Anth 101, Exam 1 Study Guide
Anth 101, Exam 1 Study Guide ANTH 101
Popular in CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Breionna Real on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 101 at Southeastern Louisiana University taught by Kellen Gilbert in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 104 views. For similar materials see CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Southeastern Louisiana University.
Reviews for Anth 101, Exam 1 Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/28/16
Cultural Anthropology SELU ANTH 101 Exam One Study Guide Introduction Anthropology is a social science that means “the study of man,” It has a wholistic approach towards its study. It is qualitative, descriptive, and crosscultural. Anthropology includes field research conducted in the local language, meaning anthropologists must know the language or have a translator. Anthropologists study handson from a first person perspective (called participant observation) There are four subdisciplines: cultural, physical, linguistic, and archaeology. Anthropologists practice cultural relativism, meaning to try and understand other cultures without judging due to ethnocentrism. Ethnocentrism is thinking/believing thatyour culture is superior to another. The Six Characteristics of Culture Culture is learned Culture is shared Culture is based on symbols Culture is integrated Culture can impose on nature Cultures change (culture is dynamic) There are two perspectives of culture. The insiders’ perspective is emic while the outsiders’ perspective is etic. Primates Mammalian Characteristics Hair/fur Warmblooded Live birth Mammary glands Generalized dentition (not all teeth are the same) In general, more complex brains Mammalian play (esp. in juveniles) Primate Characteristics Limbs/locomotion; hands/feet have 5 fingers and toes with nails, tactile pads, ability to grasp (prehensile), precision, power grip, flexible shoulder structure Vision/brain; binocular vision allows for depth perception, boney orbit protects the eye socket, larger more complex brains Dentition/diet; four types of teeth (incisors, canines, pre molars, molars), varied diet (omnivores) Learned behavior; motherinfant bond emphasized, live in groups, social network, grooming is common behavior that indicates social status Living NonHuman Primates Primates are restricted to the topics where there is high quality food available year around. There are 185 living species known. The medium and large are at the top of the ecosystem and food chain. There are four types of living primates. Prosimians More primitive (think lemurs) Limited to Madagascar Arboreal (live in trees) and Terrestrial (live on land) Example – bush babies (nocturnal), Tarsius, Aye Aye New World Monkeys Located in the Americas Arboreal Long tails Have ‘C’ curvature of the spine Example – squirrel monkeys Howler Monkeys live in harems, folivorous Woolly Monkey, largest in class Old World Monkeys Located in Africa and Asia Terrestrial Have ‘S’ curvature of the spine Show sexual dimorphism Example – Snow Monkeys/Macaques Apes A. Lesser Apes Arboreal Frugivorous Brachiation Gibbion – the only monogamous primate B. Great Apes (four species) 1. Orangutan From Southeast Asia Arboreal Frugivorous Least social of the great apes 2. Gorilla From Africa Vegetarians Live in harems 3. Chimpanzee Found in Africa Omnivorous Can hunt, hunt in groups Largest brains after humans Famous primatologist Jane Goodall studies chimps Live in fluid social groups, males and females are loosely divided Male groups will attack each other Have been shown to have a ‘rain dance’ Termite fishing shows toolmaking and use 4. Bonobo Gracile Found in the Congo Frugivorous Live in multimale and multifemale groups Group has a female alpha Cooperative Show many sexual behaviors, even have facetoface mating Human Origins and the Human Fossil Record Primate Origins Review Pangea and plate tectonics 65 mya dinosaurs went extinct Emergence of flowering plants, insects, birds, and then the first mammals 50 mya estimated first primates 30 mya first monkey fossils 20 mya first ape fossils (the Proconsul) 8 mya ape radiation Between 8 mya and 5 mya there is a gap in the fossil record There was climate change that led to a transition from forests to the grasslands 4 mya there is evidence of bipedalism Bipedalism In the base of the skull is the foramen magnum, unique placement because the spine supports an upright position Angle of the pelvis changes, knees Vertical reach Hands are now free, things like tools can be made, can hold and carry things Selective advantage allowed bipedalism to be passed on Hominids are bipedal primates The Human Fossil Record Rift Valley Louis and Mary Leakey are credited with discovering many fossils at Olduvai Gorge Mary Leakey discovered the Laetoli Footprints. The footprints were preserved by volcanic ash, estimated to be 3.6 million years old, and provide evidence for early bipedalism. In general, larger teeth mean smaller brains (or cranial capacities) while smaller teeth mean larger cranial capacities [cc] 4.4 mya Ardipithecus Ramidus 3.2 mya Australopithecus Afarensis [400 cc] example – the famous Lucy (40% of skeletal remains found) 3.3 – 2.1 mya Australopithecus Africanus [500 cc] example – the Taung Child refers to the skull of a young A. Africanus and was the discovery of the species 2 mya Australopithecus Sediba Australopithecus Robustus – large, adapted for chewing, deadend evolutionarily Australopithecus Bosei Homo Habilis [800 cc] – famous for the use of Olduwan Tools, the earliest use of tools recorded to date 1.7 mya Homo Erectus [900 cc] out of Africa, used sophisticated tools .5 mya Homo Heidelbergensis 60,000 ya Homo Sapiens [12001400 cc] early Homo Sapiens Sapiens are also referred to as CroMagnon, these are the first anatomically modern humans Homo Floresiensis Homo Naledi 40,000 ya Homo Sapiens Neandertalensis [1200 cc] very large, European Human Diversity Acclimatization – temporary adjustment Adaptations – characteristics passed down Heat Cold Altitude Physical Changes Increase in surface Less surface area with Larger hearts to pump area with longer shorter limbs, shorter more blood limbs, taller Thicker layer of Highest people have Less subcutaneous fat, subcutaneous fat, lived is at 12,000 ft leaner muscle bigger nose (Andes, Himalayas) Vasoconstriction the constriction of blood vessels, which increases blood pressure. Cultural Changes Use of ACs, fans Use of fire, heating Diet – more Generally wear less systems carbohydrates; Humid areas – little to Clothing dates back stimulants no clothing 50,000 years, parkas Dry areas – more Diet – soup, heavier in clothing to block the proteins and fats sun Diet – spicy foods Acclimatization sweat Teeth chatter, 5,000 ft – heart rate shivering increases, deeper breaths Human skin color is due to levels of melanin in the skin. People closer to the equator will have darker skin. AKA race does not exist in anthropology. Language and Communication Language is symbolic – attached meanings. Symbolic communication can discuss the past, present, and future Nonsymbolic communication only communicates what happens in the present time Factors in Human Language include Large brain Cranial capacity of 1200 – 1400 Throat structure Studies with chimpanzees [500 cc] show that language developed largely due to our cranial capacity and throat structure. During the 1950s there was a study where people tried to raise an infant chimp with a human infant. There wasn’t a difference until the 12/13 month mark where the human began vocalizing more. Washoe the Chimp – taught ASL and was able to create words for things she has not be taught. She called a watermelon ‘water candy,’ and a duck ‘water bird’ Koko the Gorilla – taught ASL, once broke a lamp and told trainers she did not know what happened (evidence of a lie possible). When attempting to bring out her maternal side, trainers gave her a litter of kittens to watch. One kitten died after getting loose and when trainers told her this, she told them she was sad. The Four Functions of Language As humans we… Conceptualize Categorize, use binary opposition, name things Perceive relationships Think abstractly Humans are typically exposed to language first by their mothers. Language acquisition continues until about the age of 12/13. This is also why it is easier for children to learn a second language as opposed to adults who may only develop a passive fluency in a second language. Passive fluency – a person can fluently read and audibly understand a language whilst not having the ability to fluently speak or write the language Grammar and Syntax All language consists of approximately 50 to 100 sounds Phoneme – the smallest unit of language, sound that changes meaning. Example – pin vs pen Morpheme – collection of phonemes, the smallest word. Example – dog. Individuals with fluency in two languages may code switch. Codeswitching occurs when a speaker alternates between two or more languages, or language varieties, in the context of a single conversation. Dialects are alternate versions of the same language (e.g. Cajun French). Accents refer to different pronunciations, usually along geographic lines, though they can also sometimes be connected to social class. Typically, those of higher social class or who do international work will attempt to wash out their accent and speak Standard American English. Body Language AKA Kinesics, can be related to culture and include hand gestures and use of space. There are four levels of space that vary from culture to culture. In North America – Intimate space 0’ ½’ Personal space ½’ 1’ Social space 1 ½’ – 4’ Public space 7’ or more Language and Gender There are language descriptors, including paralanguage, that divide the genders Paralanguage the nonlexical component of communication by speech, for example intonation, pitch and speed of speaking, hesitation noises, gesture, and facial expression. Psychological Anthropology Enculturation The gradual acquisition of the characteristics and norms of a culture or group by a person, another culture, etc. Stems from two types of awareness Selfawareness, which begins very early in NA culture Environmental awareness, includes play and exploration Anthropology used to think in terms of cultural personalities (national characters) or stereotypes, but now thinks in terms of cultural values. Culture Bound Disorders A culturespecific syndrome or folk illness is a combination of psychiatric and somatic symptoms that are considered to be a recognizable disease only within a specific society or culture. Artic hysteria Found in Inughuit societies living within the Arctic Circle (Piblokto) Hysterical reaction in Inuit, especially women, who may perform irrational or dangerous acts, followed by amnesia for the event May be linked to repression of the personality of Inuit women. The condition appears most commonly in winter Wendigo Found in Native American cultures of the north (Windigo Psychosis) occurs when a person becomes filled with anxiety that they are becoming a Windigo (a flesheating creature of Native American mythology) , and may increasingly view those around them as edible The person also complains of poor appetite, nausea and vomiting, and may become suicidal or homicidal. Kuru/Koro Found in (Southeast) Asian Cultures (Shrinking Penis An individual has an overpowering belief that his or her genitalia are Syndrome/Genital retracting and will disappear, despite the lack of any true Retraction Syndrome) longstanding changes to the genitals May even cut off their own genitalia Anorexia An eating disorder characterized by a low weight, fear of gaining (Anorexia Nervosa) weight, a strong desire to be thin, and food restriction Food for Thought Do you consider ADHD to be a culture bound disorder?
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'