lasts until 18 or later. The mother's brain is not fully developed until at least age of 18. 2. Human "rapid fire reproduction": by comparison with apes, human females are capable of frequent births (assuming resources are available) - as frequently as every 2 years, although the average for foragers is 3.4 years (average birth interval for wild chimpanzees is 5.9 years) 3. "Grandparenting effect": Ape and human females stop reproducing at ages 45-50, but humans live 20 to 30 years longer (much longer than chimpanzees), so they can take care not oily of their own children, but of the grandchildren as well. Primary Emotions (based of facial expressions): Happiness (satisfaction, pride) Sadness (including depression) Fear Anger (incl. Jealousy) Shame Contempt (disgust) (Some surprise responses are also universal and automotive) Mental Disorders All cultures recognize psychological disorders similar to what we call Depression Anxiety Schizophrenia (Symptoms are described similarly across the cultures) But comparison is difficult because symptoms are strongly "culture bound" (understood in locally distinct ways) and many illnesses are totally culture bound (not repeated in other cultures) e.g. "running amok" in Malaysia, Indonesia, Guinea and it is defined as "an episode of sudden mass assault against people or objects usually by a single individual following a period of brooding" Cognitive responses to visual stimuli: Gaze analysis: it is the most important visual data to understand another''s state of mind, especially shared attention The science of bilateral symmetry in objects, built environment, faces, and other bodily proportions In many cultures women apply cosmetics to enhance sexual attractiveness (to enhance luminescence) Taller males are viewed as more sexually attractive ("male taller rule") Standard sequence of color terms: black/white --> red --> green/yellow --> blue Group size thresholds 1. Small, highly intimate groups (where each member needs to have detailed knowledge of each other member) 3-7 ind. 2. This may explain a common (although not universal) size of human family 3. Human group size in which cooperation is based on social memory – but not in as much as "intimate" detail – normally will not exceed 200-300 ind. (similar to an old architects rule of thumb about the ideal number of students in the grade school) 4. Groups over roughly 300 individuals require a highly formal institutional system 5. Groups of 2000-3000 ind are hierarchically organized leadership systems The 7 plus or minus 2 rule: the number of objects an average human can hold in working memory is 7 ± 2. Tooth size of Australian aborigines is bigger. Abnormal hemoglobin, e.g. sickle-cell anemia and its relation to malaria: Sickle-cell anemia is the condition in which normal, disk-shaped red blood cells assume a crescent (sickle) shape when deprived of oxygen. Such type of cells don't move through body as effectively as normal cells thus causing oxygen deficiency and damage internal organs such as heart, lung, brain, etc. "Malaria theory": First, sickle-cells anemia tends to be higher in the regions where malaria occurrences are high. Second, the land in the wet tropics is opened to yam and rice agriculture. Recent studies suggest malaria may have evolved alongside agriculture in these regions. Malaria virus carried by mosquitos is more prevalent in tropical forests. Third, children who are heterozygous for the sickle-cell trait tend to have fewer malarial parasites in their bodies than do homozygous normal individuals, and are more likely to survive. Lactose intolerance ("neoteny" - is one of the two ways by which paedomorphism can arise.): with the advent of dairying, individuals with the greater ability to produce lactase in adulthood would have greater reproductive success; hence dairying populations would come to have a high proportion of individuals with the ability to break down lactose. Natural selection may favor lactase production in adulthood, as well as lighter skin, at higher altitudes (where there is less sunlight). Low oxygen pressure at high elevations cause hypoxia. Acclimatization is the body's response to low oxygen pressure. Some high elevation adaptations are "biological adaptations" (ex. Tibetan populations able to transport more oxygen to the fetus). Adaptation affects just certain person who was exposed to a different environment so his body had to adapt. Acclimatization is a trait passed through generations. Bergmann's Rule: describes what seems to be a general relationship between body size and temperature. The slender populations of species inhabit the warmer parts of its geographic range, and the more robust populations inhabit the cooler areas. Allen’s Rule: refers to another kind of variation in body build among birds and mammals. Protruding body parts (e.g. limbs) are relatively shorter in the cooler areas of species’ range than in the warmer areas. The long-limbed, lean body type often found in equatorial regions provides more surface area in relation to body mass and this facilitates the dissipation of body heat. Melanin - is responsible for determining skin and hair color and is present in the skin to varying degrees, depending on how much a population has been exposed to the sun historically. Adaptation to Varying Degrees of sunlight: Variation of Skin pigmentation - Melanin prevents skin from damaging ultraviolet radiation - However, ultraviolet radiation is absorbed by skin facilitates the production of vitamin D (needed for bone growth) - In far northern and cold climates lighter skin is biologically advantageous Race and racism: race categories typically have a social rather than scientific purpose: namely, to exclude some persons from all the benefits of society (“racism”) The fallacy of misplaced concreteness when one mistakes an abstract belief, opinion, or concept about the way things are for a physical or "concrete" reality: "There is an error; but it is merely the accidental error of mistaking the abstract for the concrete. Subcontinental populations (aka continental populations) are not referred as races, because there is variation as well as similarity within and between them. “Clinical variation” is commonly found rather than discrete biologically distinct groups (variation is often graded or gradual within and between subcontinental populations). Shovel-shaved Incisors ARE NOT good indicators or race, but ARE indicators of clinical variation b/c: 1. Variation is gradual across space including in frequency from West to East, not in decrease clusters 2. All populations have at least some shoveling (“overlapping variation”) Biological trait is a distinct variant of a phenotypic characteristic of an organism; it may be either inherited or determined environmentally, but typically occurs as a combination of the two. For example, eye color is a character of an organism, while blue, brown and hazel are traits. Eugenics - is a set of beliefs and practices that aims at improving the genetic quality of the human population. Epicanthic fold simply eye fold are names for a skin fold of the upper eyelid, covering the inner corner (medial canthus) of the eye. Typically found among Khoisan Speaking populations. Origins of the Neolithic and Archaic Neolithic period (Old world archaeological terminology) - was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC. Archaic (New world archaeological terminology) - s given by archaeologists to the earliest periods of a culture. They began rat roughly same time within the last 10, 000 years. The Natufian culture was an Epipaleolithic culture that existed from 12,500 to 9,500 BC in the Levant, a region in the Eastern Mediterranean. It was unusual in that it was sedentary (refers to the practice of living in one place for a long time), or semi-sedentary, before the introduction of agriculture. Wild food collection was a priority. The Fertile Crescent is the region in the Middle East which curves, like a quarter-moon shape, from the Persian Gulf, through modern-day southern Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel and northern Egypt. The earliest human domesticate was a dog (15, 000 YA) in major zones like (Mesopotamia, Great Mesopotamia, China and Southeast Asia, and the Central Andes). Domestication of plants and other animals began roughly 10, 000 YA. The purpose of domestication is to make the domesticated species more useful for the human use. The result – symbiosis between humans and animals. Definitions: Symbiosis Interaction between two different organisms living in close physical association, typically to the advantage of both. Cultigen A plant that has been deliberately altered or selected by humans; it is the result of artificial selection. Niche construction Is the process in which an organism alters its own (or other species') environment, often but not always in a manner that increases its chances of survival. Crop cultivation The planning and harvesting of wild species e.g. stored stocks of wild wheat in Eastern Turkey (“fertile crescent”) as early as 12, 000 YA (Natufian Culture) Grass (cereals) cultivation Now 70% of all form land. Includes rice, wheat, maize and main C4 cultigens. How to Domesticate Grasses? - Wild grasses naturally shed ripe seeds (shattering), making harvest difficult - The domesticator selects for mutations that inhibit shattering, which would limit reproduction in material conditions - This means that the cereal cultigen becomes dependent on the human population for propagation Domestication of Wheat. Cultivation started by 12, 000 YA, domestication began about 10, 000 YA. Wheat in Western Asia and soybeans in East Asia were the first places. Domestication of Teosinte into Maize Numerous gene sequences were modified from the period when domestication was first started 9500 YA These major changes occupied over a long time before humans had a crop suitable to serve as a major food source (after 4, 000 YA) Maize is lacking in amino acids that humans need so was consumed with beans (which have complementary amino acids) – but beans were also challenging to digest The reason for the teosinte domestication: researches think that it was a very prestigious food, very sugary and tasty. However, it was labor intensive to prepare – was used on special occasion Original sources locations for selected domesticates that are partially economically and/or nutritionally important in the modern world: Mesoamerica Maize (corn), beans, chocolate, tobacco, squish, tomato, turkey Central Andes Potato, chili peppers, peanuts, cotton Great Mesopotamia Wheat, barley, pig, sheep, goat, cattle mostly animals Chinese and South And Pigs, millet, rice, yams, bananas, Southeast Asian Neolithic (incl. cotton, chickens, sugar cane, New Guinea) soybeans Africa Sorghum, millet, yams, coffee, peanuts (think of a hot climate) Europe and the Mediterranean Grapes and olives (think of Greece) Foraging (hunter-gatherers) (ex. Australian Aborigines, Inuit) – developed 10, 000 – 12, 000 YA. Horticulture: usually in the wet tropics, where the grain agriculture is not highly productive. Bare fields (from farming with annual crop exposed to sun and rain will be degraded (“soil federalization”). Parental crops, including trees and leafy root crops, protect soil; deep root systems capture nutrients more effectively. Some common domesticated perennials found in horticultural production – especially root crops and tree crops: peanuts, yams, manioc, banana (many of them are protein deficient). Slash-and-burn: of, relating to, or denoting a method of agriculture in which existing vegetation is cut down and burned off before new seeds are sown, typically used as a method for clearing forest land for farming. (Yanomamo – Amazon rainforest tribes) Intensive grain agriculture: is a modern form of intensive farming that refers to the industrialized production of crops. Agricultural mechanization is the process whereby equipment, machineries and implements are utilized to boost agricultural and food production. Pastoralism is the branch of agriculture concerned with the raising of livestock. It is animal husbandry: the care, tending and use of animals such as camels, goats, cattle, yaks, llamas, and sheep. (Lapps – reindeer domestication. Extensive system – heard is free to migrate over large area. Intensive system – heard is constantly under observation) Consequences of intensive agricultural production – irrigation. Perennial crops re crops which are alive year-round and are harvested multiple times before dying. Annual crops go from a planted seed to producing a seed within a year. Ecological succession is the observed process of change in the species structure of an ecological community over time. Horticulture is the branch of agriculture that deals with the art, science, technology, and business of growing plants. Chiefdom – Scale Society Roles: - Primary and secondary leadership roles - Priests - Others: artisans, war leaders A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species. A chiefdom is a form of hierarchical political organization in non- industrial societies usually based on kinship, and in which formal leadership is monopolized by the legitimate senior members of select families or 'houses'. The society has state organization when it is composed of one or more political units that are states. Pristine State Formation – China – Autocratic 1750 BCE (or earlier) Shang Dynasty: emphasized the role of powerful rulers who controlled important technologies (bronze casting), religion and writing. th The earliest state of Mesopotamia (Sumer) 3500 BC (4 millennium BC) Emphasized shared risk (temple economy) and relative wealth equality in a risky dry-zone environment Commoner participation in governing councils (“primitive democracy”) No evidence of kings in the 4 millennium Indus civilization (Harappa): Pakistan and India 2300 BCE Emphasized wealth, equality and muted form of leadership Teotihuacan (Mexico) 200 BC to 800 BC Especially after 200 CE the polity emphasized wealth equality Cahokia (form of governance is not well known) State formation in Oaxaca, Mexico Period I a. Foundation of a new political capital, which became a large city – the first in the New World b. Rapid population growth (some from immigration) c. Religious change d. Beginning of writing e. Change in households and houses, including food ways, and increased material standard of living across social sectors State formation consequences: architecture, two new forms of public architecture, ball court, two-chambered temple Period II (500 BCE) a. Political integration of previous multiple chiefdom systems – warfare reduction b. A “neutral” new capital established at Monte Alban c. Cultural change in religion; public architecture, writing; technology, housing – the earlier indication an increased standard of living Pictogram is an ideogram that conveys its meaning through its pictorial resemblance to a physical object. (ex. Picture of mammoth on the cave walls). Information graphics or infographics are graphic visual representations of information, data or knowledge intended to present information quickly and clearly. (ex. subway map). Phonetic symbol - a written character used in phonetic transcription of represent a particular speech sound. (like letter “P” or “O”, etc.) Ideographic sign - is a graphic symbol that represents an idea or concept, independent of any particular language, and specific words or phrases. (ex. Skull with crossed bones underneath represents danger, death). Rebus, representation of a word or syllable by a picture of an object the name of which resembles in sound the represented word or syllable. (Picture puzzle). Hieroglyphic writing system - a system that employs characters in the form of pictures. Alphabetic script - a writing system based on alphabetic characters. Phoenician alphabet, called by convention the Proto-Canaanite alphabet for inscriptions older than around 1050 BC, is the oldest verified alphabet. The Phoenician alphabet contains 22 letters, all of which are consonants, and is described as an abjad, with matres lectionis being used for some vowels in certain late varieties. It was used for the writing of Phoenician, a Northern Semitic language, used by the civilization of Phoenicia.
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